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Queen Victoria

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Queen Victoria Prof.ssa Cynthia Tenaglia William IV of Hanover Under him some important reforms: 1832 : the Reform Act = the vote for almost all male of the middle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Queen Victoria


1
Queen Victoria
  • Prof.ssa Cynthia Tenaglia

2
The Luddites 1811-1816
Attacks on the frames power looms.
Ned Ludd a mythical figure supposed to live in
Sherwood Forest
3
The Neo-Luddites Today
4
Peterloo Massacre, 1819
BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkersLe
t us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!
5
William IV of Hanover
  • Under him some important reforms
  • 1832 the Reform Act the vote for almost all
    male of the middle-class, depending on the
    property and income
  • 1833 Factory Act reduced the number of
    working hours to 48 for children . Adults
    remained unprotected until 1847 with the
    Ten-Hours Act
  • 1834 The Poor Law Amendment Act no relief for
    the poor as it encouraged laziness

6
Queen Victoria
  • Her reign lasted 64 years

the longest reign in the history of England
7
1837
QUEEN VICTORIA As a child
At the age of 18, upon the death of her uncle
William IV
8
the Hungry forties
  • When she came to the throne the situation wasnt
    good
  • the 40s were so called because of the scarcity of
    food and the famine in Ireland .

9
In this period the Wages dropped
  • because of the competition, the price of finished
    product fell
  • high costs of production meant lower profits
  • so the manufacturers cut production costs and in
    particular the wages.

10
As a result there was starvation among the
workers
  • Factories closed down
  • Unemployment increased
  • Demonstrations and riots took place ( policy of
    severe repression)
  • The working class began to organize ( TRADE
    UNIONS)
  • Parents who couldnt feed their children sent
    them to work in the parish-run workhouses

11
The Chartists
Key
        Chartistsettlements
         Centres of Chartism
      Area of plug riots, 1842
12
1840 The Chartist Movement
  • universal male suffrage
  • vote by ballot ( the vote was not secret , but
    it had to be declared publicly, so it was often
    subject to intimidation)
  • annual parliament
  • payment of the members of Parliament

13
She was intelligent enough
  • To rule with a constitutional monarchy
    avoiding the revolutions which spread all over
    Europe in 1848

14
KING ALFRED
15
They had nine children
Loved from the middle class, she gave an image
of respectability, strict moral code, religious
tolerance.
16
She was 81
19th Jan 1901
17
Her Reign was characterized by
  • Material progress
  • The rapid growth of railways
  • International trade

18
Imperial expansion
19
Empire
  • The Sun never sets on the British Empire

20
DISRAELI
  • the two Nations

21
Upstairs/Downstairs Life
22
  • They were enjoying their increasing prosperity,
    indifferent to the fact that it was partly based
    on the exploitation

23
Free Trade Policy Laissez-Faire
  • Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations stated
    the end of all government regulations of internal
    and external trade , in the belief that the free
    play of individualism always worked out for the
    best.

24
The Great Exhibition at Royal Albert Hall 1851
25
CRYSTAL PALACE IN HYDE PARK
26
it was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936.
Six million people visited the exhibition. a
third of the entire population of Britain at the
time
27
  • This exhibition was the evidence that Britain
    was the most powerful and wealthiest nation in
    the world.
  • The fact that this wealth was mainly the result
    of material exploitation of the colonies as well
    as low paid workers was of little importance to
    the ruling classes.

28
This period was characterized by Colonial power
and economic progress, but full of contradictions
  • Progressive in theory ..but conservative in
    practice
  • Reforms were taken but the gap between the
    classes grew

29
VICTORIAN COMPROMISE
  • the industrial Revolution was a sign of progress
    and a benefit to humanity
  • so they closed their eyes to the many problems
    the same revolution had created and the misery it
    had brought to large masses of people

30
The two sides of the medal
  • The products of British industry were
    conquering many overseas markets, but the other
    side of the medal was the hard life of the poor
    living in the slums.
  • They tried to cover the negative aspects with an
    exterior appearance of respectability and optimism

31
OPTIMISM
  • The optimism of the middle-classes was based on
    the political power and the economic prosperity
    of England
  • They deliberately ignored all the evils present
    in the society.
  • Instead of a real concern for those evils there
    was a false sentimentalism

32
Private Charities Soup Kitchens
Philanthropy was considered a high value , but
in the mind of many Victorians, the poor were
not victims of the circumstances but a dirty,
immoral and dangerous species.
33
HYPOCRISY
  • Victorian Age was a set of moral and sexual
    values that didnt reflect the world around them
    but the world they would have liked it to be. It
    was a mixture of Morality , hypocrisy and
    conformity to social standards

34
Morality
  • the observance of exterior form
  • so religion is only conventional. The only Gods
    really worshipped were Utility and Wealth ( Great
    exhibition in 1851)

35
  • Idyllic childhood presented in all the paintings
    and scenes of the period,but the most forced to
    work in an early age, exploited and separated
    from the family

36
Women angels in the home
RESPECTABILITY
  • Good manners
  • A comfortable house
  • Servants
  • Regular attendance at church
  • Sexuality repressed ( the veiling of
    sculptures genitals and words with sexual
    connotations)

37
Fallen women to be isolatedDominant position
of the husband
38
The fallen woman doesnt receive sympathy, no
one will grant forgiveness to the the wife ,
mother or daughter who betrays her family.
39
SENSE OF DUTY
  • great emphasis was placed on punctuality and
    application, not on individual interest and
    capability

40
  • Patriotism linked to a sense of superiority.
  • Because of Englands success, the British felt
    it was their duty to bring English values, laws,
    customs, and religion to the savage races
    around the world.

