TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3f9fa7-MDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

Description:

technology innovation in indian small and medium enterprises (smes) the role of clusters and r&d alliances dr. rama swami bansal dr. v.p.kharbanda – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:559
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: Pan102
Learn more at: http://ictt.by
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs)


1
TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM
ENTERPRISES (SMEs) THE ROLE OF CLUSTERS AND RD
ALLIANCES
  • Dr. Rama Swami Bansal Dr. V.P.Kharbanda

2
STATUS OF SMEs IN INDIA
  • Number 3.5 Million
  • (80 of total enterprises)
  • Contribution to Industrial Output 50
  • of Total Exports 34
  • of Private Enterprise Employment 50
  • Products (about 8000)
  • (Consumer items, capital and intermediate goods)

3
STATUS OF SMEs IN INDIA
4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
FORM THE BACKBONE OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, BUT
ARE AS YET, IN TECHNOLOGICAL BACKWATERS
  • PROBLEMS IN TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION
  • Poor financial situations and low levels of RD
  • Poor adaptability to changing trade trends
  • Desire to avoid risk
  • Non-availability of technically trained human
    resources
  • Emphasis on production and not on production
    costs.
  • Lack of management skills
  • Lack of access to technological information and
    consultancy services
  • Isolation from technology hubs

8
  • A RECENT STUDY (2005) CARRIED BY RAMA BANSAL ON
    RD AGENCY INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP FOR TECHNOLOGY
    DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER IN INDIAN CONTEXT
    CONFIRMS TO THIS AND HIGHLIGHTS MAJOR WEAKNESSES
    INDIAN SMES
  • FAILURE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN A PARTNERSHIP
    HAS BEEN MAINLY DUE TO UNRIPE / UNPROVEN
    TECHNOLOGY
  • DISTRUST OF AN ENTERPRISE ON THE TECHNOLOGY
    TRANSFER PROGRAMMES OF THE RD AGENCIES AND
    UNWILLINGNESS TO SHARE THE BENEFIT
  • LACK OF FORESIGHTEDNESS ON AVAILABILITY OF RAW
    MATERIAL IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY AND MARKET
  • LACK OF MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING
  • LACK OF EXPERIENCE OF THE RD AGENCY IN
    IDENTIFYING AND DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR
    COMMERCIAL MARKETS
  • SLOW SPEED OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS IN THE RD
    AGENCY / INDUSTRY

9
  • LACK OF INFORMATION AND TRAINING,
  • IMPROPER WRITTEN AGREEMENT,
  • ALL THIS SHOWS THAT MUCH MORE NEEDS TO BE DONE
    APART FROM SIMPLE ALLIANCES BETWEEN SMES AND RD
    INSTITUTIONS.
  • THIS IN FACT NEEDS A SYMBIOTIC APPROACH WHERE
    THERE IS CONSTANT EFFORT FOR EXCHANGE AND
    UP-GRADATION OF KNOWLEDGE NOT ONLY FOR TECHNOLOGY
    BUT ALSO FOR HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES AND
    MARKET CONDITIONS i.e. FOR COMMERCIALIZATION.
  • IT IS IMPERATIVE TO GIVE THEM A CONDUCIVE
    ENVIRONMENT,
  • WHICH IN THE PRESENT CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
    CALLS FOR AN HUMAN CENTERED APPROACH
  • WITH TACIT KNOWLEDGE PLAYING A PREDOMINANT ROLE
  • KNOWLEDGE AS A FACTOR FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
    HAS REPLACED TRADITIONAL FACTORS LIKE LABOUR AND
    CAPITAL

10
  • NEED A CONDUCIVE ENVIRONMENT
  • TO BUILD UP INDEGENOUSTECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES
    (ITC)

