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Medieval Europe at Its Height

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Title: Medieval Europe at Its Height


1
Medieval Europe at Its Height
  • Chapter 13

2
Chapter Themes
  • Cultural diffusion The Crusades increase
    European contact with other areas
  • Innovation Advances in commerce, learning, and
    the arts change Europe
  • Conflict England and France battle whole their
    monarchs gain power
  • Conflict The Church faces a split from within
    and opposition from without

3
The Crusades
  • Chapter 13
  • Section 1

4
Main Idea
  • The Crusades had a variety of impacts on medieval
    society

5
Terms to Define
  • The Crusades

6
People to Meet
  • The Seljuk Turks
  • Pope Urban II
  • Saladin
  • Richard I

7
Places to Locate
  • Jerusalem
  • Constantinople

8
Overview
  • Middle Ages decentralized, warfare, cultural
    isolation, famine, wretched living conditions
  • By A.D. 1100, conditions improve
  • Monarchs build strong central governments
  • Towns and trade appear
  • The Church held high sway over people

9
Overview
  • Transformation begins with holy war over the city
    of Jerusalem
  • European Christians undertake nine military
    expeditions to recover holy land from Muslims
  • The Crusades Latin word for crux meaning
    cross
  • Crusaders vowed to take up the cross

10
Call for a Crusade
  • Jerusalem was a holy city for people of three
    faiths Jews, Christians, and Muslims
  • Jews treasured it as Zion, Gods won city and
    site of Solomons temple

11
Call for a Crusade
  • Christians revered as the place where Christ was
    crucified and resurrected
  • According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad ascended
    to heaven from Jerusalem

Jerusalem
12
Call for a Crusade
  • Muslims referred to Jerusalem as their third most
    important city following
  • Makkah
  • Madinah

Jerusalem
13
Call for a Crusade
  • Jerusalem and the entire region of Palestine fell
    to Arab invaders in the A.D. 600s
  • Mostly Muslims, the Arabs tolerated people of
    other religions
  • Christians and Jew OK people paid taxes
  • Traders and religious pilgrimages accepted

14
Call for a Crusade
  • In late A.D. 1000s, the Seljuk Turks--a Muslim
    people from central Asia--took Jerusalem
  • Palestine in chaos
  • Hazards of pilgrimages increased
  • Seljuks threatened Byzantine Empire
  • Constantinople threatened

15
Call for a Crusade
  • The Byzantine emperor wrote to the pope in A.D.
    1095 requesting military aid
  • One big concern was for the safety of Christian
    pilgrims

Byzantine Empire
16
First Crusade
  • Pope Urban II called for a volunteer army to take
    Jerusalem and Palestine from the Seljuk Turks
    I exhort youto strive to expel that wicked race
    from our Christian landsChrist commands it.

17
First Crusade
  • Deus vult! (God wills it) shouted the crowd in
    response to the popes plea
  • Knights and peasants alike vowed to join the
    expedition to the Holy Land

Pope Urban II
18
First Crusade
  • For knights, they had a chance to employ their
    fighting skills
  • For peasants, it meant freedom from feudal bonds
    while on the Crusade

19
First Crusade
  • All were promised immediate salvation if they
    were killed freeing the Holy Land
  • Adventure and wealth were other reasons

20
First Crusade
  • The First Crusade marked the onset of a long
    period of Christian persecution of the Jews
  • Existing hatred of non-Christian

Siege of Antioch
21
First Crusade
  • Three armies of Crusader knights and volunteers
    traveled to the eastern Mediterranean
  • On the way, many of them killed Jews and
    massacred Jewish communities

22
First Crusade
  • Led by French nobles, three armies reach
    Constantinople in A.D. 1097 and move on to
    Jerusalem
  • After a siege of almost two months, Jerusalem
    fell
  • Most of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants were
    massacred

23
First Crusade
  • The success of the First Crusade reinforced the
    authority of the church and strengthened the
    self-confidence of western Europe
  • Contact between the Crusaders and the
    civilizations of the Byzantines and Muslims
    continued for the next 100 years
  • Became a major factor in ending the cultural
    isolation of western Europe

24
Second Crusade
  • Less than 50 years after the First Crusade
  • Seljuks conquered part of the states of Palestine
  • Pope Eugenius IV called for Second Crusade
  • King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor
    Conrad III led armies but quarreled
  • Easy defeated by the Seljuks

