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Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism

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Title: Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism


1
Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism
  • If there is a single power the West
    underestimates, it is the power of collective
    hatred. Ralph Peters, 1999.

2
For More info see
  • Imperial Hubris Why the West is Losing the War
    on Terror, Michael Scheuer
  • Through Our Enemies' Eyes Osama bin Laden,
    Radical Islam, and the Future of America, Revised
    Edition, Michael Scheuer
  • The Trouble With Islam Today, Irshad Manji
  • The 9/11 Commission Report Final Report of the
    National Commission on the Terrorist Attacks Upon
    the United States
  • The Great War for Civilisation The Conquest of
    the Middle East, Robert Fisk
  • The Looming Tower Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11,
    Lawrence Wright

3
Terrorism
  • The unlawful use or threatened use of force or
    violence to intimidate or coerce societies or
    governments, often for ideological or political
    reasons.
  • The unlawful use of force or violence against
    persons or property to intimidate or coerce a
    government, the civilian population, or any
    segment thereof, in furtherance of political or
    social objectives (FBI)
  • Potentially politically loaded term
  • One persons terrorist is anothers freedom
    fighter
  • Terrorism most clearly defined by two
    characteristics
  • Combatants do not represent a state
  • Combatants deliberately target civilians
  • Terrorism terrorists violate intl rules of war

4
Popular Beliefs and Misconceptions about
Terrorism
  • There is a widespread, but probably incorrectly
    belief that
  • Terrorists are psychotic or mentally ill
  • Terrorists suffer personality disorders
  • Terrorist violence is the result of personal
    frustration, or economic deprivation
  • Terrorist violence is a reaction to personal
    grievances, including personal humiliation,
    anger, or shame
  • Terrorists are victims of physical or
    psychological coercion from mastermind recruiters
    ("brainwashing")

5
Terrorism as Strategy
  • Terrorism as weapon in a strategy
  • Terrorist attacks form of strategic
    communication
  • Terrorism is not new
  • Terrorism is not merely religious 1980 Bologna,
    Munich attacks LTTE (Sri Lanka)
  • You have to be lucky everyday We only have to
    be lucky once - IRA Bomber

6
The Tactics of Terrorism
  • Six tactics of terrorism
  • Bombing (most common)
  • Hijacking
  • Arson
  • Assault
  • Kidnapping
  • Hostage Taking
  • Weapons of mass destruction?

7
Effects of Terror
  • Economy
  • Each and every individual
  • Irrational in nature
  • Decreases any feeling of security
  • Drains resources
  • Places whole country on alert
  • ?overreaction
  • ?False sense of security or irrelevant

8
Some Strategic Objectives of Terrorism
  • Recognition Gaining national or international
    recognition for their cause recruiting new
    personnel raising funds demonstrating their
    strength
  • Coercion Force a desired behavior of an
    individual or government
  • Intimidation Prevent individuals, groups, or
    governments from acting
  • Provocation Provoking overreaction by a
    government to the attack on symbolic targets or
    personnel, thereby gaining sympathy for their
    cause.
  • Insurgency support Forcing the government to
    overextend itself in dealing with the threat,
    thereby allowing the insurgency to gain support
    and commit further attacks against the government.

9
Terrorism Is Theatre
  • As stated by Brian Jenkins - terrorism expert -
    terrorist acts are often deliberately
    spectacular, designed to rattle and influence a
    wide audience, beyond the victims of the violence
    itself.

10
Television and Terrorism A Cozy Relationship
  • Over the years, several studies have pointed to
    the close relationship between terrorism and
    television
  • The purpose of television news
  • News programming provides information, but it is
    also designed to keep audiences watching
  • One of the purposes is to keep the audience
    primed with emotion and excitement
  • Terrorism is perfect for this scenario because it
    is so dramatic

11
Television and Terrorism A Cozy Relationship
  • Basic elements of television drama
  • Viewers are encouraged to stay tuned
  • The station provides an expert interpreter
  • The reports give the illusion that somehow the
    audience and be in control of the situation

12
The Media as a Force Multiplier
  • American media and Arab media
  • America broadcasted its versions of truth both
    domestically and abroad, and American news has
    always been self-absorbed
  • In the 1990s a new Arab television network, al
    Jazeera, began broadcasting news from an Arab
    perspective

13
The Media as a Force Multiplier
  • Terrorists use the media to reach audiences in a
    new way
  • At first, terrorists reached audiences with drama
  • As time went on, terrorists realized that hostage
    dramas were made for television
  • If terrorists could successfully manipulate the
    situation, they could portray both hostages and
    themselves as victims while police and military
    forces appeared to be aggressors

14
The Media as a Force Multiplier
  • The Internet as a force multiplier
  • The Internet is one of the most important force
    multipliers easily available to terrorists
  • The Internet is a powerful tool for opposition
    forces in authoritarian regimes
  • Terrorists run their own websites, sometimes hack
    into exiting sites to broadcast propaganda
    videos, and also imbed pixels in legitimate
    websites to transmit secret communications

15
Security Forces vs. Reporters
  • Security forces conflicting with the media
  • Terrorists want to use the media as a
    psychological weapon, while governments seek to
    harness the power of the media for social control
  • Law enforcement and military goals conflict
    directly with the needs of the media
  • Officially, police and security forces recognize
    the medias right to report information, but they
    develop elaborate plans to control reporting

16
Security Forces vs. Reporters
  • Points of views about terrorism and the media
  • Some members and supporters of the press see the
    media as a quasi-constitutional force keeping the
    government in check
  • Some want to limit press coverage during
    terrorist events
  • The media may exploit terrorism, but they rarely
    convey messages favorable to terrorism

17
Security Forces vs. Reporters
  • Terrorist theater
  • The media is filled with action and it is
    entertaining
  • However, research suggests that the coverage of
    terrorism is not helpful to terrorist groups
  • Reporting terrorist events increases the publics
    knowledge about terrorism, but builds little
    sympathy for terrorists

