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RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Introduction Definition, Objective and Concept of Waste Management Principles of Radioactive Waste Management Safety of Facilities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Introduction
  • Definition, Objective and Concept of Waste
  • Principles of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Safety of Facilities
  • Classification of Radioactive Waste
  • Solid Waste
  • Liquid Waste
  • Gaseous Waste
  • Waste Minimization
  • Storage
  • Disposal
  • Summary

  • All practices that use nuclear and radioactive
    materials will produce radioactive wastes.
  • The nature of radioactive wastes vary from one
    radioactive waste to another radioactive waste in
    terms of volumes, chemical and physical
    compositions and concentration of radioactivity.
  • The radioactivity contained in the wastes is
    hazardous to living organisms.
  • The hazardous nature of radioactive wastes to
    living organisms requires proper radioactive
    waste management as prescribed by AELB.
  • The purpose of proper management of radioactive
    wastes is to ensure safety and well being of the
    present and future generations of the general
    public and the environment.

Definition, Objective and Concept of Waste
  • Radioactive waste are generated from applications
    of radionuclide in various fields e.g medical,
    research, industry, power generation and
  • These activities lead to enhancement of naturally
    occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

Definition, Objective and Concept of Waste
  • Under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (1984),
    radioactive waste is defined as any waste, which
    contains all or part of
  • Substance or item which if it is not waste is
    considered radioactive material or
  • Substance or item which was contaminated during
    production, storage or use of radioactive or
    nuclear materials or prescribed substance or
  • Substance or item which was contaminated by means
    of contact or by being in the vicinity of any
    other radioactive waste.

Definition, Objective and Concept of Waste
  • 3 groups of radioactive waste
  • liquid
  • solid and
  • contaminated materials.
  • The main objectives of radioactive waste
    management are
  • to protect human and environment from any
    undesirable effects of radiation and
  • to avoid imposing any undesirable effect or
    burdens of radiation to the future generations.

Principle of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Basic principle of radioactive waste management
  • Protection of human health - as per
    recommendations of ICRP, IAEA and AELB.
  • Protection of the environment through the
    following means
  • The release or disposal of radioactive materials
    should be minimised and within the authorised
  • Assessment should be done on the impact of
    waste disposal on human and
    other species.
  • Assessment should be done on the impact of
    waste disposal on future
    availability and utilisation of natural
  • Protection Beyond National Borders.
  • Dispose of such waste in a manner consistent
    with international safety

Principle of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Protection of Future Generation  
  • Burden on Future Generation - the radioactive
    waste should be managed in such a way that
    it will not impose undue burdens on future
  • This principle is put forward based on ethical
    consideration that the generations that receive
    the benefit of a practice should bear the
    responsibility to manage the resulting waste, and
    developing the technology constructing and
    operating facilities, providing a funding system,
    sufficient control and plans for the management
    of the waste.

Principle of Radioactive Waste Management
  • The management of the radioactive waste should,
    to the extent possible, not rely on long term
    institutional control management or actions as a
    necessary safety feature.
  • The future generations may however decide to
    utilise such arrangement, for example to monitor
    waste repositories or retrieve the waste after

Principle of Radioactive Waste Management
  • National Legal Framework - the radioactive waste
    shall be managed within an appropriate legal
    framework including clear allocation of
    responsibilities and provision for independent
    regulatory functions.
  • Separation of regulatory functions from the
    operating function is required
  • to ensure safe operation of licensed facilities
  • to permit independent review and
  • to oversee waste management activities.

Principle of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Control Radioactive Waste Generation
  • Generation of radioactive waste should be kept to
    the minimum practicable.
  • Such minimum practicable can be achieved by
  • appropriate design measures
  • proper planning and implementation of practices
    such as decommissioning, selection and control of
  • recycle and reuse of materials and
  • appropriate operating procedures.

Key Principles of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Interdependencies between waste generator and
    waste management.
  • There are relationships on recycled or reused
    radioactive waste or materials between waste
    management and waste generators.
  • A balanced overall, safety and effectiveness of
    radioactive waste management.

Safety of Facilities
  • The safety of facilities for radioactive waste
    management shall be appropriately
    assured during their lifetime.
  • The following factors to be considered
  • Sitting
  • Design
  • Construction
  • Commissioning
  • Operation
  • Decommissioning of a facility or closure of
  • The main priority should be safety related
    matters, where throughout this process, public
    issues are typically taken into account.

Classification of Radioactive Waste
  • Radioactive waste is classified according to
  • its physical form (solid, liquid and gaseous)
  • its activity (low, medium and high)
  • its half-life (short half-life, medium half-life
    and long half-life) and
  • beta-gamma emitters and alpha emitters.
  • The classification of radioactive waste is
    important to allow for easy handling and
    transportation and enhancement of safety while
    going through the process of waste management.

Solid Waste
  • Solid waste can be divided into beta and gamma
    emitters and alpha emitters.
  • Beta and gamma emitters can be further divided
    into 4 categories based on its specific activity
    or the surface dose rate if the specific activity
    is unknown.
  • Those with known specific activity is categorised
    according to the activity levels .
  • Radioactive waste containing alpha emitters is
    categorised according to the activity levels.

Radioactive Waste with Beta and Gamma Emitters
Liquid Radioactive Waste
  • Liquid radioactive waste (aqueous and organic) is
    categorised based on its specific activity.
  • Liquid radioactive waste containing alpha, beta
    and gamma emitters levels is categorised
    according to specific radioactivity levels.