25
Third Crusade
  • Diplomat and forceful leader Saladin united the
    Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem in A.D. 1187
  • People of Western Europe stunned and horrified
  • Three European kings launched a Third Crusade
  • Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of
    Germany, King Philip Augustus of France, and King
    Richard I of England
  • Barbarossa died on the journey and Augustus
    returned to France before reaching Jerusalem

26
Third Crusade
  • Richard continued on alone
  • Although Richards army won many battles, he
    could not win a decisive victory
  • Saladin would not turn over Jerusalem but allowed
    Christian pilgrims access
  • The Third Crusade was unsuccessful

27
Other Crusades
  • As other Crusades were organized in the A.D.
    1200s, western Europeans lost sight of the
    religious goal of the Crusades and focused
    instead on political and economic gain

28
Other Crusades
  • Fourth Crusade of A.D. 1204 resulted in Crusaders
    bypassing Jerusalem and attacking Constantinople
  • Ransacked the city destroying many facilities
  • Bitterness between Eastern Orthodox world and
    western Europe.
  • Made possible Muslim advances and weakened the
    Byzantine Empire

29
Effects of the Crusades
  • Although Western European failed to gain control
    of Palestine, the Crusades helped to break down
    feudalism and increase the authority of kings
  • Kings levied taxes, raised armies and cooperated
    on large scale
  • Nobles didnt return and lands passed to kings
  • Serfs won freedom to become freeholders or
    artisans

30
Effects of the Crusades
  • Contact with more advanced Byzantine and Muslim
    civilizations broadened European views of the
    world
  • Enriched European cities such as Genoa and Venice

31
Effects of the Crusades
  • Heightened demand at home for Eastern luxury
    goods, e.g. spices, sugar, melons, tapestries,
    silk, etc.
  • Crusaders learned many useful skills, e.g. make
    better ships, use compass, improve weapons, etc.
    The Muslims became united against a common enemy

32
Discussion
  • What were the positive aspects of the Crusades?
  • What were the negative aspects of the Crusades?

33
Economic and Cultural Revival
  • Chapter 13
  • Section 2

34
Main Idea
  • The growth of towns affected the society of
    medieval Europe

35
Terms to Define
  • Money economy
  • Guild
  • Master
  • Apprentice
  • Journeyman
  • Charter
  • Scholasticism
  • Troubadour
  • Vernacular

36
People to Meet
  • Peter Abelard
  • Thomas Aquinas
  • Dante Alighieri
  • Geoffrey Chaucer

37
Places to Locate
  • Venice
  • Flanders
  • Champagne
  • Bologna

38
Overview
  • The Crusades accelerated the transformation of
    western Europe from a society that was crude,
    backward, and violentshowing little cultural and
    technological advancementto a civilization that
    exhibited some early features of modern Western
    civilization.

39
Economic Expansion
  • The economy of western Europe began to show vigor
    around A.D. 1000, with increased agricultural
    production, trade opportunities, and growth of
    new towns
  • Expanding trade caused revival of towns while the
    revival of towns caused a rapid expansion of
    tradeone fed the other

40
Agricultural Advances
  • Heavier, better plows allowed them to cut the
    soil deeper, producing more food and improved
    land cultivation
  • Nobles and freeholders (peasants not tied to the
    land) moved to new areas, clearing forests,
    draining swamps, and building villages

41
Agricultural Advances
  • Collar harnesses replaced the ox yoke allowing
    horses to plow fields instead of oxen. Horses
    plow faster

42
Expansion of Trade
  • Revival of towns causes rapid expansion of trade
  • Repaired and rebuilt Roman road system helped
    move traders in and out of Europe

43
Expansion of Trade
  • Italian towns such as Venice, Pisa, and Genoa
    controlled the Mediterranean trade after A.D.
    1200
  • Flanders, in northern France, became center of
    trade for Europes northern coast

44
Expansion of Trade
  • Merchandise became more varied, especially during
    trade fairs
  • The most famous trade fair was in Champagne in
    eastern France

Champagne
45
Banking
  • Early merchants would use the barter system for
    conducting business
  • Barter is the trade of goods without using
    moneyusing other goods or services of value

46
Banking
  • Some merchants would accept only money for some
    goods (e.g. silk), however, and the need for a
    common medium of exchange arose

