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Music of the Baroque Period

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Music of the Baroque Period (1600-1750) Baroque Historical Highlights Age of Absolutism; Kings and Queens are all-powerful Known for extreme decadence and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Music of the Baroque Period


1
Music of the Baroque Period
  • (1600-1750)

2
Baroque Historical Highlights
  • Age of Absolutism Kings and Queens are
    all-powerful
  • Known for extreme decadence and extravagance of
    aristocracy (e.g. Louis XIV and his palace of
    Versailles)
  • Church Splits in Two Europe split into Catholic
    countries (Italy, France, Spain) and Protestant
    countries (England, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden)

3
The Palace at Versailles
4
The Kings Bedroom, The Opera House
5
Baroque Defined
  • Baroque means exaggerated or over-ornamented
    these adjectives relate to music and visual arts

6
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7
Baroque Artistic Highlights
  • Emphasis on DRAMA (extreme and heightened
    emotion) in music and visual arts
  • Paintings by Artemisia Gentilleschi show this
    emphasis on DRAMA

8
Baroque Musical Highlights
  • Birth of OPERA - theatrical presentations with
    music and elaborate stage spectacle
  • New focus on instrumental music and instrumental
    accompaniment to voices
  • New emphasis on chords and use of BASSO CONTINUO
  • Examples
  • Henry Purcell Didos Lament " from Dido and
    Aeneas
  • Claudio Monteverdi Tu se morta from Orfeo

9
Basso Continuo
  • Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part
    usually played by two instruments
  • A keyboard (or other chord-generating instrument
    such as the lute, organ, or harpsichord)
  • Plus a low melodic instrument (such as the cello
    or bassoon)

10
Baroque Music Genres
  • Vocal Music Genres
  • Opera
  • Oratorio
  • Cantata
  • Instrumental Music Genres
  • Chamber Music
  • Concerto Grosso

11
Opera
  • Sung theatrical work with orchestral
    accompaniment
  • Vocal soloists and chorus
  • Staged with costumes and sets
  • Example HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido
    and Aeneas CD1/69-70

12
Recitative
  • Vocal line in a opera, oratorio, or cantata that
    imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of
    speech, often serving to lead into an aria
  • Recitative often gets across mostly plot
    information in the opera, while the Aria
    communicates the characters emotions

13
Aria
  • Song for solo voice with orchestral
    accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional
    state through its outpouring of melody found in
    operas, oratorios, and cantatas

14
HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas
  • Aria vs. Recitative
  • Listen for Basso continuo in Recitative
  • Aria built on Ground bass - a repeating bass
    line (dark-sounding harmony, descending in pitch)
  • Listen also for affect of ground bass

15
Affect
  • The one basic mood that usually lasts throughout
    a single movement or piece of a Baroque
    composition
  • Emotional states expressed in music were called
    affections
  • Exceptions can be found in some vocal music where
    the affect may change if the characters
    emotional changes within an aria or recitative

16
Recitative
Thy hand, Belinda, darkness shades me, On thy
bosom let me rest More I would bet Death invades
me Death is now a welcome guest.
Dido tells Belinda to leave her alone, so that
she can commit suicide
Aria
When I am laid, am laid in earth, may my wrongs
create No trouble, no trouble in thy
breast. Remember me! But ah! Forget my fate.
Dido tells us how she feels about committing
suicide
17
Oratorio
  • Like opera - Sung theatrical work with
    orchestral accompaniment for vocal soloists and
    chorus , but unstaged without acting, scenery,
    or costumes
  • Uses a religious story
  • Example GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDELs Messiah
  • "Hallelujah" CD2/11-16
  • "Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exalted" CD2/10

18
GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDELs Messiah
  • "Hallelujah"
  • Listen for
  • Changes in texture
  • Hymn-like Homophony
  • Imitative Polyphony
  • Pedal Point
  • Emphasis of beat

19
GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDELs Messiah
  • "Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exalted"
  • Listen for
  • Terraced dynamics
  • Emphasis of beat
  • Ornamented melody
  • Continuous affect
  • Word painting

20
Terraced Dynamics
  • Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic
    levels characteristic of Baroque music

21
Extremely ornamented melody
Evry valley Evry valley shall be exalted, And
evry mountain and hill made low, The crooked
straight, And the rough places plain. Evry
valley shall be exalted, And evry mountain and
hill made low, The crooked straight, And the
rough places plain. The crooked straight, And
the rough places plain.
Word Painting
22
Cantata
  • Like opera, but unstaged,
  • Usually with religious text mostly performed in
    churches
  • The church cantata for the Lutheran service in
    Germany during the baroque period often includes
    chorales
  • Chorales are hymn tunes set to a German religious
    text
  • Example J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140 Wachet auf,
    ruft uns die Stimme (Sleepers Awake) Mvt. 4
    Tenor Chorale CD1/71-73 Mvt. 7 Chorale
    CD1/74-75

23
J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140 Wachet auf, ruft uns
die Stimme (Sleepers Awake)
  • Mvt. 4 Tenor Chorale
  • Listen for
  • Extremely ornamented melody
  • Continuous affect
  • Mvt. 7 Chorale
  • Listen for
  • Hymn-like homophony
  • Complete and incomplete cadences

24
Chamber Music
  • Uses a small group of musicians, with one player
    to a part
  • Meant for smaller, more intimate performance
    venues
  • Includes music for solo instruments
  • J.S. Bachs Organ Fugue in G Minor The Little

25
J.S. BACH Organ Fugue in G Minor (The "Little")
  • Fugue - polyphonic composition based on one main
    theme called a subject
  • Subject (Main Theme) stated in different
    voices during Exposition (imitative)
  • Exposition followed by alternating Episodes
    (non-imitative) and Subject Entries (imitative)
  • Countersubject - countermelody that accompanies
    Subject in Exposition Subject Entries
  • Picardy Third - major chord ending pieces in
    minor

26
Concerto Grosso
  • Composition for several instrumental soloists and
    small orchestra common in late baroque music
  • Tutti vs. Soli groups
  • Tutti all, the entire ensemble
  • Soli a small group of featured soloists (2 or
    3)
  • Ritornello form - Ritornello (a homophonic or
    polyphonic block of music) alternating with
    Episodes (contrasting melodic, softer dynamics,
    virtuosic scales and arpeggios)

27
Examples of Baroque Concerto Grosso
  • J.S. Bach
  • Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major
  • Movement 1
  • Antonio Vivaldi
  • Concerto for Violin and String Orchestra, Op. 8,
    No. 1, La Primavera Spring
  • from The Four Seasons
  • Movement 1

28
Baroque Music Style Characteristics
Timbre new emphasis on instrumental music instrumental accompaniment to voices
Rhythm beat is emphasized lots of forward motion
Melody elaborate, ornamented, continuously expanding, long and winding
Form one main theme repeated over and over
Dynamics sudden changes from loud to soft and soft to loud called terraced dynamics
Texture more rapid changes in texture (homophony, imitative polyphony) throughout a single movement or piece of music
Harmony new emphasis on chords orchestra mainly consists of strings and basso continuo (bass melody instrument like cello or bassoon chord generating instrument harpsichord, organ, or lute)
Mood the same mood throughout movement this heightened emotional state called affect (vocal music is exception vocal music has many changes of mood, but closely follows text)
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31
The Palace at Versailles
32
The Royal Chapel, Hall of Mirrors Royal Coach
33
The Royal Chapel,
34
The Kings Bedroom, Marie Antoinettes Room, The
Opera House
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36
Henry Purcell
37
George Frideric Handel
38
Antonio Vivaldi
39
Johann Sebastian Bach
40
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