Solid Waste Containing Beta and Gamma Emitters
Based on Specific Activity
Solid Waste Containing Alpha Emitters
Liquid Waste Containing Beta and Gamma Emitters
Liquid Waste Containing Alpha Emitters
Gaseous Waste
Waste Minimization
  • Waste minimization is strongly encouraged to
    minimize the problem of waste management, in
    particular, waste disposal.
  • The generation of waste can be minimised via the
    following 3R steps
  • Reduce the amount or volume of the radioactive
    material being used.
  • Reuse the use of materials or sources or do
    decontamination process.
  • Recycle the usage of sources in the same or
    different fields.

Procedure of Radioactive Waste Management
  • Waste management covers the whole process of
    waste handling
  • waste collection
  • waste segregation and transfer
  • waste treatment
  • waste conditioning
  • waste storage and
  • waste disposal.

Waste Collection, Segregation and Transfer
  • Waste is collected in suitable containers (with
    adequate shielding) and labeled.
  • It is then segregated at source according to its
    classes/categories to facilitate the treatment
  • All information on the waste is recorded and a
    waste inventory is established.
  • A written approval to carry out the waste
    management process should be sought from AELB.

Spent Sealed Source
  • Sealed sources are considered as waste
  • no longer useful to users
  • taken out of service and
  • no future use.
  • Spent sealed sources with long half-life may be
    reused or recycled to minimize their quantity or
  • The spent sealed sources are encouraged to be
    returned to their suppliers or manufacturers.

Principle and Method of Waste Treatment
  • The principle of waste treatment is to improve
    safety aspect and to minimize the cost of waste
  • The basic treatment for small volume of waste
  • volume reduction, e.g. solid waste can be
    compacted or incinerated.
  • extraction of radio nuclide - decontamination for
    surface contamination, ion exchanging for liquid
  • transformation - liquid waste into solid by
    precipitation or filtration.
  • The process of radioactive waste treatment may
    produce the secondary waste that require
    attention and should be managed accordingly.

Conditioning of Treated Waste
  • The purpose of conditioning is to convert the
    treated radioactive waste into a more stable form
    than can
  • provide easier handling, transportation, storage
    and disposal and
  • ensure minimum leakage of radio nuclides into the
    environment over a long period of time after
  • Conditioning is usually done by mixing the waste
    with more stable matrix materials, such as,
    cement, bitumen and glass.

  • Storage means storing or keeping conditioned
    radioactive waste in a proper safe place or
    facility with intention to retrieve it back at
    some time in the future.
  • The store should be located to minimize radiation
    risk .
  • The location should be selected with due
    consideration given on the following conditions
  • isolated area
  • low risk of flood and fire
  • it must be stable in order to secure waste from
    leakage or dispersion of radio nuclides to the
    environment over a period of time and
  • free from earthquake threat.

  • The store should be designed
  • To limit the radiation risk and radioactive
  • With adequate shielding and ventilation.
  • With adequate safety and security features e.g.
  • o security locks
  • o label and radiation warning signs and
  • o a system of heat removal for high
    activity waste.
  • Transportation of radioactive waste to the
    disposal site should comply with requirements of
    Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989.

  • Disposal
  • Final part of radioactive waste management
  • Considered only when there is no intention to
    recycle or reuse the radioactive material
  • Three basic principles of radioactive waste
    disposal are
  • Delay and decay
  • Dilute and disperse
  • Concentrate and contain
  • Radioactive waste disposal site should be
    properly selected to ensure its suitability and
    safety to members of the public.

Disposal Site Assessment
  • Geological and hydro geological suitability
  • Demography and future use of land
  • Accessibility
  • Flora and fauna
  • Mineral and deposit
  • Meteorology and seismic
  • Options for radioactive waste disposal

Disposal Site Assessment
  • Conditions to dispose at Municipal Disposal Site
  • Radioactive wastes which contain radio nuclides
    with activities below the exemption levels given
    by the AELB.
  • The radioactivity involved is of extremely low
    level and the risk of radiation hazard posed by
    such disposal to individual member of the public
    or to the whole population is technically
    negligible or insignificant.

Disposal Methods
  • Shallow Land Burial (Near Surface)
  • For wastes containing short to medium half-lived
    radio nuclides.
  • Waste to be conditioned first.
  • If waste is of long half-lived radio nuclides,
    the option can be considered only for disposal of
    small quantity.
  • Deep Geological Burial
  • The best option for radioactive waste disposal.
  • Suitable for waste containing medium to long half
    lived radio nuclides.
  • An example of suitable site for such disposal is
    salt dome or granite area.

Disposal Methods
  •   Deep Ocean / Sea Bed Disposal
  • Selected due to its high degree of dilution and
    isolation from human population.
  • It had been practised by several nations.
  • Not permitted for high activity radioactive
  • No longer being practiced and was banned after
    the London Convention (1972).
  • A quality assurance programme for radioactive
    disposal site is necessary
  • To confirm compliance with regulations and
  • To ensure provision of acceptable and continued
    protection of human and environment.

Record Keeping
  • Is part of the quality assurance program
    established for the waste management system.
  • The records that have to be provided and
    maintained include
  • Radioactive waste inventory (activity, exposure
    rate, source, location, chemical and physical
  • Disposal/ waste discharges.
  • Records of environmental monitoring and
  • Records of effluent monitoring.
  • Records of packaging and transport of conditioned
    radioactive waste.
  • Any record required by waste regulations or
    requested by the AELB.

Thank Youfor your attention