47
Banking
  • The rise of a money economy, or an economy based
    on money, had far reaching consequences.

48
Banking
  • Money.
  • Led to the rise of banks
  • Traders carried different currencies with
    different values
  • Moneychangers, often Jews, would exchange one
    currency for another

49
Banking
  • Money put the feudal system in an economic
    squeeze
  • Kings, nobles, and clergy became dependent on
    money from banks to pay their expenses

50
Banking
  • Money was demanded to pay for traditional feudal
    services
  • As serfs were able to buy their freedom, the
    feudal system declined

51
Growth of Towns
  • The number of towns in western Europe grew
    tremendously in the A.D. 1000s and 1100s, many of
    them surrounded by walls

52
Growth of Towns
  • Medieval towns had little sanitation, causing the
    rise of diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid,
    influenza, and malaria
  • The worst was the bubonic plague, ravaging Europe
    A.D. 1348-1350

53
Guilds
  • Merchants and artisans organized into guilds
    which was to help maintain the monopoly of the
    local market for its members
  • Restricted trading by foreigners and enforced
    uniform pricing and employment
  • Craft guilds (like unions) regulated the work of
    artisans
  • Women had their own trade unions

54
Guilds
  • Masters controlled craft guilds who mastered
    their crafts after serving as apprentices
  • Apprentices worked for a master without pay
  • An apprentice then became a journeyman and
    received pay
  • Guilds would approve these promotions

55
Rise of the Middle Class
  • The medieval town, or burg, created the name for
    a new class of people
  • In Germany, they were called burghers
  • In France, they were called bourgeoisie
  • In England, they were called burgesses

56
Rise of the Middle Class
  • The name originally referred to anyone who lived
    in a town
  • Came to mean people who made money though
    developing a money economy
  • Merchants, bankers, artisansno longer needed
    land

57
Rise of the Middle Class
  • Businessmen created councils to administer town
    affairs and gained political power for themselves
  • Kings began to depend on middle class for loans
    and for the income from taxes paid
  • Lending merchants and bankers became advisers to
    lords and kings

58
Town Government
  • Conflict gradually developed between the feudal
    classes and townspeople, who wanted to run their
    own affairs and have their own courts and laws
  • City dwellers did not fit into feudal system and
    did not owe taxes to lords
  • Lords began to enforce feudal laws to keep the
    burghers in line
  • The towns ultimately were too rich and kings and
    nobles granted towns charters which let them
    run their own affairs

59
Education
  • During the Early Middle Ages, most people were
    illiterate education was controlled by the
    clergy
  • As towns grew, there was a need for more
    education in a wider array of subjects
  • Students and teachers began to meet in other
    places than cathedral schools. They formed
    organizations that became known as universities
    around A.D. 1150

60
Universities
  • The university began as a guild of scholars
    organized for learning, with rules specifying the
    obligations of students and teachers
  • Students took notes on slates
  • By A.D. 1200s, universities had spread throughout
    Europe. Most southern universities were modeled
    after the law school at Bologna (buhLOHnyuh),
    Italy

61
New Learning
  • Medieval scholars studied Roman law, the works of
    Aristotle, and Muslim writings
  • Many church leaders opposed the study of the
    works of Aristotle fearing that his ideas
    threatened Christian teachings. Others thought
    the new ideas supported Christian teachings

62
New Learning
  • Scholars
  • They applied Aristotles philosophy to
    theological questions and developed a system of
    thought called scholasticism

Aristotle
63
New Learning
  • Aristotles scholasticism
  • Emphasized reason as well as faith in the
    interpretation of Christian doctrine. Believed
    all knowledge could be integrated into a coherent
    whole

64
New Learning (cont)
  • Peter Abelard was a scholastic teacher who
    collected statement from the bible and tried to
    show both sides of controversial issues
  • Thomas Aquinas was the most important scholastic
    teacher
  • His work Summa Theologica-- reason was Gods
    gift that provides answers to questions
  • Pointed to orderliness of creation and nature

65
Medieval Literature and Art
  • French epics called songs of high deeds
    celebrated the courage of feudal warriors
    romances about knights and ladies sung by
    troubadours were also popular

66
Epics and Romances
  • Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf was a tale of grim
    battle and gloomy scenery--reveals harshness of
    life in northern Europe

