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AFRICAN MUSIC

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African music Music is central to every aspect ... BLUES DISCO BLUEGRASS FUNK DANCE SOUL JAZZ GOSPEL MINIMALISM REGGAE RAP SALSA/ CUBAN FUSIONS African ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AFRICAN MUSIC


1
AFRICAN MUSIC
2
KEYWORDS
  • Polyrhythm (cross-rhythm)
  • Polyphony
  • Call and response
  • Master drummer
  • Ostinato (repetition)
  • Improvisation
  • Variation
  • A capella
  • Brimintingo/ Kumbengo
  • Kushaura/ Kutsinhira

3
Tribal Africa
  • This includes the sub-Saharan countries of Africa
    such as Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Ghana, Ivory
    Coast, Mali, Central African Republic and Congo.

4
African music
  • Music is central to every aspect of traditional
    life, from rituals to entertainment. Virtually
    all drum music is to accompany dancing or
    singing. YouTube - Djembe Drumming and Dancing
    1
  • Music is passed on through oral tradition rather
    than notation, and in West Africa particularly
    there are hereditary musicians called griot or
    jali who can trace their family heritage back
    to the 12th century. YouTube - Little Djembefola
    Isaiah Drums and Dances 2
  • The griot pass their musical skills on to their
    sons from a very young age and are highly
    respected (and paid) within their communities.
    YouTube - Isaiah 4 Years Old Plays "Ngri"
  • Master drummers are soloists and conductors. They
    set the rhythm, pulse and decide upon solos and
    dynamics. They give visual and drum signals
    throughout. 3
  • YouTube - Fadouba Oulare and his sons
    from Les Petits Sorciers - Kawa

5
Musical styles African
  • In African music repetition is often used to
    organise the music. In the mbira music of the
    Shona people of Zimbabwe, the interaction of
    players hands establishes a repeating pattern
    (ostinato) which players use as a basis for
    improvisation.
  • Polyphony and Polyrhythm are also important.
  • Polyphony has many musical parts or rhythms
    interweaving with each other.
  • Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or
    more individual rhythms (3 against 4). In West
    Africa, drum ensembles have 3-5 players, each
    with a distinctive method of striking their drum
    and playing interlocking patterns. Sometimes
    other percussion instruments join in, creating a
    thick musical texture.
  • Call-and-response is very popular. The chorus
    repeats a fixed refrain in alternation with a
    lead singer, who then has more freedom to
    improvise. This makes the music conversational.
    (cassette)

6
POLYRHYTHM 32 Try it!
x x x
x x
7
Drums- Djembe
  • African drums come in a variety of shapes and
    sizes. The bodies are usually made from wood,
    gourds, and clay drum heads are made from animal
    skins.
  • The djembe drum has been called "the healing
    drum". It dates back to the 12th century Mali
    Empire of West Africa. It has a very wide tonal
    range setting it apart from other drums.

8
Drums- dunun
  • These set of drums are collectively known as
    dunun. Individually they are called
  • Dununba- bass drum
  • Sangban- mid drum
  • Kenkeni- high drum
  • Drum ensembles may consist
  • of dunun, djembes and
  • percussion.

9
Polyrhythms
  • The three dunun players each perform a different
    cyclic rhythm pattern on their drum and bells.
    These cyclic patterns combine to create a
    polyrhythm which is unique to a particular piece
    of music. The polyrhythm created by the set of
    dunun drums and bells is essential in supporting
    the whole piece- the solo drummers and supporting
    djembes rely on the dunun drums to hold the piece
    together.
  • drumYouTube - Akaran Iko Iko rhythm
    sample - Soli (rapide) fast