18
Does Reporting Make Terrorism Contagious?
  • The Internet and the contagion effect
  • Contagion is magnified when rumors are spread
    through e-mails, and websites
  • Copycat effect
  • The greatest proponents of contagion theory argue
    that media reporting, especially television,
    leads to a copycat effect
  • The reason is that media reports encourage people
    to transform dark thoughts into reality

19
Censorship Debates
  • Three choices when it comes to freedom of the
    press and terrorism
  • To assume a laissez-faire, or hands-off, attitude
  • Censorship
  • Self-regulation

20
Terrorism is a Political Act
  • Creates extreme fear and anxiety in a target
    group larger than immediate victims
  • Extra-normal violence in a symbolic act
  • Specific victims have no particular significance
    to terrorist

21
Terrorism is Not Irrational
  • Terrorist use logic that links
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Strategy

22
States Sponsoring Terrorism Today
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Syria
  • Sudan
  • Libya
  • N. Korea
  • Cuba

23
State Sponsored Terrorism
  • Hizballah receives backing and assistance from
    the Governments of Iran and Syria.
  • IRAN shaped Hizballahs ideology, gave it
    political backing and helped build its
    operational capabilities. Iran currently
    continues to support Hizballah terrorism, by
    providing it with training and weapons, financial
    aid and assistance for carrying out terror
    attacks.
  • SYRIA supports and trains Hizballah and allows
    it to build its infrastructure under Syrian
    auspices. Hizballah is used as a political tool
    against Israel by the Syrian president.
  • LEBANON provides a territorial base where
    Hizballah can freely operate and advance its
    terrorist infrastructure.

24
State Sponsored Terrorism
Ideology
Iran
Financing
Training
Directions
Syria
Logistics
Host
Breeding ground
Lebanon
Operational Base
Terror Hub
Hizballah
Execution
25
Hizballahs Arsenal of Weapons
Type of Weapons Type of Weapons Quantity (estimate) Range Target
Mortars 82 mm 120 mm 160 mm Dozens of mortars, thousands of mortar bombs 3000 m 5700 m 8000 m Israeli towns and cities
Rocket Launchers FAJR 3 FAJR 5 107 mm 122 mm Several dozen Unknown launchers thousands of rockets 43 km 75 km 8.3 km Long-range rocket 20.4 km Short-range rocket 11 km Into the Heart of Israel
Recoilless guns Recoilless guns Dozens 1300 m (est.) military
Artillery Guns 122 mm 130 mm 155 mm Dozens of guns Thousands of shells 11.8 km 24 km 2.75 km 18km Israeli civilians and towns
Antitank Missiles SAGGER Millan Fagot Tow Several hundred missiles of all types 1000-3000 m 300-2000 m 300-2000 m A. 600-3750 m B. 1000-3000 m Tanks
Antiaircraft SA-7 14.5 mm 23 mm 57mm A few of each kind 1.5-1.9 km 600-2500m 1400-3000m 4000-5000m Aircraft
26
Terrorism is a Political Act
  • A weapon of psychological purposes
  • Premeditated, politically motivated violence
    perpetrated against noncombatant targets by
    subnation or clandestine agents usually intended
    to influence an audience

27
Terrorism in the USA
  • The first incident of antifederal behavior came
    shortly after the American Revolutionary War
  • 1791- The Whiskey Rebellion
  • The Civil War
  • Southerners were fighting to keep the power of
    local government
  • KKK-Purpose to intimidate supporters of
    Reconstruction
  • Abortion Clinics

28
Ecoterrorism in the US
  • Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
  • ELF migrated from Europe to the United States
  • The alliance has been responsible for more than
    six hundred criminal acts since 1996
  • Its tactics include sabotage, tree spiking,
    property damage, intimidation, and arson

29
Ecoterrorism, Animal Rights, and Genetic
Engineering
  • Ecoterrorism today
  • Most violence associated with ecoterrorism has
    taken place in the American West
  • From 1995-1999, damages total 28.8 million
  • ELF activities have increased each year since
    1999
  • Ecoterrorists are uncompromising, illogical
    extremists just like their right-wing
    counterparts They use ecology as a surrogate
    religion

30
Murrah Federal BuildingOklahoma City 25 June
1994
  • 168 Dead
  • 490 Injured

31
Terrorist tactics have been admired in the past
  • American Revolution
  • Was the Boston Tea Party an act of terrorism?????
  • What about the French Resistance that fought
    against Germany in WWII?
  • Russian and Spanish Guerrilla warfare vs.
    Napoleon????
  • Terrorist or Freedom Fighter????
  • Are we Terrorists?
  • Bombing of other countries when they do something
    we dont like?
  • Iraq
  • Libya
  • Panama

32
Why Terrorism???
  • Terrorism and guerrilla warfare
  • Ability to compete with superpowers
  • Legitimate form of warfare?
  • Applicability of Laws of war (legitimate
    nations at a disadvantage?)
  • Terrorists have advantage of surprise and
    initiative
  • What methods may be used to combat
    terrorist/guerrilla attacks? Advantages and
    disadvantages of each (loss of innocent life,
    collateral damage, etc.)

33
Why Terrorism? Because It Works
  • The anthrax case
  • 3 teaspoons worth of anthrax
  • 27,500,000 to clean up Senate Office Building
  • 300,000,000 to clean up postal facilities
  • Two pounds of anthrax would saturate all of
    Manhattan.
  • 9/11- 19 Hijackers killed thousands and caused
    Trillions of dollars in economic damage.