41
Florence Nightingale Receiving the Wounded at
Scutari 1856 The Mission of Mercy by Jerry
Barrett
42
The Victorian Age
  • Womens suffrage did not happen until 1918.

The Rights of Women or Take Your Choice (1869)
Suffragettes
Only Connect ... New Directions
43
Workhouses
  • had extremely bad conditions, worst than outside
    so to discourage the poor, the families were
    separated, poor diet, no sanitation( Oliver
    Twist- Dickens ).

44

45
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46
  • By the 1850's, most of those forced into the
    workhouse were the old, the infirm, the orphans,
    the unmarried mothers, and the physically or
    mentally ill.
  • The workhouse era ended officially on April 1,
    1930, and the buildings were sold off,
    demolished, or fell into disuse

47
In the second half of 19th c.
  • A need for reforms

48
  • New economic activities formed the lower
    middle class in banking, public services,
    insurance and shops that characterized the Main
    Street of British cities.

49
Disraeli dominated the scene from 1865
  • he was a Conservative Tories
  • he advocated a policy of gradual incorporation
    of the working class through reforms, this was
    the best way to avoid mass revolutionary
    insurrections

50
  • 1870 Elementary Education Act GENERAL PRIMARY
    SCHOOLING
  • 1873 Ballot Act secret vote at the elections
  • Slums were cleared up
  • Public Health was improved
  • Metropolitan Police instituted ( public
    executions so popular that even excursion trains
    were organized by the railway companies).
  • 1884 the vote was extended to all male and the
    working class could enter the house of Commons
  • 1928 vote for women

51
Fabian Society,1880-1900
  • founded by the Webbs, inspired by Marxism,
    advocated gradual reforms instead of
    revolutionary measures ( its name comes from
    Quintus Fabius who carried on a campaign against
    Hannibal avoiding direct engagement)
  • Among them George Bernard Shaw
  • they demanded more rights for the Labourers and
    obtained Labour Members to Parliament.
  • It was the starting of the Labour Party which
    took the place of the Liberal Party after the
  • post war years.

52
New Ways of Thinking
53
This new economy was supported by economists such
as Adam Smith ( 1776) with his theory of
Laissez Faire
  • Free trade Man is free to pursue his interest,
    government doesnt have to interfere.
  • Freedom in the international trade
  • No duties and monopolistic privileges.

54
  • Adam Smith in his
  • Wealth of Nations
  • stated the end of all government regulations of
    internal and external trade , in the belief that
    the free play of individualism always worked out
    for the best

55
Charles Darwin 1859 On the Origin of the
species
  • Struggle for survival creatures have taken their
    forms through a slow process of change and
    adaptation in a given environment
  • members of the same species struggle for survival
    and only those best adapted to the environment
    will survive only the fittest
  • Men evolved from an Ape
  • The survival of the species determined by the
    favourable physical condition

56
The idea of SELF-MADE Man
  • This theory showed that the strongest survived
    and the weakest deserved to be defeated.
  • It was a natural process and it was a kind of
    justification for the upper and middle class.
  • It was used and abused for political ends, to
    justify superiority of the white races, to
    legitimate imperialism.
  • The richest people were a product of the natural
    selection.
  • Darwinism was used to support the theory that the
    lower classes were less evolved, genetically
    degenerate and thus had a natural vocation to
    crime and vice.

57
Thomas Malthus
ESSAY ON POPULATION
  • he applied Darwins Theories to the Economic
    system the natural checks provided by poverty,
    disease and war were necessary to prevent
    overpopulation.
  • The poor should have less children.
  • Food supply will then keep up with population.
  • Charity and philanthropy encourage the laziness

58
David Ricardo
  • When wages are high,workers have morechildren.
  • More children create alarge labor surplus
    thatdepresses wages.

59
The UtilitariansJeremy Bentham
  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the
    greatest number.
  • All the laws and the rights had to be considered
    only in relation to their Utility, and so ..be
    free to obey or not.
  • Religion is superstition
  • Any problem can be overcome through reason

60
JOHN STUART MILL against Bentham
Happiness is a state of mind not a search for
selfish pleasureLegislation should have an
active part in trying to help men develop their
natural talent and personality
In the second half of the century
  • Not only common standards but individual
    characters
  • Progress coming from mental energy, education
    and art
  • Reforms education, trade unions, emancipation
    for women

61
The Socialists Utopians Marxists
  • People as a society would operate and own
    themeans of production, not individuals.
  • Their goal was a society that benefited
    everyone, not just rich, well-connected few.
  • He denounced the alienation of the labour under
    the capitalist organization
  • Tried to build perfect communities utopias.

62
Evangelicalism
  • they did a lot to improve living conditions
    especially in hospitals and schools
  • They advocated the abolition of some public
    entertainment , strict observation of Sundays, a
    stricter moral code of behaviour.

63
  • only at the end of the c. the problems started to
    be solved running water began to be pumped into
    the cities, paved roads, public lighting,
    entertainment such as pubs, music hall

64
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65
Terraces for the middle and upper classes
66
South Kensington
67
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