10
Talking Drums
  • Talking drums belong to the family of hourglass
    shaped pressure drums. The gan gan is the
    smallest, the dun dun is the largest. They have a
    drum head at both ends.
  • Pitch in African music is largely determined by
    the tuning of the drums. Drum rhythms can imitate
    well-known phrases. It's said that when Napoleon
    was defeated at the battle of Waterloo, the
    native people in West Africa knew about it before
    their English or French governors, because the
    news was drummed down the coast from North
    Africa. Talking drums are used to send messages,
    using a combination of pitch and rhythm to
    imitate speech. http//images.google.co.uk/imgres?
    imgurlhttp//www.soundsofafrica.tv/Africa2520Out
    2520Loud/Assane-forweb.jpgimgrefurlhttp//www.s
    oundsofafrica.tv/previews/AfricaOutLoud.htmlh339
    w450sz130hlenstart5tbnid0de0G_QdZFD2gM
    tbnh96tbnw127prev/images3Fq3Dassane2Bthiam
    26gbv3D226svnum3D1026hl3Den26rls3DRNWE,RNW
    E2005-40,RNWEen26sa3DG

11
Percussion-shakers
  • The yenca rattle is a gourd containing seeds that
    make the sound. It has a sponge plug which can be
    removed to change the seeds for different sizes,
    to give a different sound. (hosho- maracas)
  • The axatse or shekere also has seeds loosely
    covering a hollowed gourd. It is played by
    striking it on their hand, then on their leg, in
    various patterns. The top of the ball can be hit
    to create a deeper tone.

12
Percussion- bells
  • The gonkogui (gankogui) is a traditional double
    bell which is held in the hand whilst being
    struck with a stick. It has one high and one low
    tone. (agogo bells)
  • The toke or banana bell is played by striking it
    with a metal rod whilst it lies across the palm
    of the hand. It can also be hung on the side of
    drums. A pair of these bells, tuned a fourth
    apart, usually play together

13
Tuned percussion
  • The balaphon is a predecessor to the xylophone
    and marimba. It uses hollow gourds as resonators.

14
                         The MBIRA is
considered to create the essential link between
the world of the living and the world of the
spirits. It's believed to have the power of
projecting its sound into the heavens and
attracting the attention of the ancestors. It is
played by the thumbs and forefingers in cyclic
patterns. It is sometimes called the thumb
piano, but this is seen as a colonial term in
Africa. YouTube Mbira
15
Mbira patterns
  • Mbira players improvise over core ostinato
    patterns which creates complex polyphonic
    textures.
  • The lead part is called the KUSHAURA.
  • The intertwining part is called the KUTSINHIRA.
  • Although cyclic, the performers do not consider
    any one point of the cycle the beginning or the
    end.
  • Mbira are accompanied traditionally by hosho (an
    African forerunner of the maracas) YouTube -
    Hunters Mbira Crew 2

16
Stringed instruments
  • The kora is a 21- string harp-lute, which
    includes both plucked and sympathetic strings. It
    is used by professional musicians (jali) among
    the Mandika people of Gambia. YouTube - Jali
    Music Party in Brikama, The Gambia
  • YouTube - Jali Sherrifo Konteh at Whitby
    Musicport 2005

17
Kora patterns
  • The kora sounds like a harp and can be played
    solo or to accompany songs
  • The melody, counter- melodies and bass line are
    all played by one musician (Griot or jali).
  • The melody (and improvisations around it are
    called BRIMINTINGO.
  • The ostinato patterns below the melody are called
    KUMBENGO.

18
Ngoni/ Xalam
  • The xalam/ ngoni is the most common stringed
    instrument in Senegal in West Africa. A plucked
    lute which is a close relative of the African
    American banjo. YouTube - Xhalam playing by
    Abdulai Saine,Gambia 2002

19
Southern Africa
  • Music in the southern countries of Africa, which
    include South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zaire, have
    been influenced by Western church music,
    introduced by missionaries in the 19th century.
    Choral singing is very important in this part of
    Africa. The traditional vocal music of the Zulus
    of South Africa is called ISICATHAMIYA. It has
    been popularized by a group called Ladysmith
    Black Mambazo. (Heinz beans ad!!)
  • In this clip, notice the A CAPELLA men's voices
    using CALL AND RESPONSE.
  • YouTube - Mambazo

20
African instruments
  • Listen to these clips and identify the
    instrument(s)-
  • 1. 4.
  • 2. 5.
  • 3. 6.

DJEMBE
DUNUN
KORA
TALKING DRUM
BALAFON
MBIRA (THUMB PIANO)
21
Africa- its influence (Fusions)
  • Elements of African music can be found in almost
    every other culture in the world.
  • Africa has had a direct influence on the music of
    South America, the Caribbean, USA, Western Europe
    and many other nations.
  • Africa is a huge and diverse continent with a
    wide variety of people, customs, music and
    instruments.