34
Terrorist Profiles Three Views
  • Hacker one of first criminal profilers
  • Hackers three types of terrorists
  • Criminals
  • Join terrorist groups for payoff or vengeance
  • Crazies
  • Join terrorist groups for thrills of lifestyle
  • Crusaders
  • People who believe deeply in a cause

35
Creating Terrorist Organizations
  • Pyramid Organization
  • Support is most common job in terrorist groups
  • Fraser and Fultons hierarchy of terrorist group
  • Smallest group at the top is responsible for
    command
  • Second level is active cadrepeople who carry out
    organizations mission
  • Third level is most important active supporters
  • Fourth level is passive supporters largest group

36
Terrorism Support Base
Actual terrorists
Active supporters
Passive supporters
Sympathizers
37
Suicide Terror Attacks are . . .
  • inexpensive and effective extremely favorable
    per-casualty cost benefits for the terrorists
  • less complicated and compromising no escape
    plan needed, and success means no assailant to
    capture and interrogate
  • perhaps the ultimate smart bomb this weapon
    can cleverly disguise itself, use various modes
    of deception, and effect last minute changes in
    timing, access, and target
  • a strategic communication device successful
    attacks are virtually assured media coverage
  • effective because the weaker opponent acts as
    coercer and the stronger actor is the target
  • Key difference from other attacks The target of
    suicide campaign cannot easily adjust to minimize
    future damage

38
Suicide Terrorism Where?
  • Three types of attacks are most likely to occur
  • High value, symbolic targets involving mass
    casualties
  • Important government buildings, installations, or
    landmarks
  • Major means of personal or commercial
    transportation
  • High value, symbolic targets against specific
    persons
  • Political assassinations (e.g., head of state,
    regional governor, etc.)
  • Deliberately lethal attacks targeting the public
  • Bus, train, subway bombings attacks on shopping
    malls, cinemas, sports stadiums, public gathering
    spaces

39
Suicide Terrorism
  • The use of suicide terrorism as a tactic has
    changed the nature of terrorism and the war in
    Iraq.
  • In most cases, the use of suicide terrorism has
    tended to improve the success of terrorists and
    frustrated their more capable, better-resourced
    enemies (i.e., US, EU)
  • This analysis is based on Robert Papes article
    in the Aug. 2003 American Political Science
    Review (vol. 97, no. 3, 343-361)

40
Suicide Terrorism
  • Suicide terrorism was seldom used but not unknown
    before 1980
  • The 1983 attack on the US Marine barracks in
    Lebanon was a spectacular early use of this
    tactic
  • Since that time its use has risen sharply

41
Suicide Terrorism
Suicide Attacks Against Israel Suicide Attacks Thwarted by Israeli Forces
2000 4 4
2001 35 56
2002 60 171
2003 26 209
2002 15 367
2005 5 96
2006 2 187
Source Jewish Virtual Library.org
42
Types of Suicide Terrorism
  • Suicide attack on foot, explosive belt --
    numerous Iraq
  • Attempted suicide attack with a plane as target
    -- Richard Reid on American Airlines Flight 63
  • Suicide car bomb -- numerous Iraq
  • Suicide attack by a boat with explosives -- USS
    Cole bombing
  • Suicide attack by a submarine with explosives
    (human-steered torpedo) -- Kaiten, used by Japan
    in WWII
  • Suicide attack by a plane with explosives --
    kamikaze
  • Suicide attack by a hijacked plane with fuel --
    9/11
  • Suicide attack by diverting a bus to an abyss --
    Tel Aviv Jerusalem bus Massacre
  • Suicide attack with guns -- Kashmiri insurgents
    on the Indian Parliament in December 2001 killing
    15 people.

43
Profile of Suicide Terrorists
  • The original descriptions of characteristics of
    suicide terrorists pointed to depressed,
    isolated, uneducated, embittered loners carrying
    out attacks, motivated by a sense of
    powerlessness
  • The rising numbers of suicide attacks has made
    this profile obsolete
  • Suicide terrorists may be young, middle class,
    well-educated, female
  • Religion seems to be a significant motivation in
    many cases, but not all (e.g., Tamil Tigers, Sri
    Lanka)

44
5 Principles of Suicide Terrorism
  • Suicide terrorism is strategic
  • -- Groups announce their goals and cease attacks
    when those goals are met
  • Designed to coerce modern democracies, usually
    over territorial claims
  • -- Every suicide terrorist attack since 1980 has
    been directed against a democratic form of
    government
  • Suicide terrorism has been rising for the past 25
    years because it is often partially successful
  • -- Palestinian management/control West Bank,
    Gaza
  • -- Regional autonomy negotiations for Tamil
    Tigers in Sri Lanka
  • -- Limited toleration for Kurdish minority in
    Turkey

45
5 Principles of Suicide Terrorism
  • 4. More ambitious, large-scale attacks are
    unlikely to prove increasingly successful
  • -- Large democratic states have little political
    incentive to concede when the stakes are very
    high -- public support
  • 5. The most promising tactic for reducing
    suicide terrorism is by reducing the terrorists
    confidence in further success
  • -- Border control, increased internal security
  • -- Military action alone is unlikely to create
    this effect

46
Types of Terrorism
  • Terrorists have a choice of tactics to use
    depending on the desire effect
  • Demonstrative Terrorism
  • Used mainly to gain publicity, recruit activists
  • May announce their action in advance (bomb
    threat)
  • Destructive Terrorism
  • More aggressive, seeks to coerce enemies
  • Balance between effect of act and the potential
    to alienate potential sympathizers
  • Suicide Terrorism
  • Most aggressive
  • May alienate the terrorists own community

47
Types of Terrorism
  • Two factors related to the news media are crucial
  • Projection of an image of being unstoppable
  • Projection of an image of being very numerous
  • Suicide terrorism is an aspect of asymmetrical
    warfare, where the terrorist organization is
    weaker than their enemy
  • Their actions are a punishment for not acceding
    to previous demands
  • Fear is intensified by the credible threat of
    additional future attacks