POLICIES and PROGRAMMES
INT. TRANSFER
HUMAN RESOURCE RD LABS (PATSER, HGT).
SMEs
LOCAL TRANSFER
DATA BANKS (APCTT, NRDC)
FINANCIAL RESOURCES (ICICI, IDBI, SIDB)
11
A conducive environment
  • 1 Formulation of appropriate national policies
    and programmes,
  • 2 Building up Indigenous Technological Capacity
    and RD alliances,
  • 3 Knowledge flows and technology databases,
  • 4 Inter firm linkages, communication and
    cooperation Clusters, ST Parks etc

12
Formulation of appropriate national policies and
programmes,
  • Setting up Industrial District/Technology
    Parks/Clusters to promote sourcing of new
    technology, innovation and effective transfer
  • Organizing local level information services, data
    banks and seminars in collaboration with
    professional bodies.
  • Sending experts to SMEs to assist them with the
    introduction of new technologies
  • To establish training centers for human resource
    development for SMEs.
  • Establishing business centers
  • Promote strategic alliances with RD
    institutions, universities and other enterprises
    at national, regional and international level.

13
MAJOR INDIAN GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES PROMOTING RD
AGENCY INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP
Sl. No. Name of Agency /Programme Name of Programme/ Purpose Launch Year Accomplishments
1. NRDC Transfer of Technologies 1953 Forged strong links with Indian / foreign RD agencies has large repository of wide range of technologies in almost all industrial RD sector has successfully exported technologies to Brazil, Burma, Bangladesh, Germany, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippine, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and USA
2. NSTEDB of DST ST Entrepreneurship Programme (STEP) 17 STEPs established near educational and research infrastructure to facilitate continued closer ties between RD agencies and industry
3. NSTEDB of DST Entrepreneurship Development Cell (EDC) EDC set up in 55 academic institutions to provide information to budding technopreneurs creating entrepreneurial culture, fostering better parent institute industries - RD agencies linkages.
14
Sl. No. Name of Agency /Programme Name of Programme/ Purpose Launch Year Accomplishments
4 DOS Technology Transfer and Industrial Consultancy Group 1990 268 technologies of ISRO have been transferred to industries for commercialisation and more than 265 consultancy assignments have been undertaken by ISRO for small, medium and large-scale industries
5 DBT Biotech Consortium India Ltd. (BCIL) 1990 Provides linkages amongst res. institutions, industry, government and funding institutions to facilitate accelerated commercialisation of biotechnology. 9 technologies transferred to industry and 300 trainees trained for industry during last 5 years.
6 TIFAC Home Grown Technology (HGT) 1993 gt50 projects supported resulting in development of 30 technologies (10 commercialised)
7 DSIR Programme Aimed at Technological Self-Reliance (PATSER) (now called Tech. Development and Demonstration Prog.) 165 projects supported. 65 projects completed resulting in commercialisation of 30 technologies / prototypes strengthening linkages of industry with over 30 research institutes.
15
Sl. No. Name of Agency /Programme Name of Programme/ Purpose Launch Year Accomplishments
8 DST Drugs Pharma Research Programme (DPRD) 1995 70 projects supported resulting in development of 6 products and filing of 13 process patents
9 TDB Converting the fruits of indigenous res. into commercial products or services 1996 131 projects of 107 industries resulting in development of many industries, rise of new industry
10 DBT Micropropagation Technology Parks (MTP) 1997 2 MTPs at TERI and NCL State-of-the-art tissue culture production facility with an annual production capacity of 2 million plants at TERI
11 CSIR New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) 2001 33 projects supported resulting in 3 major technologies developed, 3 commercialised, many minor under development and networking of 167 RD institutes with 55 industries
16
Sl. No. Name of Agency /Programme Name of Programme/ Purpose Launch Year Accomplishments
12 NSTEDB of DST Technology Business Incubator (TBI) Scheme 2001 16 TBIs established to provide hand holding, mentoring, specialised support services and networking during start-up phase of an enterprise
13 DST Pharmaceuticals RD Support Fund (PRDSF) 2005 5 projects being supported
(Source BANSAL, Rama Swami (2005) RD Agency
Industry Partnership for Technology Development
and Transfer in Indian Context. PhD Thesis,
Birla Institute of Technology and Science,
Pilani, Rajasthan
17
LEVEL OF MARKET CERTAINTY AND TECHNOLOGY
CERTAINTY SUPPORTED UNDER GOI PROGRAMMES
SUPPORTING PARTNERSHIPS
18
2. BUILDING UP INDEGENOUS TECHNOLOGICAL
CAPACITY (ITCs) AND RD ALLIANCES,
  • IN INDIA, MOST OF THE SMEs ARE BUILDING UP ITCs
    THROUGH THE PROCESS OF LEARNING BY DOING.
  • THE PROCESS OF LEARNING BY DOING IS CENTRAL TO
    INCREMENTAL INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL
    CHANGE.
  • PROPER LINKAGES BETWEEN THE MANAGERIAL STAFF,
    INCLUDING ENGINEERS AND WORKERS AT THE SHOP FLOOR
    WITHIN AN ENTERPRISE. TWO WAY INFORMATION FLOW
  • THE STUDIES SHOW THAT LEARNING BY DOING AND
    ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES HAVE BEEN
    INSTRUMENTAL IN STRENGTHENING HUMANWARE AND
    TECHNOWARE AT THE ENTERPRISE LEVEL. INDIA
    (BOWONDER AND MIYAKE, 1988 KHARBANDA AND JAIN,
    1997).

