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Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire and other Empires

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Title: Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire and other Empires


1
Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire and other
Empires
2
From last time..
  • The Roman Empire East and West (395)
  • We saw the progressive destruction of the Western
    Roman Empire (476), and the progressive
    strengthening of the Christian Church
  • Social and Political void filled by the Church

3
The Barbarians and the Pope
  • Remember the example of Gregory the Great and his
    letter to the Queen!
  • A very important example of alliance between the
    Barbarians and the Papacy is the French one

4
The Frankish Kingdom
5
Pepin Zachary
  • Pepin and the Merovingian Dynasty
  • 751 The Pope backs him up
  • Importance, once again, of the relationship
    between religious and political leaders

6
Charlemagne the most important of Pepins
successors
Harvard Memorial Hall,1888 Charlemagne as a
symbol of sovereignty and political wisdom
7
Why was Charlemagne so important? Lets see from
Einhards Chronicle(ca.830)
  • Roman and Frank a merged allegiance
  • Moderation a Christian virtue
  • What was he reading? What does that mean?
  • What was his relationship with the Pope?
  • The city of Rome and the Church of Saint Peter
    the reference points of a HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
    (although this term started to be used later in
    the sources)

8
Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor he was
crowned by Pope Leo III on Christmas night of
the year 800
Illustration from a 14th c. manuscript,
Bibliothèque Nationale
9
Why is this important?
  • The concept of Translatio Imperii Rome is not
    dead!
  • Once again, the role of the Pope in that
    remember Constantine
  • Europe has a new strong political authority, but
    this time tied to religion

10
Rome is alive Moscow and the third Rome myth
11
Rome is alive Mussolini and the third Rome myth
12
The Carolingian Reformation the Church
  • Reform of the Regular Clergy (i.e., monks) Rule
    of St.Benedict applied throughout
  • Reform of the Secular Clergy (i.e., priests)
    Charlemagne starts appointing Bishops and
    enforces moral and doctrinal discipline

13
The Carolingian Reformation the Schools
  • Cathedral, Monastic and Court Schools
  • Reform of the Curriculum the Seven Liberal Arts
    (grammar, rhetoric, logic geometry, arithmetic,
    astronomy, music)
  • Liberal Arts as a preparation for theology
  • Latin
  • Handwriting

14
Preserving Manuscripts one of the most important
legacies of the Carolingian Era
15
The Carolingian minuscule
16
The Collapse of the Carolingian World in 843 the
Empire splits
17
After 843
  • Western Frankish Kingdom (France) looses its
    imperial character
  • Eastern Frankish Kingdom (Germany) retains the
    title of Holy Roman Empire

18
Partial conclusions
  • Holy Roman Empire Rome is alive once again, and
    Church and State united
  • Carolingian Reform a deep re-organization of
    Western Europes intellectual, social and
    religious life
  • Open question what is the future of Europe in
    843? How does the post-Carolingian world look
    like?

19
Islam a new kid on the block
  • Ca 570 Muhammad is born in Mecca
  • Ca 610 Muhammad starts to preach
  • 622 hijra, Muhammad goes to Medina -a leader and
    a new era are born
  • 624 the battle of Badr
  • 630 Muhammad conquers Mecca a new society and a
    new empire are born

20
The Muslim empire expands
  • First picture the Islamic empire at the time of
    the death of Muhammad (632)
  • Second picture the Islamic empire around 750

21
One important issue Sunni and Shiite- can you
tell the difference?
  • No major theological difference
  • Split occurred in 661 at the death of Ali -the
    Shiites believe that only the descendants of Ali
    (Muhammads son-in-law), are the legitimate
    successors of Muhammad

22
Who is Sunni? Who is Shiite?
  • What is Osama Bin Laden?
  • Sunni
  • How about Iran?
  • Shiite
  • How about Hezbollah?
  • Shiite
  • Sunni is 90 of the Muslim world
  • Shiites are concentrated in Iran, Iraq and
    Lebanon

23
The Muslim world after 750 from unity to
fragmentation
  • After 750 the dissolution of the caliphate
  • 790-1050 the Islamic renaissance, which produced
    a series of important intellectual and cultural
    innovations and developments, including..

24
(No Transcript)
25
I mean
  • The number 0 is an Arab (fantastic) invention,
    that allows you to count the way you do!
  • Roman numerals, with no 0, were much more
    complicated and they worked through addition
    (e.g. X10, I1, V5 that is 16 XVI, XVI)

26
A lot of Aristotle!
  • Islamic religion puts a lot of emphasis on reason
  • In fact, many Arab intellectuals commented and
    studied Aristotle, and it is thanks to them that
    some of his works survived!
  • One of the best known of those commentators of
    Aristotle is ibn-Rushd, called in Latin AVERROËS
    (ca. 1126-1198)

27
The Eastern Roman Empire Justinian (527-65) and
the attempt at re-making Rome
28
Justinian and the eastern world
29
The Eastern Roman empire shrinks
  • Map of the Mediterranean world around 600 look
    at the Eastern Roman Empire
  • Map of the Mediterranean world around 800 how
    about now?

30
Eastern Roman Empire less Roman, more
Christian
  • Importance of Christianity
  • Greek philosophy and Christianity (filioque
    whats in a word?)
  • Iconoclasm (ca 726-843)
  • 1054 the Great Schism
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