67
Epics and Romances
  • Anglo-Saxon warrior, Beowulf, defeats a horrible
    monster named Grendel

68
Epics and Romances
  • Handed down by oral tradition
  • Finally written down by unknown poet

69
Epics and Romances
  • Romances about knights and ladies were also
    popular
  • Traveling poet-musicians called troubadours
    composed lyric poems and songs about love and the
    feats of knights

70
Vernacular Literature
  • By late Middle Ages, most literature was written
    in the vernacularlanguage of everyday speech
  • Instead of Latin, most literature was written in
    English, German, French, Italian, or Spanish
  • Dante Alighieri wrote The Devine Comedy which
    was about an imaginary journey from hell to
    heaven in England

71
Vernacular Literature
  • Geoffrey Chaucer produced The Canterbury
    Talespoems that describe a varied group of
    pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another on
    their way to Thomas a Beckets shrine in
    Canterbury

72
Medieval Art
  • Early medieval churches were built on a style
    called Romanesque, which was combined feature of
    Roman and Byzantine structures
  • Romanesque art had thick walls, close-set
    columns, heavy curved arches, and small windows

73
Medieval Art
  • A.D. 1150 French architects began to build in a
    new style called Gothic
  • Heavy walls were replaced with low arches and
    flying buttresses
  • The extended stone beams, extended out from the
    walls, took the weight of the building off the
    walls. Allowed walls to be thinner with space
    for stain glass windows
  • Inside ceiling allowed for architects to build
    higher ceilings and more open areas

74
Strengthening of Monarchy
  • Chapter 13
  • Section 3

75
Main Idea
  • European monarchs strengthened their powers
    during the Middle Ages

76
Terms to Define
  • Cortes

77
People to Meet
  • Joan of Arc
  • Louis XI
  • Richard III
  • Henry VII
  • Ferdinand of Aragon
  • Isabella of Castile

78
Places to Locate
  • Crecy
  • Agincourt
  • Burgundy
  • Castile
  • Aragon

79
Overview
  • During the Middle Ages, Europes monarchs set up
    stronger central governments.
  • Monarchs won the loyalty of their people and
    began to limit the powers of clergy and nobles.

80
Overview
  • Gradually educated common people and laymen
    became royal advisers.
  • At the outset, however, violent warfare engulfed
    western Europe

81
The Hundred Years War
  • Grew from a dispute about land
  • French finally claimed victory
  • A.D. 1337 to A.D. 1453

82
Causes
  • William of Normandy conquered England
  • Normandy, part of France
  • Williams successors believed the ruled Normandy
    and England
  • Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Heir to lands in France
  • Henry now controlled more French land than the
    French king

83
Causes
  • French monarch Philip II regained most land
  • Defeats Eleanors son, King John
  • French kings wanted all claimed land, however
  • French king Philip dies
  • King Edward III of England is Philips grandson
    and declares himself king of France
  • Philip of Valois, French successor, prepares for
    war against Edward

84
Major Battles
  • England won at Crecy and Agincourt
  • Victories due to the weapons they used
  • Longbow was particularly effective
  • Capable of piercing heavy armor at 300 yards
  • French crossbow men retreat at longbow impacts
  • At Crecy, first use of cannon-like weapon
  • Things look bad for Franceenter Joan of Arc

85
Joan of Arc
  • Born 3 years before Agincourt
  • Grew up in small French Village
  • Peasant girl
  • Couldnt read or write
  • Left home at 17

Joan of Arc
86
Joan of Arc
  • Insisted she received messages from God to save
    France from the English
  • Persuaded Charles to give her troops

Joan of Arc
87
Joan of Arc
  • Orleans (awrlayAHN) had been besieged by the
    English for months
  • French troops inspired by her piety and
    sincerity, defeat the English
  • Maid of Orleans

Joan of Arc
88
Joan of Arc
  • After her victory, she was captured by rivals of
    French king and sold to the English
  • English burned her at the stake

Joan of Arc
89
Joan of Arc
  • Her courage inspired the French to rally around
    their king and they expelled the English from
    their lands
  • War ended in 1453
  • Port of Calais was only remaining English land

Joan of Arc
90
Effects of the War
  • The war deeply effected the peoples of France and
    England
  • France had suffered more severely
  • Victory gave France a new sense of unity
  • In the short run, English defeat led to
    bitterness among nobles who had lost French lands
  • In the long run, England could now focus on
    problems at homea good thing