19
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • LEATHER
  • CENTRAL LEATHER RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CLRI),
    CHENNAI, INDIA, HAS SUCCESSFULLY INTRODUCED
    MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL IN TANNERY WET OPERATIONS
    AT INDUSTRY LEVEL AND PROMOTED CLEANER
    PROCESSING, WITH QUALITY AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL.
  • CAD IS TODAY WIDELY EMPLOYED BY EXPORT
    MANUFACTURERS OF FOOTWEAR AND GARMENTS.

20
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • MACHINERY INDUSTRY
  • MECHANICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    ORGANIZATION (MERADO) LUDHIANA, ASSISTS GROWING
    INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS IN LUDHIANA IN THE FIELD OF
    KNITWEAR, AGRO INDUSTRIAL MACHINE TOOLS AND
    BICYCLES INDUSTRY.
  • IT HAS CONTRIBUTED SIGNIFICANTLY TOWARDS DESIGN,
    DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL
    MACHINERY, AGRICULTURE MACHINERY, MACHINE TOOLS,
    SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINES, CONSUMER DURABLES ETC.
  • THE TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED BY MERADO, LUDHIANA
    HAVE BENEFITED NOT ONLY THE SMES IN THE STATE BUT
    ALSO IN OTHER STATES E.G. IN WEST BENGAL, HARYANA
    AND UP ETC. IT ALSO CATERS TO MAJOR TESTING
    FACILITIES FOR THE SMES IN LUDHIANA

21
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • TEXTILES
  • IN ANOTHER EXAMPLE, UNDER NISTADS BANKURA
    PROJECT, A SOFTWARE PACKAGE CALLED AS MADHU
    (MODERNIZATION OF ARTISTIC DESIGN FOR HANDLOOM
    UNIT) WAS DEVELOPED IN COLLABORATION WITH INDIAN
    INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KHARAGPUR.
  • THIS CAD SOFTWARE PACKAGE FACILITATES
    COMPUTERIZED DIGITIZATION OF THE PICTURE/DESIGN
    PRODUCED BY THE ARTIST/DESIGNER. AS A RESULT A
    LARGE NUMBER OF CRAFTSMEN HAVE ADOPTED BLENDING
    OF THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY,
    QUALITY, FLEXIBILITY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS.

