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HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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Lesson 1 HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Where Are We Going & Where Have We Been Prepared & Modified by FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL Educational Technology Objectives: To ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY


1
HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Lesson 1
  • Where Are We Going
  • Where Have We Been

Prepared Modified by FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL
2
Educational Technology
  • Objectives
  • To identify events and devices of the past that
    contributed to the technological revolution.
  • To examine the organizations and their viewpoints
    that have shaped technology use in the classroom
    today.
  • To prepare for the future in educational
    technology by analyzing current trends and
    advances.

3
Educational Technology
  • Technology is commonly thought of in terms of
    gadgets, instruments, machines and devices most
    (educators) will defer to technology as
    computers.
  • (Muffoletto, 1994)

TEA
4
Educational Technology
  • The history of Educational technology can be
    traced back to the time when tribal priests
    systemized bodies of knowledge, and early
    cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to
    record and transmit information.
  • (Paul Saettler, 1990)

5
Educational Technology
In ancient Greece, the Elder Sophist used the
term techne to refer the process of applying
knowledge systematically to the practical art of
instruction. They formulated cognitive rules,
systematically analyzed subject matter designed
instructional technologies and devised effective
instructional materials.
6
Educational Technology
During the Middle Age Advent of Scholastic
Philosophy, Pierre Abelard introduced a
technology of instruction which was really a new
method of structuring and presenting materials
that helped set the style of scholastic
education.
7
Educational Technology
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and
Montessori contributed their own concept on
educational technology improving educative
process. John Amos Comenius was recognized as
the pioneer of modern instructional technology by
reason of his book Orbis Pictus (The World in
Picture) which was illustrated textbooks for
children studying Latin Sciences.
8
Educational Technology
Edward Thorndike and John Dewey formulated
scientific theory of learning and the scientific
method, respectively. Thorndike gave emphasis to
the use of empirical investigation as a basis for
an organized process of learning. On his part,
Dewey introduced a method of instruction in terms
scientific method in broad terms
9
Educational Technology
The 19th century paved in the advent of
effective technological development including the
production of textbooks, use of blackboards and
improvements in writing implements like pen and
ink. Photography was invented, giving a way to a
movement called Visual Instruction.
10
Educational Technology
By 1920, visual media became widely accepted.
Then came the publication of audio-visual media
texts. In 1926, educational films were used as
instructional media. In 1927, Pressey wrote on
programmed learning through a machine which
tested and confirmed a learning task.
11
Educational Technology
In 1932, the first instructional television
program was aired at the State University of
Iowa. About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion
picture was developed and this served as the
educational workhorse during the audio-visual
movement of the time.
12
Educational Technology
During World War II, the U.S. government
encouraged the implementation of technology of
instruction for military training programs. This
gave impetus to a system approach to instruction
to include micro-teaching, individualized
instruction, Language laboratories, behavioral
laboratories, behavioral objectives, computer
assisted instruction and among others
13
History of Computers
  • Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC
  • Calculators---1600s
  • Punched Card Devices---1800s
  • First Electronic Computers---1940s
  • Mainframes---1950s
  • Minicomputers---1960s
  • Microcomputers---1970s
  • Microcomputer Systems---1980s
  • Internet---1990s

14
Ancient ComputingHistory

The Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and
making quick calculations.
Still in use around the world.
Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.
15
Early Computing History

Blaise Pascal
Invented the first mechanical calculator. The
Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math
equations.
16
Mechanical Calculators

Joseph Jacquard
  • First programmable machine.
  • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to
    automate weaving loom.
  • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern
    computer programming.

17
Electronic Computer Systems
First Generation1943-1956
  • Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.
  • Used punch cards to input and externally store
    data.
  • Up to 4K of memory.
  • Programming in machine language and assembly
    language.
  • Required a compiler.

18
First Generation 1943-1956

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
(ENIAC)
Worlds first electronic digital computer. Used
to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the
U.S. Defense Department.
Check out the ENIAC exhibit.
19
Second Generation 1957-1964

1956 IBM 350 RAMAC
  • Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs.
  • Up to 32K of memory.
  • Programming in computer languages, such as
    FORTRAN and COBOL.

Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.
20
Third Generation 1965-1971
  • Used integrated circuits.
  • Up to 3 million bytes of memory.
  • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing
    processor speed.