91
Effects of the War
  • Hastened the decline of feudalism
  • Use of firearms and longbows made warfare with
    castles and mounted knights outdated
  • Monarchs replaced feudal armies with national
    armies of hired soldiers
  • Monarchs raised taxes to maintain the army
  • People willingly paid for the security

92
France
  • During the 1400s, Frances monarchy won much
    power and prestige
  • Louis XI strengthened the bureaucracy, kept the
    nobles under control, and promoted trade and
    agriculture
  • He worked to unite all French feudal lands under
    his crown, in particular the prosperous area of
    Burgundy

93
England
  • New struggle in England Wars of the Roses
  • House of Lancaster red rose
  • House of York white rose

94
England
  • Edward, Duke of York, overthrew the weak
    Lancaster dynasty and became King Edward IV
  • Upon his death, Edwards two sons were in line to
    the throne

King Edward IV
95
England
  • His brother made himself King Richard III
  • He put his two nephews in the Tower of London
    where they were probably murdered

96
England
  • Richard tried to rule but lacked support
  • King Henry VII, the first Tudor king, defeated
    him

King Richard III
97
England
  • King Henry VII strengthened the monarchy
  • Eliminated royal claimants to throne
  • He had few challengers
  • Tudor dynasty lasted 100 years

King Henry VII
98
Spain
  • During late 1400s, Spain emerged as European
    power
  • Before Pope Urban II called for crusades, Spain
    was involved in reconquista
  • Reconquest of land taken by Muslims
  • Ferdinand of Aragon

Ferdinand of Aragon
99
Spain
  • Even before the Crusades, the Christian rulers of
    Spain had been fighting for the re-conquest of
    Muslim areas in Spain
  • Only Granada in the south remained in the hands
    of the Moors, or Spanish Muslims
  • During the late A.D. 1400s, Spain emerged as a
    leading European power

100
Spain
  • In A.D. 1469 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of
    Castile were married
  • Two kingdoms maintained separate governments

Ferdinand and Isabella
101
Spain
  • Assemblies known as cortes, in which nobles
    were powerful, had the right to review royal
    policies

Isabella
102
Spain
  • The two monarchs worked together to strengthen
    royal power
  • Set up special courts in the countryside to
    enforce royal power

Ferdinand
103
Spain
  • In A.D. 1492 their armies forced the surrender of
    the last Moorish stronghold at Granada

Ferdinand
104
Spain
  • They ended religious toleration. They wanted all
    Spanish to be Catholics
  • Spanish Jews and Moors were ordered to convert or
    to leave Spain
  • The departure of the Jews and the moors weakened
    Spains economy

105
Spain
  • Set up inquisition to try Jews and moors
    suspected of practicing their religion.
  • Strengthened the monarchy
  • Limited contacts with other parts of world

106
The Troubled Church
  • Chapter 13
  • Section 4

107
Main Idea
  • The Church came under pressure to reform

108
Terms to Define
  • Pilgrimage
  • Simony

109
People to Meet
  • Pope Clement V
  • John Wycliffe
  • The Lollards
  • Jan Hus
  • The Hussites

110
Places to Locate
  • Avignon
  • Bohemia

111
Overview
  • Many people turned to the Church for comfort and
    help during difficult times
  • Ceremonies multiplied and many went on
    pilgrimagesjourneys to holy places
  • Monarchies weakened the temporal (worldly)
    influence of the Church
  • Growing middle class began to question the
    authority and teachings of the Church

112
Babylonian Captivity
  • During the early A.D. 1300s, the papacy came
    under the influence of the French monarchy
  • A French archbishop was elected Pope Clement V

Pope Clement V
113
Babylonian Captivity
  • A few years later, the pope moved his court from
    Rome to Avignon (southern France) where it
    remained until A.D. 1377.
  • Attempt to escape Italian civil wars

Pope Clement V
114
Babylonian Captivity
  • The long period of the exile of the popes at
    Avignon came to be known as the Babylonian
    Captivity, after the period of the exile of the
    Jews in Babylon

Pope Clement V
115
Babylonian Captivity
  • People started believing the pope had become
    corrupted by society and dominated by French
    monarchs

Pope Gregory XI
116
Babylonian Captivity
  • Here reign the successors of the poor fisherman
    from Galilee they have strangely forgotten their
    origin. I am astounded to see these men loaded
    with gold and clad in purple, boasting of the
    spoils of princes and nations
  • Petrarch, Italian poet

