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Lean Manufacturing

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Lean Manufacturing Cellular Manufacturing One Piece Flow for Workteams Chapter 1 An Introduction to Cellular Manufacturing CSUN - Prof. David Shternberg MSE595LM ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lean Manufacturing


1
Lean Manufacturing
Cellular Manufacturing One Piece Flow for
Workteams Chapter 1 An Introduction to Cellular
Manufacturing
2
Chapter 1 Overview
  • What Is Cellular Manufacturing?
  • One-Piece Flow
  • High-Variety Production
  • Understanding Process and Operations
  • Process
  • Operations
  • Benefits of Cellular Manufacturing
  • How It Helps Companies
  • How it Helps You
  • Summary

3
What Is Cellular Manufacturing?
  • A lean manufacturing approach that helps
    companies build a variety of products with as
    little waste as possible
  • Equipment and workstations arranged in a sequence
    that supports smooth material flow through the
    process, with minimal transport or delay
  • Derived from the word Cell
  • A Manufacturing Cell consists of people and
    machines or workstations required for performing
    the process steps
  • For example - if a process for a product requires
    cutting, followed by drilling and finishing, the
    cell would include the equipment for performing
    those steps, arranged in that order
  • Helps companies achieve two important goals of
    lean
  • One-piece flow
  • High-variety production

4
One Piece Flow
  • One-piece flow is the state that exists when
    products move through a manufacturing process one
    unit at a time, at a rate determined by the needs
    of the customer
  • The opposite of one-piece flow is large-lot
    production
  • Goods produced in large lots build delays into
    the process
  • No items can move on to the next process until
    all items in the lot have been processed
  • The larger the lot, the longer the items sit and
    wait between steps
  • One-piece flow is an ideal state
  • In daily operation, it is not always possible or
    desirable to process items just one at a time
  • The important thing is to promote continuous flow
    of products, with the least amount of delay and
    waiting

5
One-Piece Flow Vs. Large-Lot Production
LARGE-LOT PRODUCTION CAN LOWER A COMPANYS PROFITABILITY ONE-PIECE FLOW SOLVES THESE PROBLEMS
Makes leadtime between customers order and delivery of product longer Allows to deliver a flow of products to customers with less delay
Requires labor, energy, and space to store and transport products Reduces resources required for storage and transport
Increases chances of product damage or deterioration Lowers risk of damage, deterioration, or obsolescence
Increases chances of product damage or deterioration Exposes other problems so they can be addressed
6
High-Variety Production
  • In the early days, a company could produce one
    type of product
  • Customers would buy it even if it wasnt exactly
    what they liked
  • Today customers expect variety and customization
  • Specific quantities delivered at a specific time
  • If your company is not flexible enough to serve
    their needs customers will go to your competitor
  • Cellular manufacturing offers flexibility to give
    customers the variety they want
  • By grouping similar products into families that
    can be processed on same equipment in the same
    sequence
  • Encourages companies to shorten changeover time
    between products
  • Eliminates a major reason for large-lot production

7
Understanding Processes and Operations
  • Converting a factory to cellular manufacturing
    means eliminating waste from processes as well as
    from operations
  • How do Processes and Operations differ and
    intersect?

PROCESSES OPERATIONS
A process is a continuous flow through which raw materials are converted into finished products in a series of operations. The focus is the path of the materials as they are transformed into something to sell. Manufacturing processes have four basic types of steps or phases Transformation assembly, machining Inspection comparison to standard Transport change of location Storage waiting period Only Transformation adds value! In contrast to process, which focuses on flow, an operation focuses on action. An operation is any action performed by workers or machines on the materials. Operational improvements focus on how specific actions are carried out, and include studying the motions required for a specific action.
8
Understanding Processes and Operations
  • To improve production for lean manufacturing, it
    is not enough to improve operations
  • Companies must also improve their processes
  • Improving a process involves streamlining the
    flow of materials to minimize obstacles and
    wastes such as
  • Time spent in non-value-adding steps
  • Such as waiting and transport
  • Downtime caused by changeover and adjustments
  • Distance materials or WIP must travel between
    transformation steps
  • The need for inspection or rework
  • The cellular manufacturing approach works on
    improving the process as well as specific
    operations

9
Benefits of Cellular Manufacturing
  • Promoting one-piece flow through cellular
    manufacturing can help make your company more
    competitive
  • Cut costly transport and delay from the
    manufacturing process
  • Shortens the production leadtime
  • Serves customer needs
  • Gives an earlier return on the investment in the
    product
  • Saves space in the factory
  • Can be used for other value-adding purposes
  • Promotes continuous improvement
  • By forcing solutions to problems that block
    low-inventory production

10
How Cellular Manufacturing Helps You?
  • Cellular manufacturing also helps you as a
    company employee
  • By straightening the companys competitiveness,
    it helps support job security
  • Makes daily production work go smoother by
  • Removing clutter of excess WIP inventory
  • Reducing transport and unnecessary handling
  • Reducing walking required to complete processes
  • Addressing causes of defects and machine problems
    that cause delays
  • You may have to learn a process sequence you have
    not done before.
  • Raise your skill and flexibility, and may change
    how you think about your role in the company
  • Learning about and participating in a JIT
    transformation ultimately will make you more
    employable!

