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CHAPTER 9 LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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Title: CHAPTER 9 LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT


1
CHAPTER 9 LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
  • PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

2
1. What is the nature of adolescence?
  • Dramatic biological changes
  • Relationships with parents, peers and teachers
    change
  • Thoughts become more abstract and idealistic
  • Most adolescents make transition to adult life
    successfully
  • Many do not because of too few opportunities and
    lack of support

3
2. What physical changes do we experience in
adolescence?
  • Puberty period of rapid physical maturation
  • Includes hormonal and bodily changes
  • Usually early in adolescence
  • Order of physical changes for males and females
    in puberty ?-- GEC opportunity

4
3. What hormonal changes occur in adolescence?
  • Hormones chemicals secreted by endocrine glands
  • Carried throughout body using blood stream

5
4. Which endocrine glands are involved in
adolescent changes?
  • Hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads
  • Hypothalamus structure in the brain controlling
    eating and sexual behavior
  • Pituitary brain structure controlling growth
    and regulating other glands
  • Gonads testes in males and ovaries in females

6
5. Which hormones dominate in males and females
during puberty?
  • Testosterone in males affects height and voice
    change
  • Estradiol (form of estrogen) in females affects
    changes in breasts, uterus and skeletal system
  • Both hormones are present in both boys and girls

7
6. What are other influences on changes in
adolescent physical development?
  • Social factors contribute to changes
  • Stress, eating patterns, exercise, sexual
    activity tension and depression also affect
    hormonal levels

8
7. When does puberty begin?
  • For boys as early as 10 and as late as 13 ½
  • For girls sometime between ages 9 and 15
  • Specific time influenced by nutrition, health,
    and other environmental factors

9
8. What are influences on body image changes in
adolescence?
  • Adolescents more likely preoccupied with bodies
    than other age groups
  • Girls tend to be less satisfied than boys, in
    general

10
9. How does brain develop during adolescence?
  • Corpus callosum thickens -? improving ability to
    process information
  • Amygdala (? influences emotions, especially
    anger) matures earlier than prefrontal cortex
  • Adolescents capable of strong emotions
  • Prefrontal cortex not developed enough to control
    emotional expressions

11
10. How does sexual identity develop during
adolescence?
  • Involves learning to manage sexual feelings,
    developing new forms of intimacy, learning skills
    to regulate sexual behavior
  • Sexual identity involves activities, interests
    and behavior styles
  • Sexual orientation develops during this time also

12
  • Wide variety in tendency toward sexual activity
  • May be influenced by religious and other values

13
  • Development of gay and lesbian preferences may be
    characterized by same-sex attractions in
    childhood, lack of heterosexual dating, and
    recognition of sexual orientation in mid- to late
    adolescence
  • Other adolescents may experience both same-sex
    and other-sex attractions

14
11. What are sexually transmitted infections?
  • Diseases associated with sexual activity
  • Not prevented by use of contraceptives, such as
    birth control pills or implants
  • Examples HIV-AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis,
    chlamydia (?- further discussion in chapter 11)

15
12. Why is adolescent pregnancy a concern?
  • In US -? highest rate of adolescent pregnancy and
    childbearing among industrialized countries
  • Rate of pregnancy and childbearing in US
    decreased since 1991, because of increased
    contraceptive use and fear of STIs, such as AIDS

16
  • Adolescent pregnancy associated with risk for
    mother and baby
  • Often mother drops out of school
  • Usually mother never catches up economically with
    women who postpone childbearing
  • Risk for rapid subsequent pregnancies
  • Infants have higher risk of low birth weight and
    neurological problems

17
  • Pregnancy alone not associated with negative
    consequences
  • Adolescent mothers likely from low-SES families
  • Adolescent pregnancy in general is high-risk
    circumstance
  • Support for adolescent mothers is important in
    assisting educational and occupational
    opportunities

18
13. What are issues important in adolescent
health?
  • Nutrition and exercise affect quality of health
  • Poor nutrition and low-level exercise major
    contributors to obesity in adolescence
  • Problems with nutrition and health can lead to
    poor health habits and early death in adult life