48
Selected Suicide Terror Campaigns
Terrorist Group Terrorists Goals Target Behavior
Apr-Dec 1983 Hezbollah US/France out of Lebanon Complete Withdrawal
Nov 1983-Apr 1985 Hezbollah Israel out of Lebanon Complete withdrawal
Apr 1984-Dec 2006 Hamas, various Israel out of Palestine Complete withdrawal from Gaza, partial withdrawal from West Bank
1996-2003 Al Qaeda US out of Arabian Peninsula Complete withdrawal
2000- Chechen Rebels Russia out of Chechnya TBD
2003- Al Qaeda, various US out of Iraq TBD
49
Analysis of Religious Terrorism
  • Religious fanaticism and technology
  • Terrorists behave differently from regular
    criminals, religious terrorists behave
    differently from political terrorists
  • Religious terrorists are not constrained by the
    same factors that inhibit other types of
    terrorists

50
Analysis of Religious Terrorism
  • Holy Terror vs. Secular Terror
  • Secular terrorists operate within a dominant
    political and cultural framework
  • Secular terrorists would rather make allies than
    indiscriminately kill their enemies
  • Holy terrorists see the world as a battlefield
    between the forces of light and darkness
  • Holy terrorists see killing as a sacramental act.
    Examples can be found in
  • The Koran
  • Christian Old Testament
  • Hebrew Bible

51
Analysis of Religious Terrorism
  • True believers
  • Religious terrorists dismiss the religious views
    of others
  • When a person becomes a true believer and a
    religious doctrine sanctions the use of violence,
    deified terrorism results, that is, the act of
    terrorism itself is made sacred and holy

52
Analysis of Religious Terrorism
  • Other dangerous trends in holy terror
  • Religious terrorists are not utilitarian that
    is, they are not a person seeking the greatest
    amount of good for the greatest number of people.
    Religious terrorist seek the greatest good for
    themselves
  • Religious terrorists demonize their enemies that
    is, they equate their enemies with the ultimate
    source of evil

53
The Social Characteristics of Terrorists
Juergensmeyers Terror in Gods Mind
  • Holy warriors
  • The call to violence is a call to purify the
    world from the nonbeliever and the incorrect
    interpreters of tradition in a holy war
  • Those who do not stand with the holy warrior are
    evil
  • If the holy warrior falls, the warrior becomes a
    martyr for hope if the holy warrior is
    successful, it is a victory for the deity

54
After the Sept 11 attacks
  • The clash of civilizations theory suddenly
    gained new prominence in the west
  • Originally put forward by Bernard Lewis, an
    American historian of the Middle East in 1990.
  • Expanded and given prominence by Samuel
    Huntington of Harvard University in an article in
    Foreign Affairs, later expanded into a book.

55
  • Bernard Lewis Islam an ancient rival against
    our Judeo-Christian heritage.
  • Traces the rivalry back to the time of the
    Islamic invasion of Spain, the western Crusades,
    the Ottoman invasion of eastern and central
    Europe, and the European defeat of the Ottomans
    after WW1.
  • The Muslim has suffered succesive stages of
    defeat.It was too much to endure, and the
    outbreak of rage against these alien, infidel and
    incomprehensible forces that subverted his
    dominance.was inevitable.

56
  • Bernard Lewis ideas have influenced important
    members of the Bush administration, including
    vice president Cheney
  • Their assumptions
  • Islamic societies are fundamentally anti
    democratic and repressive.
  • Islamists are resentful and hate the freedom and
    liberty they see in the US, and want to destroy
    it.
  • If Islam and the west are to live together,
    Islamic countries need to be democratized and
    modernised this is the project in Iraq.

57
Huntingtons thesis
  • The fundamental source of conflict..will not be
    primarily ideological or economic. The great
    divisions among humankind will be cultural.
  • The fault lines between civilizations will be
    the battle lines of the future.
  • He divides the world into seven or eight major
    civilizations Western, Confucian, Japanese,
    Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American.
  • Huntington saw the main source of conflict in the
    world as being between western and Islamic
    civilization

58
Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations and
Espositos Response
  • Huntingtons Thesis
  • International peace will be threatened in torn
    countries. These are regions where more than one
    civilization exists within an area
  • John Esposito
  • Disagrees with Huntington on Two Levels
  • Culture or civilization is defined by more than
    religion
  • There is no Islamic civilization

59
Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations and
Espositos Response
  • Daniel Pipes
  • When looking at Islam, the major clash is not
    between civilizations, but rather within Islamic
    civilization
  • Thomas Barnett
  • Believes Huntingtons clash comes between
    economic rather than cultural civilizations

60
(No Transcript)
61
Islamic extremists too believe in a clash of
civilization
  • The West and Islam will constantly be
    enemiesIslam must win and westerners will be
    destroyed. But we dont have to make then enemies
    if they allow Islam to continue to grow so that
    in the end they will probably agree to be under
    Islam. If they refuse to be under Islam there
    will be chaos. If they want to have peace, they
    have to accept to be governed by Islam. Abu-Bakr
    Bashir, head of Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia.

62
Huntingtons and Lewis ideas have been
vigorously criticised
  • Confuses the thinking of a small Islamic
    fundamentalist fringe, with the majority of
    Muslims
  • Does not distinguish between Arab Muslims and non
    Arab Muslims
  • Are civilizations that distinct and are they
    based on religion?