22
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • CERAMICS
  • CENTRAL GLASS CERAMIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    (CGCRI) NARODA CENTRE, AHMEDABAD, IS ACTIVELY
    SERVING THE CERAMIC CLUSTERS IN THE REGION. THIS
    IS A SMALL INSTITUTE WITH 18 SCIENTISTS PRIMARILY
    ENGAGED IN IMPROVEMENT OF TRADITIONAL CERAMICS
    AND RURAL POTTERY.
  • THERE ARE 950 CERAMIC UNITS IN GUJARAT. MOST
    OF THESE CLUSTERS ARE POOR IN KNOWLEDGE BUT HAVE
    HIGH ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT.
  • IT HAS BEEN CONDUCTING TRAINING-CUM-DEMONSTRATIO
    N PROGRAMMES AND CAPSULE COURSES ON VARIOUS
    TOPICS OF CURRENT INTERESTS TO THE CERAMIC
    INDUSTRIES
  • IT HAS ALSO CONDUCTED THREE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
    DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR ENCOURAGING NEW
    ENTERPRISES.

23
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • THE CLUSTERS AT MORBI, HIMMAT NAGAR AND MEHSANA
    ETC. HAVE BENEFITED A LOT IN TECHNOLOGY
    DEVELOPMENT FROM CGCRI, IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY
    OF THE RAW MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF
    CERAMIC TILES AND IN IMPROVING PROCESS CONTROL
    PARAMETERS.
  • ONE OF THE IMPORTANT ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE
    INSTITUTE HAS BEEN THAT IT HAS BEEN ABLE TO USE
    THE FLY ASH (A HIGHLY POLLUTING WASTE PRODUCT OF
    THERMAL PLANTS) IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CERAMIC
    TILES.
  • IT HAS DEVELOPED THE TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION
    OF BONE CHINA UTILIZING THE CHINA CLAYS OF
    GUJARAT.
  • THIS TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN TRANSFERRED TO 21 UNITS
    THE TRAINING OF THE WORKERS IS CARRIED ON THE
    SITE WHICH HAS RECEIVED VERY ENCOURAGING
    RESPONSE.

24
LINKAGES WITH RD INSTITUTIONSmainly through
CSIR Labs and SMES
  • ONE OF THE CASE EXAMPLES OF ACADEMIA
    ENTERPRISE LINKAGES IS THE SONYA CERAMICS IN
    AHMEDABAD. IN COOPERATION WITH CGCRI, IT HAS
    BEEN ABLE TO IMPROVE THE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY.
  • TODAY THE ENTERPRISE IS MANUFACTURING ABOUT 560
    PRODUCTS - FROM THERMAL INSULATORS TO SEWAGE
    PIPES. IT HAS TAKEN 9002 ISO STANDARD AND WORKS
    IN CLOSE COOPERATION WITH THE CUSTOMERS. TODAY
    THE PRODUCTS OF THIS ENTERPRISE ARE BEING
    EXPORTED TO 15 COUNTRIES IN USA AND EUROPE.