19
  • Sleep patterns also contribute to general health
    in adolescence
  • Inadequate sleep associated with fatigue,
    sleepiness, irritability, depression and
    increased use of beverages containing caffeine
  • Increased sleepiness during the day in older
    adolescents associated with changing biological
    rhythms

20
14. What are major causes of death in adolescence?
  • Accidents (?Risky driving habits (speeding and
    tailgating, driving under influence of alcohol or
    drugs)
  • Homicide (especially among African-American male
    adolescents)
  • Suicide (? discussed further in chapter 10)

21
15. How do parents, peers and school environment
affect substance use and abuse in adolescence?
  • Special concern for children who begin use in
    early adolescence or childhood
  • Person who begins drinking before age 14 more
    likely to become alcohol dependent than peers who
    wait
  • Positive relationships with parents and others
    associated with lower probability to have
    substance use problems

22
16. What are 2 eating disorders affecting
adolescent development?
  • Anorexia nervosa obsession with being thin
    associated with starvation
  • Symptoms (1) weighing less than 85 of normal
    weight for height and bone size
  • (2) intense fear of gaining weight
  • (3) having distorted body image

23
  • Anorexia nervosa usually begins in early to
    middle adolescence
  • Most people affected are young, white individuals
    in adolescence or early adulthood
  • Usually from middle-class, well-educated families
  • Set high standards, feel stress about not meeting
    standards and obsessed about how others perceive
    them

24
  • Bulimia nervosa individual consistently follows
    a binge-and-purge pattern
  • Consumes large amounts of high-calorie food
    followed by purging through vomiting or use of
    laxatives
  • Preoccupied with food, strong fear of being
    overweight, experience depression and anxiety

25
17. How does Piagets theory describe cognitive
development during adolescence?
  • Piaget believed the formal operational stage of
    cognitive development begins during adolescence
  • Formal operational stage associated with ability
    to think more abstractly
  • No longer limited to actual experiences to anchor
    thinking
  • Increased ability to develop make-believe
    situations, abstract propositions and
    hypothetical situations

26
  • Example in verbal problem-solving ability
  • Formal operational thinker can think through the
    process involving A, B, and C and understand that
    if AB and BC, then AC without actually seeing
    concrete examples of A,B, and C

27
  • Another example is ability to think about
    thinking (? metacognition and considering the
    nature of thought)
  • Adolescents also display idealism and concern
    with possibilities
  • Speculate about ideal characteristics and
    qualities
  • Can lead to comparison with others in light of
    these ideal qualities

28
  • Adolescent formal operational thinkers begin to
    use hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  • Creating a hypothesis and deducing implications
    and possible consequences
  • Also develop ways to test hypotheses

29
18. What criticisms have been applied to Piagets
ideas?
  • GEC possibility

30
19. What is adolescent egocentrism?
  • Heightened self-consciousness
  • 2 key components
  • (1) imaginary audience belief that others are
    as interested in them as they themselves are
  • Associated with attempts to gain attention by
    others
  • and

31
  • (2) personal fable associated with sense of
    uniqueness and invincibility or invulnerability
  • Can lead to risky behaviors and believing that
    nothing bad will happen as a result

32
20. How does information processing theory
describe cognition during adolescence?
  • Most important change in adolescent thinking is
    improved executive functioning
  • Involves reasoning, decision-making, monitoring
    critical thinking, and monitoring thinking
    progress
  • Improved executive functioning leads to more
    effective learning, improved use of attention and
    critical thinking

33
21. How does decision making change during
adolescence?
  • Increased time in decision-making concerning
    friends, dating, possibility of sex, plans for
    the future
  • Adolescents, more so than children, can generate
    different options, evaluate them, anticipate the
    consequences and consider source credibility
  • Ability to make good decisions not always
    associated with actually carrying them out in a
    specific life situation (? example, driving)

34
22. How does critical thinking change during
adolescence?
  • Increases with age
  • Not as frequent as might be expected in late
    adolescence
  • If fundamental skills (?literacy and math) are
    undeveloped, critical thinking skills also likely
    to be immature
  • Improved critical thinking allows 4 benefits?