63
Know Your Enemy
If you know yourself but do not know your
enemy, you will sometimes meet with victory,
sometimes with defeat. If you know your enemy but
do not know yourself, you will sometimes meet
with victory, sometimes with defeat. But if you
know yourself and you know your enemy, you will
be victorious on a hundred occasions. Sun-Tsu (T
he Art of War)
Muslims look forward to death the way Americans
look forward to life. Osama bin Laden (Islamic
Terrorist)
64
Global War on Terrorism--Who is the enemy?
  • The enemy consists of various extremist Islamic
    groups that espouse the use of violence to
    achieve their ideological aims al Qaida being
    the most dangerous. Characteristics are
  • No state, no uniform, lives among the population
  • Believes religion is under attack and calls upon
    Muslims to defend Islam
  • Even support by 1 of the Muslim population would
    equate to over 12 million enemies
  • While we may view his beliefs as dangerously
    misguided.
  • He is absolutely committed to his cause
  • His religious ideology successfully attracts
    recruits
  • He has a sufficient population base from which to
    protract the conflict

65
Terms
  • This briefing refers to ISLAM and ISLAMIC to
    refer generally to the broad range of religious,
    cultural and socio-economic values and
    assumptions that are shared among the diverse
    adherents to the Islamic faith.
  • This briefing refers to ISLAMISTS (Islamic
    Fundamentalists, Fundamentalists,
    Extremists) ) and requires that these terms be
    understood to refer to those Islamic extremists
    who have, by their words and actions, defined
    themselves as the enemies of all that is NOT in
    agreement with their view and are currently
    executing a violent campaign against those who do
    not share their agenda primarily the U.S. This
    term does NOT refer to all Muslims nor Muslims
    of any particular denomination or sect of the
    broader religion of Islam. It refers ONLY to
    those Muslim extremists who are engaged in using
    violent means to expand the influence of their
    particular view of Islam. Some of these
    religious, and socio-political views are shared
    among most or even all Muslims. However, those
    views which have motivated Islamist,
    Fundamentalist Extremists to violent action are
    generally shared ONLY by those groups.
  • JIHAD is an Arabic term that is used for any
    struggle INCLUDING warfare. It is frequently
    interpreted in a religious context as Holy War
    but CAN mean struggle as in a struggle to
    overcome a personal limitation or a struggle to
    understand a new point of view.
  • JIHADI is one who struggles or fights. In the
    context of a religiously inspired Holy War, a
    Jihadi is a Holy Warrior.

66
Islam Today????
  • Islam (modernists, traditionalists and orthodox
    80-85?)
  • Ancient religion of 1.5 billion people
  • Diversity of beliefs, practices, and politics
  • Islamism (salafi Islam, fundamentalism) (15-20?)
  • Islam must have political power and a state
  • Response to European colonialism
  • Modernism and the turn to Islam
  • But no unanimity about democracy
  • Jihadism (salafiyya jihadiyya) (lt1?)
  • Extremist version of Islamism
  • No gradual implementation or political process
  • Only violence can recreate an idealized Islamic
    state called the Caliphate

67
Historical Perspective I
  • Islam spread very quickly by conversion and by
    developing empire.
  • Mohammed was at once a prophet, religious leader,
    military leader, and government head.
  • Crusades were a direct attack on this empire that
    included many lands outside of the Middle East.
    Focus is on Christian atrocities.

68
Historical Perspective II
  • Place of Christians and Jews in the early Islamic
    State and Mohammed's last wishes.
  • Holy Land is for Muslims only Arabia, Medina,
    Mecca
  • With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire the
    Caliphate (Islamic Leader) ended (1924).

69
The Al Qaeda Manual I
After the fall of our orthodox caliphates on
March 3, 1924 and after expelling the
colonialists, our Islamic nation was afflicted
with apostate rulers who took over in the Moslem
nation. These .rulers turned out to be more
infidel and criminal than the colonialists
themselves.
70
Al Qaeda Manual II
Colonialism and its followers, the apostate
rulers, then started to openly erect crusader
centers, societies, and organizations like
Masonic Lodges, Lions and Rotary clubs, and
foreign schools. They aimed at producing a wasted
generation that pursued everything that is
western and produced rulers, ministers, leaders,
physicians, engineers, businessmen, politicians,
journalists, and information specialists.
71
Some general things to consider
  • Many in the Mid-East see the West as the cause of
    many of their problems.
  • We (USA) are now THE representative of the West.
  • Even though the Mid-East is rich in oil, the
    average person is not rich. Many dictators and
    kings have become rich while their people have
    suffered. Guess who helped to put many of these
    people into power???
  • These monarchs and dictators have used brutality
    and violence to keep their own people in line.
  • Education is very limited. Even those that are
    educated are not allowed/encouraged free thought.
    (Women)
  • Even educated men have a hard time finding jobs
    in many Mid-Eastern countries. Lack of economic
    opportunities leads to anger.
  • Many religious schools teach students to recite
    the Koran, but not what it means. (Arabic)
  • Many view themselves as Muslim first, a citizen
    of their country second!
  • Islam is a multinational and multiracial
    religion. Only a small minority of Muslims are
    Arab.
  • Radicals like bin Laden and others see this as a
    holy war, a literal battle for world domination.
    Many radicals have the attitude convert, or
    die.
  • People like bin Laden represent a small, but
    growing, minority of the 1 billion worldwide
    Muslims.

72
Problems with Islam today
  • No Church hierarchy. (Pope)
  • No official Islamic Doctrine
  • Teachings based on various Imams. Some very
    radical.
  • Much illiteracy.
  • Since most Muslims arent Arab, and the word of
    God is only revealed in Arabic, it makes sense
    that most Muslims dont know what the Koran says.
    Therefore they rely on the interpretation of the
    imams.
  • Every Muslim who passes away without a gun in
    his hand faces Allah with the sins of abandoning
    fight I strongly believe that there is no
    difference between who does not fight , and he
    who does not fast, pray or pay zakat (tithe). I
    believe no Muslim is excused from abandoning
    Jihad. Shaykh Azzam

73
Worldview
  • Jewish Conspiracy
  • Banking
  • Influence/Pulling the strings
  • US World Position
  • Leader and therefore responsible regardless of
    proof
  • Support of Israel
  • The Final Proof
  • (How many Arab countries have accepted the right
    of Israel to exist at all?)

74
Globalization
  • Forcing a secular western culture on a
    traditional Islamic culture
  • Extolling music, morals, sex, values and
    materialism
  • Importing to them low paying jobs.