22
Fusion
  • List some of the genres or styles of music that
    you think may have been influenced by African
    music.
  • BLUES DISCO BLUEGRASS
  • FUNK DANCE
  • SOUL JAZZ
  • GOSPEL MINIMALISM
  • REGGAE RAP SALSA/ CUBAN

23
FUSIONS
  • African musicians have always embraced new
    technology, applying the playing techniques of
    their own instruments to that of the western
    instruments brought in by the colonial powers.
  • Often bands would play waltzes, marches and
    popular songs from the country that ruled.
  • With independence came the freedom to explore
    traditional music, often moved on to the new
    instruments.

24
Guitar styles
  • Guitar styles copy the fast moving rippling
    rhythms of the kora and other string instruments-
  • Mose Fan Fan- Sikulu
  • Listen for the interlocking guitar lines, call
    and response vocals and shave haircut shampoo
    clave rhythm that is the basis of all cuban
    music-
  • Loketo- Trouble.

25
Electric Africa
  • This all electric mix has many names in Africa
    depending where it originates from-
  • West Africa- Highlife Afrobeat
  • Mbalax Makossa
  • Central and East Africa- Soukous (Soca)
  • South Africa- Mbquanqa

26
Chimurenga
  • Listen to this MBIRA tune played traditionally
    and then arranged for electric instruments.
  • Traditional Mbira- Taireva
  • Thomas Mapfumo- Pfumvu
  • Thomas Mapfumo- Chigwaya

27
Youssou NDour
  • Youssou Ndour is from Senegal, West Africa and
    is from a family of traditional musicians.
  • He has created his own style of electric music
    called mbalax, which comes from local Wolof
    drumming patterns. His band uses the cyclic
    patterns on electric guitars, bass, keyboards,
    brass, drum kit and traditional drums including
    tama (talking drum). Ndobine.
  • He makes different recordings of the same
    material for his African and Western markets
    putting a steady bass drum beat in his European
    recordings.
  • Del teew
  • http//images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurlhttp//ww
    w.soundsofafrica.tv/Africa2520Out2520Loud/Assane
    -forweb.jpgimgrefurlhttp//www.soundsofafrica.tv
    /previews/AfricaOutLoud.htmlh339w450sz130hl
    enstart5tbnid0de0G_QdZFD2gMtbnh96tbnw127
    prev/images3Fq3Dassane2Bthiam26gbv3D226svn
    um3D1026hl3Den26rls3DRNWE,RNWE2005-40,RNWEe
    n26sa3DG

28
Styles (CD2)
  • Name these styles/ genre that have their roots in
    African music.
  • 1. 2.
  • 3. 4.
  • 5. 6.

Reggae
  • Salsa

Blues
Soul/ Funk
Bluegrass
  • Minimalism

29
Extension
  • Listen to these clips of African music and try to
    spot what style of music it has influenced.
  • Ali Farka Toure
  • Manu Dibango
  • King Sunny Ade
  • Extra tracks- Muezzin call / Field hollers
  • Mannish Boy / Bridging the Gap

30
Homework
  • Find 4 different examples of fusion music and
    identify the influences.
  • If you can ,bring in a copy of one to play to the
    class.

31
Traditional African instruments
  • Other instruments
  • African wind instruments include flutes,
    whistles, oboes and trumpets. The flutes were
    made from bamboo, reed , wood, clay, bones and
    other materials found in the sub-Saharan region.
  • Trumpets, often associated with royalty, were
    made from animal horns or wood. Clarinets, from
    the Savannah region of West Africa are made from
    guinea-corn or sorghum stems, with a reed cut
    from the surface of the stem at one end.
    Double-reed instruments, such as the hasua
    algaita, are derived from North Africa.
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