35
23. Benefits of improved critical thinking
  • (1) increased speed and automaticity
  • (2)increased breadth of content knowledge in
    variety of domains
  • (3) increased ability to construct new knowledge
    combinations
  • (4)greater range and more spontaneity of using
    strategies for obtaining and applying knowledge

36
24. What are characteristics of how schools
influence adolescent development?
  • First year of transition can be difficult
  • Transition occurs at same time adolescents are
    experiencing physical, emotional and social
    changes
  • Adolescents may experience the top-dog phenomenon
  • Moving from being biggest, oldest and most
    experienced to being youngest, smallest and least
    powerful

37
25. What recommendations have been made to create
effective educational environments for young
adolescents?
  • GEC possibility

38
26. What are concerns about the high school
experience affects adolescent development?
  • Criticism that high schools encourage passivity
  • Recommendation that schools create variety of
    paths to develop secure identity
  • Concern that many students graduate with
    deficient reading, writing and math skills
  • Increased concern about high school drop outs

39
27. What is service learning?
  • Form of education promoting social responsibility
    and service to community
  • Encourages activities such as tutoring, helping
    older adults and assisting at child care centers
  • Can lead to decrease in being self-centered and
    more motivated to help others

40
28. What are 2 conditions that make service
learning more effective?
  • (1) giving students a degree of choice as to the
    service learning activity they participate in
  • (2) providing students with opportunities to
    reflect on their service learning experiences
  • Have resulted in higher grades, increased
    goal-setting and higher self-esteem and improved
    sense of making a difference in the lives of
    others

41
CHAPTER 10
  • Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

42
1. What is identity?
  • Self-portrait
  • Career and work path
  • Political identity
  • Religious identity
  • Relationships
  • Achievement and intellectual identity

43
  • Sexual identity
  • Cultural and ethnic identity
  • Hobbies and interest
  • Personality
  • Physical identity

44
2. Eriksons view
  • 5th developmental stage
  • Psychological moratorium
  • --? gap between childhood security and adult
    autonomy
  • Free to try out new identities
  • Experimentation to find place in the world

45
3. Developmental changes
  • Continuous during adolescence
  • Begins with attachment
  • Sense of self
  • Emergence of independence
  • Final phase with life review in old age

46
  • Late adolescence -? physical, cognitive and
    socioemotional development allows synthesizing
    and constructing adult maturity
  • 4 stages of identity-?

47
  • Diffusion not yet experience crisis or make
    commitment
  • Foreclosure make a commitment but not
    experience crisis especially with authoritarian
    parenting style

48
  • Moratorium experiencing crisis with no
    commitment
  • Achievement past crisis and has made an
    identity commitment

49
4. Beyond Erikson
  • Key changes in identity may occur in early adult
    life 18-25 years
  • MAMA cycle possible during adult life
    moratorium and achievement alternation

50
5. Family influences
  • Individuality has 2 dimensions
  • -? self-assertion, when you have and communicate
    a point of view
  • -? separateness, using communication to express
    difference from others

51
  • Connectedness also has 2 dimensions
  • -? mutuality, or sensitivity to and respect for
    others
  • -? permeability, openness to others views

52
  • Identity formation supported by family
    relationship characterized by
  • Individuation, encouraging adolescent to develop
    an independent point of view
  • Connectedness, providing secure base for exploring

53
  • Strong connection and weak individuation results
    in identity foreclosure
  • Weak connection leads to identity confusion

54
6. Ethnic identity
  • Includes sense of membership in an ethnic group
  • Also attitudes and feelings associated with
    ethnic membership

55
  • If member of ethnic minority, can choose among 2
    sources of identity
  • May develop bicultural or multicultural identity

56
7. Autonomy and attachment
  • Parents may have difficulty coping with
    adolescents search for autonomy and
    responsibility
  • Adolescent ability to gain control of behavior
    develops best if adult support is appropriate
  • Wise adults gradually allow adolescent to make
    mature decisions on their own