75

The Impact of Islamist Worlds Economics
Socio-demographics
  • The Appeal to A Dangerous Socio-Political Element
  • The Poor
  • The Politically Disenfranchised
  • The Youth Bulge

The Corrupted and Apostate Rich
The Virtuous Poor
TP525-2-60, pp 30, 36
76
Role of Islam in Society
  • In the Islamic system of values and from the
    point of view of Muslim fundamentalists, religion
    cannot be separated from any aspect of life.
  • Religion is omnipresent in every aspect of a
    Muslim individual's private and social life from
    the economy to social relations.
  • What does harm to the society is not religion -
    it is the way in which some of the rulers take
    advantage of religion
  • DR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian cleric

77
Understanding Islam Understanding Islam Understanding Islam
Islam Christian West
Role of religion for the believer The defining doctrine regulating all aspects of personal behavior, family, political and economic life. An expression of private personal belief.
78
Understanding Islam Understanding Islam Understanding Islam
Islam Christian West
View of government The world consists of one true faith divided into nations (Lewis, xx). There is no meaningful difference between political and religious communities. Dualism -- The world is split into two spheres, political (secular) and religious. Since the Enlightenment religion should not be too prominent in politics.
79
Understanding Islam Understanding Islam Understanding Islam
Islam Christian West
View of religion The Quran is a single book written by one man. There are no rituals, sacraments or ordinations that can only be performed by priests -- no mediation between man an God. The Bible is the work of numerous men over a considerable time. There is a religious caste (priests) who either mediate for believers or perform certain holy rites. The Church is an institution that preserves the dogma of the faith.
80
Understanding Islam Understanding Islam Understanding Islam
Islam Christian West
View of society There is a polity that carries out the necessary functions of civic life, but it is also founded on principles derived from the Quran. This mirrors the practice of Muhammad, who was both a prophet and a political leader, merging two traditions, the one authoritarian and quietest, the other radical and activist. (Lewis, 11) Society is a broad community of people in voluntary association who pursue common interests, preserve common ways of life and belief. Religion is only one of many factors that bind people together numerous social sub-structures also support and nourish civic life.
81
Understanding Islam Understanding Islam Understanding Islam
Islam Christian West
View of the individual The individual is bound by a strict duty to observe religious law, participate in the great evangelistic work of the faith, and defend the honor of Muhammad, the Muslim faith and all those who profess them. Individuals may choose to bind themselves to a religious faith, or to no religion at all. Individuals should respect each others rights.
most Muslim countries are still profoundly
Muslim in a way and in a sense that most
Christian countries are no longer Christian.
(Lewis, 16)
82
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83
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84
What is Islamism?
  • Literalism of Quran to all of society
  • Islamic world decline due to loss of religious
    observance and caliphate
  • Moral and religious law enforcement
  • Islamic state
  • Western culture breeds materialism, atheism,
    selfishness, and decadence
  • Separate from the west
  • State of Israel is illegitimate and should be
    removed
  • All Muslims should enroll in jihad to achieve
    these goals.
  • Glorify martyrdom

85
Islamist Perceptions Motivations?
  • How would YOU feel if this was Kansas City, MO.?

Baghdad, April 2003
  • How would YOU feel if this was Cincinnati, OH?
  • Are Islamist Motivations Different From Ours?

Baghdad, April 2003
86
Madrassas/Wahhabism
  • Wahhabi 1750s reformer to an earlier purer
    Islam. Embraced and propagated by Saudi Arabia
    today in their education system home and abroad.
    Saudi Arabia Academy in Alexandria, VA.
  • Unity of Religion, Government, Military
  • Examples Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan
  • Strong Fundamentalist Movements

87
Jihad
  • Means Struggle.
  • Jihad of the heart/soul is an inner struggle of
    good against evil in the mind.
  • Jihad by the tongue is a struggle of good against
    evil waged by writing and speech.
  • Jihad by the pen and knowledge is a struggle for
    good against evil through scholarly study of
    Islam.
  • Jihad by the hand refers to a struggle of good
    against evil waged by actions or with one's
    wealth, such as going on the Hajj pilgrimage
    (seen as the best jihad for women), taking care
    of elderly parents, or political activity for
    furthering the cause of Islam.
  • Jihad by the sword refers to qital fi sabilillah
    (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war),
    the most common usage by Salafi Muslims and
    offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood.
  • 5 Kinds of Jihad, but we mostly only hear about
    the last!

88
Joining the Jihad The conventional wisdom
  • Do ideas cause people to join the jihad?
  • People join terrorist organizations because they
    are
  • Poor
  • Broken family background
  • Ignorant (uneducated)
  • Immature young men
  • No skills
  • No family or job responsibility
  • Weak minds, vulnerable to brainwashing
    (madrassas, family or direct appeal)
  • Mentally ill
  • Criminals
  • Religious fanatics
  • Evil

89
Joining the Jihad The evidence
  • Based on 400 subjects
  • 2/3 from solid upper or middle class background
  • Vast majority from intact caring family
  • 60 had some college education
  • Average age was 26 years
  • 3/4 were professional or semi-professional
  • 3/4 were married most had children
  • Half were religious children, only 13 were
    madrassa educated
  • Only 1 had thought disorder (global base rate).
    Very little evidence of personality disorder.
  • Only European 2nd generation, immigrants
    converts were petty criminal
  • The vast majority was not religious in early
    adulthood.