25
NUMBER OF TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIES
THROUGH PARTNERSHIP WITH RD AGENCIES IN 10 YEARS
TILL 2005
Type / Discipline Name of Industry RD Investment ( of Annual turnover) New Tech developed through Partnership in last 10 yrs Tech inducted / commercialised from RD agencies in last 10 yrs.
Pharma Nicholas Piramal India Ltd. gt100 Cr. ---- ---
Biotech Shantha Biotechnics Ltd., Hyderabad 10-15 2 0/1
Drugs J. Mitra Co. Ltd., Delhi Rs. 1.55 Cr. during 2003-04 3 3 / 3
Biotech Dalmia Centre for RD, Coimbatore Rs. 100 lakhs 15 15 / 10
Microbiological Chemical Sc. Arbro Pharmaceuticals Ltd., New Delhi 17.59 lakhs ---- NA
Biopharma / Biotech Millipore India Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore NA NA NA
Agriculture Sungro Seeds Ltd., Delhi ---- 100 new products 100 / 100
Petrochemical Production Indian Petro-chemicals Corp. Ltd., Vadodra Rs. 10 Cr. 8 8 /8
Chem (Agro) Rallis Research Centre, Bangalore Rs.10 Cr. Nil Nil
Chemical Godavari Sugar Mills Ltd., Mumbai Rs.80 lakhs 2
Chemicals, drugs Rubamin Limited, Vadodra -------- ------ -------
Chemicals Paints Mathur Corr-Tech (P) Ltd, Coimbatore Rs 3 lakhs 6 ------
26
Type / Discipline Name of Industry RD Investment ( of Annual turnover) New Tech developed through Partnership in last 10 yrs Tech inducted / commercialised from RD agencies in last 10 yrs.
Steel Tata Steel Mines Division, Jharkhand Rs 150 Cr. 1 1/0
Engineering Tata Refractories Ltd., Orissa Rs.15 Cr. (T/O Rs. 400 cr.) Nil Nil/Nil
Electro-chemical High Energy Batteries India Ltd, Pudukottai Rs 434.01 lakhs as on 31.3.2005 3 1/1
Consumer Electronics Ahuja Radios, New Delhi Rs.44 lakhs Many Nil/Nil
Electronics Omtek Electronics (P) Ltd., Bhubaneswar Rs. 50 lakhs (T/O Rs.1.50 cr.) Nil (36 Self developed Tech.) 36 / 13
Engineering Basic Technology (P) Ltd., Kolkata Rs. 20 lakhs 10 6 / 4
Mines Satna Cement Works, Satna Rs.1.5 lakhs Nil Nil/Nil
Engineering St. Josephs Tiles, Ernakulam -------- 1 1/1
Engineering Infrastructure Shriram Energy Systems Ltd. Hyderabad ------ 1 Nil/Nil
Engineering Abaqus Engg. India, Chennai Nil Nil Nil/Nil
Engineering Ador Fontech. Ltd., Bangalore Nil Nil Nil/Nil
Atomic Energy Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Res., Kalpakkam ---- ---- ----
(Source BANSAL, Rama Swami (2005) RD Agency
Industry Partnership for Technology Development
and Transfer in Indian Context. PhD Thesis,
Birla Institute of Technology and Science,
Pilani, Rajasthan
27
3. KNOWLEDGE FLOWS AND TECHNOLOGY DATABASES
  • MOST OF THE SMES DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO WELL
    RESEARCHED TECHNOLOGY DATABASES
  • MAJOR TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION DATA BANK IS THE
    NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
    (NRDC), WHICH SERVE AS AN IMPORTANT LINK BETWEEN
    RESEARCH AND SMEs.
  • NRDC ACQUIRES, EVALUATES, DEVELOPS AND TRANSFERS
    ALL WORTHWHILE TECHNOLOGIES GENERATED AT THE
    VARIOUS NATIONAL LABORATORIES.
  • THE TECHNOLOGIES AVAILABLE WITH NRDC FOR
    COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION COVER A WIDE RANGE OF
    PRODUCTS, NAMELY, DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICAL,
    PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES, PLASTICIZERS, RESINS,
    ELECTRO-CHEMICAL PRODUCTS, METALS, PAINTS AND
    VARNISHES, LEATHER CHEMICALS AND AUXILLIARIES,
    ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC GOODS, BUILDING
    MATERIALS, ETC.

28
  • IT PROVIDES A VERY COMPREHENSIVE INTERNATIONAL
    PATENT SEARCH AND ALSO HAS A FEW RENOWNED
    INTERNATIONAL DATA BASES ON LINE FOR CARRYING OUT
    SEARCH.
  • AN IMPORTANT DATABASE ON LOCAL INNOVATIONS IS
    THE HONEY BEE DATABASE SUPPORTED BY SRISTI
    WHICH IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST STORES OF KNOWLEDGE
    ON LOCAL INNOVATIONS BY FARMERS AND ARTISANS
    COVERING ABOUT 72 COUNTRIES. IT IS A KNOWLEDGE
    NETWORK, WHICH POOLS THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS
    DEVELOPED BY PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD. NETWORKING
    OF THESE DATABASES CAN BE OF IMMENSE USE TO
    MITIGATE THE NUMEROUS TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF
    THE SMES

