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Introduction to Sustainable Watershed Management

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Title: Introduction to Sustainable Watershed Management


1
Introduction to Sustainable Watershed Management
Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
2
Topics
  • What is a watershed?
  • What is Sustainable Watershed Management?
  • Why was the Adarsha Watershed selected?
  • What were the Best Management Practices employed
    in the watershed?
  • What were the impacts of the Best Management
    Practices?
  • Was the project successful?

3
What is a Watershed?
  • Area of land that catches precipitation and
    drains or seeps into a marsh, stream, river, lake
    or groundwater
  • Watersheds can be any size some are millions of
    square miles, while
  • others are just a few acres
  • Watersheds are almost
  • always part of a larger
  • watershed

4
Resources in India
  • India is endowed with many natural resources
  • 51 of geographical area is degraded due to
  • -Human and cattle population growth
  • -Deforestation
  • -Soil erosion
  • -Indiscriminate use of
  • chemical fertilizers,
  • pesticides and water

5
Constraints on Productivity
  • Water scarcity
  • Inherent low soil fertility
  • Unsuitable soil
  • Poor water and nutrient management practices
  • Low adoption of stress-tolerant cultivars of
    crops
  • Insufficient pest management options
  • Poverty (inability to invest for necessary inputs)

6
Water Scarcity
  • Variable rainfall
  • -Torrential downpours June-October
  • Water is lost as runoff, causing severe
    soil erosion
  • -Very little or no rain November-May
  • Water scarcity leads to over-extraction of
    groundwater
  • Rainfall use efficiency is
  • low (30-45) for crop
  • production
  • Results in spells of excess
  • moisture (water logging) and
  • drought during crop-growing
  • period

7
Problem Need to Develop Natural Resource
Management Techniques
  • 70 of population relies on agriculture
  • 2/3 of cropped area is dependent on rainfall
    without any protective irrigation
  • Change is necessary to sustain livelihood

8
Solution Sustainable Watershed Management Plan
  • A Watershed Management Plan will achieve both
    socioeconomic and ecological goals
  • Social, political, economic, and
    institutional factors need to be
    considered
  • Farmer participation will ensure the longevity of
    the plan

9
Objectives of Integrated Watershed Management Plan
  • Arrest soil degradation
  • Conserve rainwater
  • Minimize land degradation
  • Improve groundwater recharge
  • Increase crop intensity
  • and crop productivity

10
Activities to Meet Objectives
  • Characterization of the natural resource base
  • Identification of physical and socioeconomic
    constraints
  • Application of integrated, cost-effective,
    soil-water-nutrient management (SWNM) practices

11
Integrated Watershed Management Process
  • 1) Establish objectives
  • 2) Formulate and evaluate alternative resource
    management actions
  • 3) Choose and implement a preferred course of
    action
  • 4) Evaluate performance
  • through monitoring
  • activities and outcomes

12
Selecting a Watershed
  • ICRISAT, DPAP, and MVF surveyed three watersheds
    in Andhra Pradesh and selected Adarsha Watershed
    at Kothapally (40km from ICRISAT)
  • Criteria for selection
  • -Existence of a large portion of dry
    farming land -Few water harvesting
    structures
  • -Minimum interventions to conserve soil
    and water

13
Adarsha Watershed
  • Much dry land that needs irrigation most land is
    under rain-fed farming
  • No water harvesting structures were present in
    Adarsha at the time of the survey in 1998
  • Community members were willing to work on the
    project

14
Resource Management Actions
  • The Watershed Committee identified sites for
    water harvesting structures
  • Locations were technically evaluated before
    starting watershed activities
  • Technical support provided by ICRISAT for
    construction of cost efficient water storage
    structures and soil conservation
    structures

15
ICRISATs Watershed Management Model
  • Farmer participation
  • -Based on cooperation rather than a contract
  • -Stakeholders involved in all activities from
    inception, including planning and
    implementation
  • -Farmers collectively identify and prioritize
    the problems for possible technical
    interventions
  • Scientific tools (i.e. remote sensing,
    geographical information system GIS,
    photogrammetry, digital terrain modeling, crop
    simulation modeling)
  • -Used for management and monitoring of
    watersheds
  • Knowledge flow
  • -On-station watersheds at
  • ICRISAT as well as on-farm
  • watersheds
  • Holistic
  • -Focus on people as well as
  • environment

16
ICRISATs Watershed Management Model (continued)
  • Consortium
  • -Expertise from outside organizations
  • -Used to advise/guide farmers on the
    system/approach under operation
  • Islanding
  • -Micro-watershed within the watershed serves as
    a site for learning
  • -Used to evaluate technologies
  • Cost-effective
  • -For technical development and inputs on
    individual/private land, users pay (no
    subsidy)
  • -For community-based interventions it is
    largely the government that pays, with only
    10-30 contributions from beneficiaries

17
ICRISATs Watershed Management Model (continued)
  • Scaling up and technology dissemination
  • -Facilitated by using benchmark sites as
    training grounds for partners and farmers and
    for sensitizing policy makers
  • Traditional knowledge
  • -Traditional practices are combined with new
    technology to create efficient solutions
  • Soil and water conservation
  • -Emphasis on conservation measures to increase
    productivity on individual farms
  • -Community-based soil and water conservation
    measures
  • Continuous monitoring and evaluation
  • by the stakeholders
  • Empowerment of community
  • Youth and women involved in
  • income-generating microenterprises

18
Best Management Practices
  • Broad Bed and Furrow System
  • Contour Planting
  • Field Bunding
  • Gliricidia
  • Vermicomposting
  • Nutrient Management
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Grassed Waterways
  • Gully Control
  • Check Dams
  • Mini-percolation Pits
  • Gabions

19
Impact of Project
  • Effective management of natural resources
  • Livelihood of the rural people has improved
  • Increased crop productivity
  • Farmers incomes have risen

20
Why is Adarsha Watershed a Model?
  • Availability of inputs and machinery ensured
  • NGO acts only as a social mobilizing agency
    project implementation by the community
  • Farmers learn on their own and train others
  • Farmers adopt improved cropping systems
  • Tangible economic benefits
  • ensure community participation

21
Flow of Technology from Adarsha Watershed to
Neighboring Villages
  • Farmers from nearby watersheds Nawabpet and
    Adilabad adopted successful practices
  • Purchased a tropicultor for field operations
  • BBF landforms in fields
  • Interested in improved
  • cropping systems, improved
  • varieties, vermicomposting,
  • HNPV production units,
  • Gliricidia plantations, and
  • wasteland development

22
Conclusion
  • ICRISAT and other organizations provided the
    tools for success at the Adarsha Watershed
  • The combination of these tools with cooperative
    community involvement helped to develop a model
    watershed
  • Continuous training and community building are
    essential for the proper management of natural
    resources
  • Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day.
    Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a
    lifetime. Chinese proverb

23
Sources
  • Farmer-Participatory Integrated Watershed
    Management Adarsha Watershed, Kothapally, India
  • Innovative Farmer Participatory Integrated
    Watershed Management Model Adarsha Watershed,
    Kothapally, India. A Success Story!
  • http//www.conservationinformation.com/?actionlea
    rningcenter_kyw_whatisawatershed
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