11
Summary
  • Cellular Manufacturing
  • Lean manufacturing approach that helps build a
    variety of products with minimum waste
  • Equipment and workstations arranged in a sequence
    with a smooth flow of materials and components
    through the process
  • Minimal transport or delays
  • One-piece flow
  • Products move through a manufacturing process one
    unit at a time, at a rate determined by the
    customers needs
  • Cellular Manufacturing gives the flexibility to
    give customers the variety they want
  • Converting a factory to cellular manufacturing
    means eliminating waste from processes and from
    operations

12
Lean Manufacturing
Cellular Manufacturing One Piece Flow for
Workteams Chapter 2 Working in a Manufacturing
Cell
13
Chapter 2 Overview
  • Operating in a U-Shaped Cell
  • Becoming Multi-skilled, Multi-machine Operators
  • Cross-Training for Maximum Flexibility
  • Moving with the Work
  • Using Small, Flexible Machines
  • Using Autonomation (Jidoka) to Eliminate Machine
    Watching
  • Summary

14
Operating in a U-Shaped Cell
  • Changing from an operation-based layout to
    manufacturing cells will change how people do
    their work in the factory
  • In a manufacturing cell, the equipment and
    workstations are arranged close together in
    sequence of processing steps
  • Reduce unnecessary walking and transport to
    promote flow
  • The equipment in a cell is usually laid out in a
    curved shape
  • The operators path is like a U or C
  • These shapes bring the end point of the process
    close to the beginning point
  • Minimizes distance the operator has to travel to
    begin the next cycle

15
Typical Manufacturing Cell
16
Working in a Cell
17
Operating in a U-Shaped Cell
Cell Lay-Out
input
output
18
Becoming Multiskilled/Multimachine Operators
  • Creating a manufacturing cell often changes the
    relationship between people and machines in the
    workplace
  • Operators may need to learn how to run different
    types of equipment to support the process
  • In cells where automatic machines are used, most
    of the operators time is spent watching the
    equipment run
  • Such waste is avoided by teaching people to
    operate several different machines in the process
  • Operators can be setting up a workpiece for step
    2 while step 1 machine is processing another
    workpiece

19
Becoming Multiskilled/Multimachine Operators..
  • A cell may be run by one person or by several
    people working together
  • Depending on the size of the cell, cycle times,
    or production volume
  • Flexibility to change how people work together in
    a cell comes from cross-training

20
Cross-Training for Maximum Flexibility
  • Cross-training enables employees to perform
    different functions within a process
  • Lets teams take full responsibility for their
    processes.
  • Operator trained on several machines is qualified
    to respond to changes in production needs by
    performing different tasks as needed
  • This versatility (flexibility) makes employees
    more valuable to their teams and to their
    companies

21
Cross-Training for Maximum Flexibility
  • Cross-training is a source of employee pride in
    many workplaces
  • Visual display charts are often used to recognize
    peoples skill attainment (achievement) in a
    public way
  • Cross-training metrics

22
Moving with The Work
  • Running several machines in sequence
  • An operator needs to work standing up rather than
    sitting down
  • To assist one-piece flow manufacturing
  • People stand and walk so that work moves smoothly
    through the process
  • Working while standing
  • Enables people to respond more quickly if machine
    problems occur

23
Using Small, Flexible Machines
  • A cellular manufacturing process may use
    equipment different from that used in large-lot
    production
  • Works best with machines that are smaller and
    often slower than large-lot equipment
  • Smaller machines save space
  • Placing them close together reduces walking
    distance
  • Leaves no space for excess WIP to accumulate
  • Slower machines are appropriate
  • They can produce one piece at a time at a speed
    determined by customer requirements

24
Using Small, Flexible Machines
  • Machines for cellular manufacturing
  • Flexible and be easy to set up quickly
  • Used to make a greater variety of products during
    a single shift
  • Smaller machines are less expensive
  • Easier to operate and maintain

25
Using Autonomation (Jidoka) to Eliminate Machine
Watching
  • Autonomation - an approach to automation that
    gives equipment intelligence so people dont
    have to monitor automatic operation
  • Autonomated machines - semi-automatic machines
    that autonomously (independently) support
    one-piece flow processing
  • Stop and signal when a cycle is complete or when
    problems occur
  • Often loaded by operators
  • Often set up to unload automatically after
    processing
  • Many companies invest in automation
  • People dont have to perform difficult,
    dangerous, or repetitive work

26
Summary
  • Equipment and workstations arranged close
    together in sequence of processing steps (U or
    C)
  • Relationship between people and machines changes
  • Operators may need to learn how to run different
    types of equipment to support the process
  • Machine-watching is avoided
  • Teaching people to operate several different
    machines
  • Flexibility to change how people work together in
    a cell comes from cross-training
  • Cellular manufacturing works best with smaller
    and often slower machines
  • Autonomation (jidoka) is an approach to
    automation that gives equipment intelligence so
    people dont have to monitor automatic operation
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