29
4. INTER FIRM LINKAGES, Communication and
Cooperation
  • AS MOST SMES LACK FINANCIAL RESOURCES, THE BEST
    WAY IS TO ENTER INTO LINKAGES AND PARTNERSHIPS
    WITH OTHER ENTERPRISES, ACADEMIA AND/OR RD
    INSTITUTIONS.
  • OVER THE PAST DECADE, EMPHASIS IN THE CONCEPT OF
    TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER HAS GRADUALLY SHIFTED TOWARDS
    "CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS" OR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES
    TO FORM LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS.
  • LEARNING BY DOING
  • SHIFTING TO
  • LEARNING BY INTERACTION IS AN IMPORTANT
    FEATURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION AND CAN ONLY
    HAPPEN WHEN FIRMS COOPERATE AND INTERACT THROUGH
    STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND OTHER FORMS OF LINKAGES.

30
  • THE CLUSTERS, WHICH OFFER GOOD OPPORTUNITIES FOR
    INTERACTION AND INDUSTRIAL UPGRADING
  • THE COMMON FEATURE OF THESE NEW FORMS LIES IN THE
    SHARING OF KNOWLEDGE IN TECHNOLOGICAL
    CAPABILITIES AND IN COOPERATIVE INTENTIONS,
  • THE DIVERSE FORMS OF ALLIANCES INCLUDE
  • CLUSTERS, ST PARKS, ASSOCIATIONS,
    INCUBATORS,CONSORTIA AND INDUSTRIAL PARKS
  • SUCH PARTNERSHIPS HAVE TECHNICAL EDUCATION,
    TRAINING AND RETRAINING, INNOVATION, AND
    SUSTAINABILITY AS INHERENT FEATURES.

31
  • NETWORKING / INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS / CLUSTERS
  • A SIMPLE DEFINITION OF A CLUSTER SUGGESTS THAT
    IT IS A NETWORK MADE FOR INFORMATION AND RESOURCE
    SHARING BETWEEN PEOPLE.
  • CLUSTERS ARE DEFINED AS CONCENTRATION OF
    ACTIVITIES BELONGING TO THE SAME SUB SECTOR.
  • SUCH CLUSTERS ARE A COMMON PHENOMENON IN ASIA.

32
  • Cluster Functions as WEB
  • COMMUNICATION, COOPEARTION and LINKAGES FOR
    TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY and SHARING OF RESOURCES
    BETWEEN SMEs
  • LEARNING BY DOING AND LEARNING BY INTERACTION
  • COMMUNICATION AND FEED BACKS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM
    AND BOTTOM TO TOP
  • IMPORTANT FOR INCREMENTAL INNOVATION AND
    TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

33
  • CLUSTERS APPROACH DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA
  • 138 INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS
  • A LARGE NUMBER OF SMALL FIRMS ENGAGED IN
    SPECIALIZED INDUSTRIES SUCH AS
  • LOCKS AT ALIGARH,
  • LEATHER FOOTWEAR AT AGRA AND KANPUR AGRA CLUSTER
    MAKES .15 MILLION PAIRS OF SHOES PER DAY WITH A
    PRODUCTION VALUE OF 1.3 M US AND EXPORTING SHOES
    WORTH US 57.14 MILLION PER YEAR.
  • COTTON HOSIERY AT CALCUTTA AND DELHI
  • BLANKETS IN PANIPAT
  • POWER LOOMS AT BHIWADI
  • DIAMOND POLISHING IN SURAT.
  • WOOLLEN GARMENTS, BICYCLE AND BICYCLE PARTS,
    SEWING MACHINE PARTS AND MACHINE TOOLS IN
    LUDHIANA LUDHIANA CLUSTERS MAKE 95 OF
    COUNTRYS WOOLEN KNITWEAR 85 OF SEWING MACHINES
    AND 60 OF BICYCLE AND BICYCLE PARTS.
  • PRINTING AND PRINTING GOODS, WATER PIPES AND
    BATHROOM FIXTURES IN JALLANDHAR
  • FOUNDRIES IN BATALA, ETC.