21
Fourth Generation 1972-Now

Microcomputer Revolution Begins.
  • 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first
    microprocessor chip.
  • Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer.
    It is a kit that must be assembled.
  • Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50
    Apple I.
  • Advances increase memory size, storage space, and
    processing speeds.

22
Fourth Generation 1972-Now
Microcomputers
  • Personal computers or PCs.
  • Usually cost about 2,000 or less.
  • Process over 1 billion operations per second.
  • Stand-alone or connected to other computers as
    a network system.

TEA
23
1990s Connecting the World
  • Tim Berners-Lee
  • Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was
    born.


24
1990s Connecting the World
  • Marc Andreessen
  • An original developer of Mosaic, the first
    browser software able to read HTML.
  • Co-founder of Netscape Communications.

25
The 21st Century
  • Technologies of the Future
  • Advanced robotics commonplace
  • Smart houses
  • Wearable computers
  • Holodeck virtual reality
  • Truly individualized education


Check out Dave Moursunds view of education in
the year 2015, one of the Resources.
26
The 21st Century
  • Only recently focused on computers.
  • Internet current primary trend.
  • Communication with colleagues.
  • Lesson plan preparation.
  • Student resources.
  • Access research and best practices for teaching.

0534.0
TEA
27
Educational Technology
Source information NCES 2000 Summer Issue
28
Educational Technology
  • Our Definition
  • A combination of the processes and tools
    involved in addressing educational needs and
    problems, with an emphasis on applying the most
    current tools computers and their related
    technologies. (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)

29
Educational Technology
  • Has technology changed how and what we teach?

30
Educational Technology
  • Two trends of todays society
  • Explosive increase in number and type of
    technology resources available.
  • Dramatic decrease in total cost of ownership
    (TCO).

TEA
31
Educational Technology
IBM unveils first PC in 1981.
  • CPU Intel 4.77 MHz 8088
  • Memory 64K
  • Storage Single-sided, 160K 5 floppy disk drive
  • Display 12 inch monochrome
  • Price 2880.00

Read about IBM Through the Years in Resources.
32
Educational Technology
  • Change in educational philosophy of what
    constitutes basic skills
  • No longer just three Rs
  • Learning to learn skills essential
  • Lifelong learning

TEA
33
Four Different Views
  • Association for Educational Communications
    Technology (AECT)
  • International Society for Performance Improvement
    (ISPI)
  • International Technology Education Association
    (ITEA)
  • International Society for Technology in Education
    (ISTE)

34
Four Different Views
AECT
  • Audiovisual Media Communications.
  • Begun in 1923.
  • Initially centered on radio.
  • Quickly extended focus to include instructional
    film strips and educational television.
  • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting,
    two-way audio, and visual communications.

35
Four Different Views
AECT
  • Branch of educational theory and practice
    concerned primarily with the design and use of
    messages which control the learning process.
  • (Saettler, 1990, p. 9)
  • Publications
  • TechTrends
  • Handbook of Research for Educational
    Communications and Technology

Visit the AECT web site from Resources.
36
Four Different Views
  • ISPI
  • Instructional systems approach based on
    Behaviorist theories
  • Systematic approach to designing, developing,
    and delivering instruction matched to carefully
    identified needs.
  • (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, Smaldino, 1997)

37
Four Different Views
  • Publications
  • Performance Improvement Journal
  • Performance Improvement Quarterly

ISPI
Explore ISPI resources at the ISPI web site.
38
Four Different Views
  • ITEA
  • Industry trainers and vocational teachers.
  • Schools should prepare students for work force
    Learning about technology as used in the real
    world is essential.

39
Four Different Views
  • ITEA
  • Includes robotics, manufacturing systems,
    computer-assisted design (CAD).
  • Publications
  • The Technology Teacher
  • Technology and Children
  • The Journal of Technology Education

Find out more at the ITEA web site.
40
Four Different Views
  • ISTE
  • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and
    support applications of computers.
  • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted
    that computers would revolutionize education.
  • Influenced by technical personnel, such as
    programmers and systems analysts.