117
The Great Schism
  • In A.D. 1377, Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome
  • After his death, Roman mobs forced College of
    Cardinals to elect Italian pope

Protection towers for papal
decisions
118
The Great Schism
  • After being forced by Roman mobs to elect an
    Italian as pope, the College of Cardinals
    declared the election invalid and elected a
    second pope, who settled in Avignon

Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome
119
The Great Schism
  • The world now had two popes, one in Avignon and
    one in Rome

120
The Great Schism
  • Lasted from A.D. 1378 to 1471
  • Undermined the popes authority
  • People wondered how a Divinely chosen leader
    could be more than one person

121
Calls for a Council
  • Kings, princes, and church scholars called for
    church reform
  • The most popular proposed remedy to the Great
    Schism was a general church council

122
Calls for a Council
  • Political decisions made it almost impossible to
    reach agreement on the nature of the council
  • Different rulers supported different popes

123
Calls for a Council
  • A.D. council met in Pisa, Italy to unite Church
    behind the pope
  • Resulted in the election of a third popethe
    others would not resign

124
Calls for a Council
  • In A.D. 1414, a council in Germany forced the
    resignation of all three popes and elected Pope
    Martin V
  • Now, disillusioned with the church, many people
    felt closer to their monarchs than the church

125
Calls for Reform
  • Many Europeans disliked abuses within the Church,
    including the clergys means of raising money
  • People particularly disliked simonythe selling
    of Church positions
  • Princely lifestyles of the clergy displeased
    people as well

126
John Wycliffe
  • Scholar at Oxford University, wanted to remove
    church officials who were immoral or corrupt
  • Claimed the Bible was the sole authority for
    religious truthbegan to write English version

John Wycliffe
127
John Wycliffe
  • Some of his followers, the Lollards, angrily
    criticized the Church
  • Destroyed images of saints, ridiculed the Mass,
    and ate communion bread with onions to show that
    it was no different from ordinary bread

128
Jon Wycliffe
  • Widespread antipapal feelings made it difficult
    for the English government to suppress Lollards
  • A supporter, Bohemian-born Queen Anne, the wife
    of King Richard II
  • She sent copies of Wycliffes writings to her
    homeland in the Holy Roman Empire, where they
    influenced another great religious reformerJan
    Hus

129
Jan Hus
  • A popular preacher and professor, led a violent
    wave of Czech religious reform
  • Wanted to throw off German control
  • Wanted Church reforms
  • The church council in Constance demanded he
    appear to explain his views
  • He was promise safe passage by the Holy Roman
    Emperor

130
Jan Hus
  • When Hus was burned at the stake as a heretic,
    his death caused many Czechs to rally around
    their new martyr

131
Jan Hus
  • Holy Roman Emperor promised him safe passage to
    the Council of Constance, but didnt happen
  • Became a martyr

Jan Hus
132
Jan Hus
  • Supporters of Hus resisted the Church
  • Called Hussites
  • Five crusades were launched against them
  • Hussites defeat the Church crusades

Jan Hus execution
133
Jan Hus
  • In A.D. 1436 representatives of the Pope and the
    Holy Roman emperor reached a compromise with the
    Hussite leaders, giving them certain religious
    liberties in return for their allegiance to the
    church
  • Hus ideas did not go away

134
Review
  • What are major features of the High Middle Ages
    worth noting?
  • High Middle Ages, around A.D. 1000, sparked giant
    leap forward in improved conditions in Europe.
  • Great cathedrals still standing today mark the
    development of great cities

135
Review
  • Significance of High Middle Ages
  • Major labor unions of today are related to guilds
    of the Middle Ages
  • Institutions of higher learning mark the
    beginning of universities

136
Review
  • High Middle Age features most noteworthy
  • The development of national languages
  • The development of the middle class, playing a
    key role today
  • Better agricultural technologies for more food
    production
  • Food growth produced increased population and
    rise of towns/cities

137
Review
  • Features of High Middle Ages worth noting
  • The revival of trade, expansion of cities, and
    development of money opened new doors for people
    to make a living
  • Lives of people were expanded and enriched
  • Created the foundation for mostly urban
    industrial society

138
Review
  • Features of the High Middle Ages worth noting
  • Cultural revival led to new centers of
    learninguniversities, etc.
  • The use of reason to better study law and
    theology
  • Development of vernacular literature, appealing
    to knights and peasants
  • Increase in number and size of churches
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