90
Joining the jihad What really counts
  • Alienated from society
  • 70 expatriates
  • 10 excluded second generation or immigrants
  • Pre-existing social bonds
  • Friendship 68 bunch of guys making alienated
    young Muslims into fanatics joining together
  • Kinship 20
  • Worship 10
  • Discipleship 8
  • Bottom up activity no top down recruitment
    program

91
Becoming an Islamist terrorist
  • Upwardly geographically mobile people
  • Mostly from religious caring middle class
    families
  • International people, conversant in 3 or 4
    languages
  • Skilled in computer technology
  • Separated from traditional bonds culture
  • Homesick, lonely, marginalized ? sought new
    friends
  • Drifted to mosques for companionship, not
    religion
  • Moved in together, formed cliques (Bunch of
    Guys)

92
Inside The Jihadi Mind
The Motivation of the Individual Jihadi
  • Various and Complex
  • Nothing to Lose
  • Religious Duty
  • Only Guarantee of Paradise

The Idyllic Future
The Brutal Present
93
Goals of Islamists and Jihadists
94
Objective 1 Expel America and Establish an
Islamic Authority in Iraq
Attacks against the West Continue
  • America departs Iraq prior to sufficient Iraqi
    capacity to provide security.
  • Insurgents step up attacks against the government
    and make religious claims for regime change.
  • Extremists overthrow the democratic government of
    Iraq and replace it with a Taliban-like regime.
  • United Nations issues a resolution, but does not
    commit to action.
  • United States does not re-enter the conflict

Extremists now have an Emirate in Iraq that
serves as a base of operations from which they
can revive the Caliphate.
94
95
Objective 2 Extend the Jihad Wave to Neighboring
Countries
Attacks against the West Continue
Would Israel join the conflict?
Would the U.S. re-enter the conflict?
  • Extremists export their message and terrorist
    acts throughout the middle east.
  • Violence and extremist ideology undermine
    governments of Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia,
    Kuwait and Egypt.
  • Moderate governments collapse Taliban-like
    regimes take their place.
  • Baghdad becomes the capital of the Caliphate.

The revived Caliphate now turns its attention to
the destruction of Israel
95
96
Objective 3 Destroy Israel
Might nuclear weapons be employed?
Attacks against the West continue
At what point does the U.S. return to Middle
East? Allies?
  • Attacks against Israel intensify.
  • United Nations issues resolution to stand down.
  • Caliphate gains support within the Muslim world
  • Caliphate attacks Israel

Extremists now poised to re-establish the
historical Caliphate
96
97
Objective 4 Establish the historical Caliphate
  • The Caliphate calls for an uprising within the
    remaining Islamic states to join the restoration.
  • Remaining Islamic states collapse from within.

This would require the defeat of the U. S. how
could that happen?
98
Iraq has become the focus of the enemys effort.
If they win in Iraq, they have a base from which
to expand their terror
99
Significant militant Islamist attacks against
Americans
100
What was our response?
  • We proved to the Middle East that we are weak.
  • This, along with the defeat of the USSR in
    Afghanistan led to the rise of Al Qaeda.
  • OBL considers America a paper tiger that would
    after a few blows run in defeat. (TOEE, 149.)
  • OBL is quoted as saying that the Marine withdraw
    from Beirut signaled the decline of the American
    government and the weakness of the American
    soldier who is ready to wage cold wars and
    unprepared to fight long wars.

101
What is Al-Qaeda?
  • Osama bin Laden led organization of radical
    Islamic terrorists
  • Wahhabi sect of Islam
  • Founded during Afghan resistance to USSR
  • Funded in part by the US
  • US support of Saudis and US troops in Saudi
    Arabia in Gulf War turned him against US
  • Attacked US Embassies, USS Cole, 9/11 and more

102
Al Qaeda's World View (1)
  • Islam in mortal danger from the West jihad a
    duty
  • Recent events confirm al Qaeda's
    interpretation--Americans are the new Mongols
  • U.S. troops still in Saudi Arabia
  • U.S. remains in Afghanistan
  • U.S. establishing bases in the Middle East, Gulf,
    Central and South Asia
  • Pakistan, America's puppet, has abandoned true
    path to join the oppressors

103
Al Qaeda's World View (2)
  • U.S. occupies Iraq, threatens Syria, Iran
  • Palestine occupied--supported Zionists
  • Western corruption threatens Muslim souls
  • Jihad is the antidote
  • U.S. is thus a threat and an opportunity--hostile
    to Islam, supports local tyrants, but also
    provides common enemy and basis for unity
  • Action will awaken, demonstrate, instruct,
    inspire, bring about spiritual revival, foster
    unity
  • A powerful message whose appeal thrives on
    failure, humiliation, and anger

104
Introduction to Al Qaeda Thought
  • 12-12-2001 statement (Ayman al-Zawahiri)
  • The need to inflict the maximum casualties
    against the opponent, for this is the language
    understood by the West, no matter how much time
    and effort such operations take.
  • Tracking down the Americans and Jews is not
    impossible. Killing them with a single bullet, a
    stab, or a device made up of a popular mix of
    explosives, or hitting them with an iron rod is
    not impossible. Burning down their property with
    Molotov cocktails is not difficult. With the
    available means, small groups could prove to be a
    frightening horror for the Americans and Jews.

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106
The ruling to kill the Americans and their
allies -- civilians and military -- is an
individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in
any country in which it is possible to do it, in
order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy
mosque Mecca from their grip, and in order for
their armies to move out of all the lands of
Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any
Muslim.
World Islamic Front Statement 23 Feb 1998 Jihad
Against Jews and Crusaders
107
This is in accordance with the words of Almighty
Allah, "and fight the pagans all together as they
fight you all together," and "fight them until
there is no more tumult or oppression, and there
prevail justice and faith in Allah."

World Islamic Front Statement 23 Feb 1998 Jihad
Against Jews and Crusaders
108
Past Terrorist Attacks by Al Qaeda
  • February 26, 1993
  • New York City, New York
  • World Trade Center Bombing
  • Kuwaiti man, Ramzi Yousef, and at least three
    other men planted a car bomb in the garage of
    the World Trade Center, hoping that the blast
    would topple one tower into the other as well as
    spread cyanide gas across town killing thousands.