34
  • KNITWEAR CLUSTER IN TIRUPPUR, TAMIL NADU IS
    RESPONSIBLE FOR 85 OF INDIAN MARKET AND ITS
    EXPORT EARNINGS HAVE EXPANDED FROM US 25 MILLION
    IN 1986 TO US 636 MILLION IN 1997. WHAT IS
    INTERESTING ABOUT TIRUPPUR CLUSTER IS THAT IT IS
    ORGANIZED IN A WEB OF SMALL WORK PLACES THROUGH
    WHICH THE ENTIRE TOWN WORKS LIKE A LIVING
    INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
  • DIESEL ENGINE CLUSTER-RAJKOT, GUJARAT, INDIA
  • RAJKOT DIESEL ENGINE INDUSTRY IS THE LEADER IN
    INDIAN DIESEL ENGINE MARKET WITH MORE THAN 60 OF
    INDIAS TOTAL DIESEL ENGINE PRODUCTION.
  • THE INDUSTRY IS MADE UP OF SMALL-SCALE
    MANUFACTURERS AND HAS ABOUT 400 FOUNDRY UNITS IN
    THE CITY.
  • IT EMPLOYS MORE THAN 40,000 WORKERS.
  • INDIA CONTINUED TO RELY ON THE INDIGENISED DIESEL
    ENGINES, AND IS ALSO ABLE TO EXPORT TO DEVELOPING
    COUNTRIES

35
  • GERMAN MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INNOVATIONS
  • LEARNING BY DOING
  • LEARNING BY INTERACTION
  • LEARNING REGION
  • IN GERMANY THE AACHEN REGION HAS BEEN DESCRIBED
    AS THE LEARNING REGION, AS IT HAS A UNIQUE
    NETWORK OF ACADEMIA AND THE ENTERPRISE FOR
    CONTINUOUS INNOVATIONS AND TRANSFER OF
    TECHNOLOGIES FROM ACADEMIA TO THE ENTERPRISE.
  • THE AACHEN REGION HAS A TOTAL POPULATION OF
    3,50,000. IN THE REGION THERE ARE AT PRESENT 8000
    COMPANIES, FOUR UNIVERSITIES, 20 RD INSTITUTES
    HAVING 50000 RESEARCHERS EACH.

36
  • A CONSIDERABLE PROPORTION OF NEW BUSINESSES IN
    THE AACHEN REGION ARE SPIN-OFFS RESULTING FROM
    RESEARCH STAFF MOVING FROM THE UNIVERSITY TO THE
    PRIVATE SECTOR. MORE THAN 80 PER CENT OF THE NEW
    ENTERPRISES LAUNCHED IN THE AACHEN TECHNOLOGY
    CENTRE (TZA) SINCE 1984 HAVE ORIGINATED FROM THE
    IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT OF AACHEN UNIVERSITY OF
    TECHNOLOGY.
  • The main features of this region are
  • The companies in the cluster cooperate with each
    other to find solutions to the problems.
  • Has strong linkages with the University of
    Aachen for finding out high tech solutions.
  • Learning by doing has been the main
    characteristic feature in the development of the
    company.
  • It also gives VOCATIONAL training to the
    students of the university.

37
  • EMILIA-ROMAGNA IN ITALY IS THE CHARACTERISTIC
    MODEL OF INNOVATIVE SMES IN ITALY, AND IS ALSO
    KNOWN AS THE THIRD ITALY.
  • THE POPULATION OF EMILIA-ROMAGNA IS 3,924,352,
    APPROXIMATELY 7 OF THE NATIONAL POPULATION.
  • THE REGION ACCOUNTS FOR 8.3 PERCENT OF NATIONAL
    EMPLOYMENT AND NEARLY 9 PERCENT OF THE GROSS
    NATIONAL PRODUCT
  • THE REGION HAS THE THIRD LOWEST RATE OF
    UNEMPLOYMENT (4.5 COMPARED TO THE NATIONAL
    AVERAGE OF OVER 11) AMONG ITALYS 20 REGIONS,
  • THE PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS CHARACTERIZED BY SMALL
    AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMES) (EMPLOYING AN
    AVERAGE OF 5.48 PEOPLE PER ENTERPRISE),
  • WITH A HUGE NUMBER OF ARTISAN ENTERPRISES
    (126,639 OUT OF 304,947) AND
  • CO-OPERATIVES (7,923, INCLUDING 2,336 FARMING
    CO-OPERATIVES AND 1,187 LABOUR AND MANUFACTURING
    CO-OPERATIVES).
  • THE REGION COMPRISES OF NINE PROVINCES i.e.
    BOLOGNA, FERRARA, FORLI-CESENA, MODENA, PARMA,
    PIACENZA, RAVENNA, REGGIO EMILIA AND RIMINI.