41
Four Different Views
  • ISTE
  • National Educational Technology Standards for
    Students and Teachers (NETS)
  • Publications
  • Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly
    The Computing Teacher)
  • Journal of Research on Computing in Education

ISTEs website is one of the Resources.
42
Modern Educational Technology History
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • First instructional use of computers was as a
    flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in
    1950.

43
Modern Educational Technology History
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • First use in public schools taught New York
    elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.

44
Modern Educational Technology History
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • Federal funds supported many large-scale projects
    in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
    in schools, colleges, and universities through
    the middle of 1970s.

45
Modern Educational Technology History
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • Stanford University first multimedia learning
    station, Course writer
  • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching
    Operations (PLATO)
  • BYU Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled
    Information Television (TICCIT)

46
Modern Educational Technology History
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • Designed to support personalizedmastery learning
  • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) -
    University of Pittsburgh
  • Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs
    (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research

47
Modern Educational Technology History
  • National Education Computing Conference (NECC)
  • Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from
    universities nationwide.
  • First conference held in1979.
  • Today is the largest educational technology
    conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000
    people.

48
Modern Educational Technology History
Microcomputers in Education
  • Introduced in late 1970s.
  • Adopted by public school systems during 1980s.
  • Apple II
  • Commodore PET
  • Radio Shack TRS - 80

49
Modern Educational Technology History
Software
  • Early courseware developed for mainframes were
    provided by
  • Large hardware manufacturers
  • Software systems companies
  • University development projects
  • New microcomputer software market driven
    primarily by educators.

50
Modern Educational Technology History
Software
  • Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC)
  • Initially largest provider of educational
    software.
  • Funded by National Science Foundation.
  • MicroSift, EPIE
  • Provided courseware evaluations.

51
Modern Educational Technology History
Software
  • Authoring systems
  • Response to educators quest for input into design
    of educational software.
  • Allowed educators to develop their own courseware.

TEA
1505.0
52
Modern Educational Technology History
Software
  • Authoring systems
  • Required extensive expertise.
  • Extended time commitment.
  • Expanded work investment.

53
Modern Educational Technology History
  • Computer Literacy
  • Originally defined as programming skills and
    tools such as word processing.
  • Todays world can only agree that the term refers
    to skills that are constantly changing.

1545.0
54
Modern Educational Technology History
  • Seymour Papert
  • Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget.
  • Developed programming language for young children
    based on constructivist theory of education.
  • Raised national consciousness about potential of
    technology to change the educational system.

1625.0
55
Modern Educational Technology History
  • The Internet and the WWW
  • Biggest challenge for the public educational
    system has been how to prepare schools physically
    and train teachers effectively for its use in the
    classroom.

1650.0
TEA
56
What Weve Learned
  • Computer literacy or knowledge of computer
    applications is a moving target.
  • Teaching students technical skills for today is
    valuable.
  • More important are learning to learn tools for
    tomorrow and years to come.

1720.0
57
What Weve Learned
  • Computer-based materials are just one component
    of resources available to educational system.
  • Integration of technology as a tool to advance
    learning in the content areas adds to the
    effectiveness of other resources and teacher
    created activities.

1800.0
58
What Weve Learned
  • Development of technology materials and
    integration strategies is time intensive and
    should not be a classroom teachers primary
    responsibility Youve got enough to do!

1820.0
TEA
59
What Weve Learned
  • Educators must keep pace with technological
    advances.
  • But often times technology changes faster than
    the educational environment.
  • Business and Industry must do its part in
    providing economical technology solutions.

1840.0
60
What Weve Learned
  • Teachers will always be necessary!
  • Definition of learning environments are changing.
  • Identity of classrooms must change.

1903.0
TEA
61
What Weve Learned
  • Our models of effective instruction must change
    too!
  • Educators must be more than
  • Sage on the Stage
  • Guide on the Side

1940.0
62
What Weve Learned
  • Vet in the Net
  • Todays teacher must be willing to be
  • A participating learner in the classroom.
  • One who will take the same risks and not always
    have the right answer.
  • A veteran learner in a network of learners called
    the classroom.

2010.0
63
Reference
  • EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
  • by Dr. Paz I. Lucido Dr.
  • Milagros L. Borabo

Web Link
http//www.tcet.unt.edu/weblibrary2/overview/?id3
3PHPSESSID1f41402407f2621f9827509fa7a8d6e8
2010.0
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