57
8. Role of attachment
  • Securely attached adolescents less likely to
    engage in problem behaviors such as illegal drug
    use and delinquency
  • Also more likely to have positive peer
    relationships
  • Caution moderate correlations

58
9. Parent-Adolescent conflict
  • Most conflict experienced in everyday situations
  • Conflict may increase in early adolescence,
    stabilize in mid-adolescence and decrease in late
    adolescence
  • Every day conflict can serve positive
    developmental function
  • Transition to increasing independence

59
  • Old model-?
  • Suggest adolescents detach from parents as they
    mature
  • High stress and intense conflict

60
  • New model-?
  • Parents are important attachment source and
    support system
  • Moderate conflict

61
10. Competent adolescent have parents who
  • Show warmth and respect
  • Demonstrate sustained interest
  • Understand and adapt to cognitive and
    socioemotional changes
  • Communicate expectations for high standards
  • Recognize moderate conflict is normal

62
  • Demonstrate constructive ways to resolve problems
  • Understand the developmental journey

63
11. Peers
  • Friendships-?
  • In adolescence, fewer friendships and more
    intense and intimate
  • More important
  • Failure to develop intimacy can lead to
    loneliness and depression with reduced sense of
    self-esteem

64
  • Young adolescents more influenced my peer
    pressure
  • Cliques small groups, usually same sex and same
    age, may develop from club or sport activities
  • Crowds larger and less personal, membership
    based on reputation
  • Defined by activities and level of self-esteem

65
12. Developmental changes in dating
  • Usually 10th to 12th grade before relationships
    last more than 2 months
  • Early adolescents usually gather in groups for
    social acitivites
  • Cyberdating can begin in middle school
  • Hazardous
  • Declines in high school when real-life
    relationships more important

66
13. Gay and lesbian dating
  • May go out with same-sex peers to clarify sexual
    identity or disguise it
  • Relatively rare in adolescence because of few
    opportunities and social disapproval

67
14. Cross-cultural comparisons
  • Variations in adolescent behavior
  • 2/3 Asian Indian adolescents accept parent choice
    of marital partner
  • Philippines, many female adolescents migrate to
    city to work and support families
  • Middle East, adolescents do not interact with
    peers, even in school

68
  • Street youth in Kenya and other countries, if
    abandoned by parents engage in delinquency or
    prostitution to survive

69
15. Health
  • Improved in some areas and not in others
  • Few adolescents die from infectious diseases and
    malnutrition
  • Increased health-risky behaviors such as drug use
    and unprotected sex

70
16. Gender
  • In many countries outside US, males have greater
    access to educational opportunities
  • Females usually have less freedom to pursue
    variety of careers and engage in leisure
    activities
  • Especially in Southeast Asia, Latin America and
    Arab countries more restrictions on sexual
    activities of adolescent females

71
17. Families
  • In some countries outside US, close-knit families
    and extensive extended family networks
  • In US, parenting usually less authoritarian
  • More adolescents grow up in divorced families or
    step-families

72
18. Peers
  • Cultural differences in peer influences
  • South American street youth peers can serve as
    substitute family for survival

73
19. Ethnicity
  • Immigration- high rates contribute to growing
    cultural minorities in US
  • Characterized by stressors uncommon for native
    residents
  • Language barriers
  • Dislocations and separation from support networks
  • Change in SES status

74
  • Dual struggle to maintain identity and acculturate

75
  • Assimilation absorption of ethnic minority
    groups into dominant culture
  • May mean loss of behaviors and values from ethnic
    minority group

76
  • Pluralism
  • Coexistence of distinct cultural and ethnic
    groups in same society

77
20. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status
  • May interact in ways that exaggerate influence
    of ethnicity
  • Ethnic minorities overrepresented in lower SES
    groups
  • Poverty adds to stress of ethnic minority
    adolescents

78
  • Double disadvantage 1) prejudice, discrimination
    and bias because of ethnic minority status
  • 2) stressful effects of poverty