38
CHARACTERISTICS ARE HORIZONTAL
INTEGRATION FORMATION OF ASSOCIATIONS TO PROMOTE
EXPORTS AND FORM BUSINESS ALLIANCES. FOR EXAMPLE
THE EMILIA-ROMAGNA REGIONAL FEDERATION OF THE
NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF THE CRAFT AND THE SMALL
AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (THE EMILIA-ROMAGNA CAN)
REPRESENTS AND DEFENDS ALL INTERESTS OF CRAFT
FIRMS, OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES AND
WORKERS IN RELATIONS WITH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION,
AND WITH POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
ORGANIZATIONS.
39
THE EMILIA-ROMAGNA CAN HAS SET UP AN
EXTRAORDINARY RANGE OF SERVICES AND BENEFITS
WHICH INCLUDE ASSISTANCE IN THE STARTING UP OF
NEW BUSINESSES ASSISTANCE AND CONSULTANCY TO
ENTERPRISES RUN BY YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS BUSINESS,
MANAGERIAL, VOCATIONAL TRAINING INFORMATION AND
CONSULTANCY IN EXPORT, PROMOTION,
INTERNATIONALIZATION AND MARKETING ASSISTANCE IN
THE AREA OF QUALITY CONTROL CERTIFICATION TAX
SERVICES ASSISTANCE IN CONTRACTS
40
THE SUSSEX INNOVATION CENTRE, SCIENCE PARK
SQUARE, BRIGHTON, UK THE SUSSEX INNOVATION
CENTRE, OPENED IN MAY 1996, PROVIDES SUPPORT FOR
THE CREATION AND GROWTH OF TECHNOLOGY AND
KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES IN SUSSEX. THE CENTRE
IS A NOW THRIVING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR NEARLY
30 HIGH GROWTH COMPANIES. THE BASIC FEATURES OF
THE SUSSEX INNOVATION CENTRE ARE THROUGH AN
INITIAL PUBLIC INVESTMENT OF OVER 2 MILLION THE
SUSSEX INNOVATION CENTRE WAS DEVELOPED AS A
PURPOSE BUILT BUSINESS INCUBATION FACILITY BASED
ON THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX. RENT
LEVELS ARE SET WHICH, WHILE REFLECTING THE PRIME
LOCATION AND EXCELLENT FACILITIES OFFER THE
TENANT COMPANIES AN IDEAL, FLEXIBLE AND
RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE ENVIRONMENT TO GROW THEIR
BUSINESS.
41
THE INNOVATION CENTRE SUPPLEMENTS ITS INCOME
THROUGH UNDERTAKING PROJECTS, CONSULTANCY,
SPONSORSHIP AND RUNNING EVENTS WHICH ARE
CONSISTENT WITH ITS CORE OBJECTIVES OF
INCUBATION, COMMERCIALIZATION AND TO ACT AS A
FOCUS FOR NEW TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES IN SUSSEX. THE
UNIVERSITIES GAINS THROUGH AN INCREASED FOCUS ON
COMMERCIALIZATION, A HIGHER PROFILE WITHIN THE
LOCAL BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND A CLEAR ROUTE FOR
ACADEMIC SPIN OFFS.
42
The BEST Approach
CLUSTER WEB
COMMUNICATION
COMPETITION
COOPERATION
FOR LEARNING BY INTERACTION TECHNOLOGICAL
INNOVATION INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION.
43
NAM ST Centre
THANKS
About PowerShow.com