109
Ramzi Yousef
  • After being captured in Pakistan, he was flown
    into Stewart Airport in Newburgh, New York, and
    then transferred to an FBI helicopter for the
    trip to the Metropolitan Correctional Center next
    to Federal Plaza in Lower Manhattan. Two huge
    guys carried him off the plane, shackled and
    blindfolded After we got airborne and were
    flying down the Hudson River, one of the SWAT
    guys asks me, Can we take off his blindfold? It
    took Yousef a minute to focus his eyes.
    Ironically, the helicopter was alongside the
    World Trade Center. The SWAT guy gives him a
    nudge and says, You see, its still standing.
    And Yousef says, It wouldnt be if we had more
    money. (The Looming Tower, pg. 357. Emphasis
    Added)

110
1993 WTC Bombing
  • Rationale Leader of a terrorist cell heeding
    the call of Jihad on the U.S.
  • Result 6 people dead, 1000 injured, Towers
    stayed upright and the cyanide gas evaporated in
    the heat of the explosion.
  • Ramzi Yousef was sentenced to life in prison on
    January 8, 1998

111
Past Terrorist Attacks
  • August 7, 1998
  • Kenya and Tanzania
  • American Embassy Bombings
  • Suicide bomb attacks at two different embassies
    hundreds of miles apart, but within minutes of
    each other.
  • First recognized acts of Al Qaeda, a network of
    terrorists led and supported by Osama bin Laden,
    a Saudi Arabian millionaire.

112
Embassy Bombings
  • Rationale Response to a call for Jihad on the
    U.S.
  • Result 12 people dead, 224 injured
  • Osama bin Laden became a recognized name and hit
    the FBIs Top Ten Most Wanted Men

113
Past Terrorist Attacks
  • October 12, 2000
  • Yemen naval port
  • Bombing of the U.S.S. Cole
  • Two men, later linked to Al Qaeda, sailed a small
    boat full of explosives next to the U.S.S. Cole,
    detonating the bomb.
  • Leaving a 20 x 40 foot hole in the side of the
    ship.
  • Rationale Goal was to sink the ship and lower
    U.S. morale
  • Result 17 sailors dead, 39 injured
  • No one has been held accountable, added to the
    list of grievances against and crimes of Osama
    bin Laden

114
1. The Events of 9/11
115
1. The Events of 9/11
  • On a beautiful, clear day in September . . .
  • Four planes hijacked three flown into office
    buildings in NYC and DC
  • NYC attacks (2nd plane crash) shown on live
    television American attention riveted other tv
    shows replaced by 9/11 coverage
  • All airplanes grounded schools closed sports
    cancelled
  • WTC towers collapse, shown on live television
  • Close coverage of whereabouts of Pres. Bush,
    other national leaders
  • Lots of commentary and questions few informed
    answers lots of emotion, Congressional
    Representatives spontaneously singing patriotic
    songs on the steps of Capitol Hill

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2. The Psychological Impact of 9/11
117
2. The Psychological Impact
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Individuals who have been exposed to a traumatic
    event may experience at least one recurrent
    symptom related to the event (such as intrusive,
    repeated recollections or dreams of the event)
  • Persistently avoids people, activities or places
    associated with the event
  • Cannot recall important aspects of the trauma
  • Shows disinterest in their usual daily activities
    and a sense of foreboding about the future
  • Hyper arousal (difficulty in falling or staying
    asleep, outbursts of anger, hyper vigilance, an
    inability to concentrate, or exaggerated startle
    responses)
  • May lead to significant impairment in social,
    occupational or other important areas of the
    individuals life

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2. The Psychological Impact
  • Common Themes in the Research on 9/11
    Psychological Impact
  • Living closer to the attack scene, direct
    personal loss, and children were more likely to
    exhibit symptoms of PTSD
  • Sadness was the most frequent reaction among New
    Yorkers, followed by anxiety and fear
  • Almost 20 of Americans across the country
    reported symptoms of distress
  • constant news coverage, replays of video footage
    showing the second plane hitting the World Trade
    Center, helped all Americans feel closer to the
    event
  • Americans did not withdraw from others
  • Stress and uncertainty produces social behaviors
    people seek out others, perhaps to enhance social
    support, or to help to affirm ones cultural view
    of the world and the threat (Brandon Silke)
  • Increased participation in religious services,
    memorials, vigils

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3. The Economic Impact of 9/11
120
3. The Economic Impact
  • Confusion/Disagreement on Total Economic Impact
  • NY City Economic Impact
  • Total Loss 83 billion (NYC partnership
    Chamber of Commerce Nov 2001)
  • Total Cost 54 billion (NY Governor Oct 2001)
  • WTC Replacement Cost Cleanup 2529 billion
    (FEB NY April 2002)
  • Total Cost 83 billion (quoting NYCP-COC) but
    67 billion covered by Insurance (US GAO May
    2002)
  • NY City Jobs Lost
  • 108,500, 115,300, 105,200, 125,000, 84,000,
    78,200, 129,000.
  • NY State Jobs Lost
  • 99,000 in 2001, 78,000 in 2002, 77,000 in 2003
    (NYS Senate Finance Committee DRI-WEFA January
    2002)
  • Resulted at peak loss of 78,200 (DRI-WEFA
    March 2002)
  • 50,000 immediately, 70,000 in 4th Quarter Much
    of this loss is likely linked to WTC attack
    (FEB NY April 2002)

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3. The Economic Impact
  • Immediate and Short-Term Economic Impacts
  • Financial Sector
  • 40 of WTC casualties
  • NYSE, NYME closed
  • Aviation Sector
  • planes grounded for a week or more
  • 20 drop in passengers
  • 100,000 jobs lost several airlines went bankrupt
  • Insurance Sector
  • loss of life and property estimated at 40-50
    billion

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3. The Economic Impact
  • Immediate and Short-Term Economic Impacts
  • Other industries were also badly affected, such
    as hotels, tourism, automobile rentals, travel
    agents, and civilian aircraft manufactures.
  • Hotels reported higher vacancy rates and
    employment in the sector as a whole fell by
    58,000 (about 3) in October and November, 2001
  • Nearly 18,000 businesses were dislocated,
    disrupted or
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