79
21. Juvenile delinquency
  • Breaking the law or engaging in illegal behavior
  • Broad concept littering to murder
  • More likely male than female
  • More frequently property offense than personal
    offenses
  • Delinquent rates higher for minority and lower
    SES groups than for others

80
  • Causes -?
  • Many proposed
  • -?heredity
  • Identity problems
  • Community and family influences
  • --characteristics of lower SES culture may
    promote delinquency
  • Norms of lower SES peer groups may be antisocial
    and counter to goals and norms of larger society

81
  • Adolescents in communities with high crime rates
  • Characterized by poverty, unemployment, and
    feelings of alienation from general society
  • Lack quality schooling, educational funding and
    organized activitiesd

82
22. Depression
  • More likely in adolescents than children
  • Higher in girls than in boys
  • Females more likely to ruminate about moods
  • Female self-image more likely negative compared
    to that of boys
  • Females encounter more discrimination

83
  • Family factors
  • depression more likely if parents are
  • depressed,
  • emotionally unavailable,
  • experiencing marital conflict,
  • having financial problems

84
  • Peer relationship influences
  • Depression more likely if peer relationships are
    unsatisfactory
  • If no best friend
  • Having troubles with friends
  • Experiencing peer rejection

85
  • Suicide more likely if
  • Long history of family problems
  • Family instability and unhappiness
  • Lack affection and emotional support

86
  • Suicide cont.
  • Experience high control and pressure for high
    achievement
  • Physical or sexual abuse
  • Lack supportive friendship network
  • Recent or current stressful experiences

87
Life-span exam 3 notes
  • Chapter 11
  • Physical and cognitive development in early
    adulthood

88
1. Transition from adolescence to adulthood
  • Emerging adulthood (18-25 years)
  • Identity exploration, especially in love and work
  • Instability (residential changes)

89
  • Self-focused autonomy in running own lives
  • Feeling in-between
  • Age of possibilities opportunity to transform
    lives

90
2. Markers of becoming an adult
  • In US, having more or less permanent full-time
    job
  • Economic independence
  • Wide variability in individual independent
    between ages of 17-27 (309)

91
  • Taking responsibility for ones own actions
  • In other countries marriage is an important
    marker

92
3. Transition from high school to college (309)
  • Involves stress and change
  • Recurrence of top-dog experience?
  • May involve moving to more impersonal school
    structure

93
  • More geographically and culturally diverse
  • Increased focus on achievement and assessment

94
  • Positive features of college life
  • Feel more adult
  • More time to spend with peers

95
  • More time to explore different lifestyles and
    values
  • More independence from parental monitoring

96
  • Many colleges have counseling centers to help
    cope with stress
  • Provide information on coping and academic
    matters
  • (310)

97
4. Physical development(310)
  • Often reach peak physical development between
    19-26
  • Same for athletes as well as non-athletes
  • Begin physical decline at this time

98
  • Muscle tone and strength begin to decrease around
    age 30

99
  • Sensory abilities show little change
  • Lens of eye loses some elasticity
  • Hearing peaks in adolescence and seems stable
    during early adulthood
  • Increase of fatty tissue begins

100
5. Health (311)
  • Emerging adults have gt 2x mortality rate of
    adolescents
  • True of males more so than females
  • Have fewer chronic health problems

101
  • Most bad health habits begun in adolescence
    continue into early adulthood
  • Inactivity, diet, obesity, substance use,
    reproductive health care, health-care access get
    worse

102
  • If develop poor health habits
  • Not eat breakfast
  • Not eat regular meals

103
  • Rely on snacks as main food source
  • Eat excessively to point of being obese
  • Smoking and/or drinking moderately or heavily
  • Getting by on few hours of sleep

104
  • Poor health habits contribute to level of life
    satisfaction
  • Health habits can be improved
  • Eating healthy kinds and amounts of food
  • Appropriate exercise
  • Avoid abusing drugs

105
6. Eating and weight
  • (312)
  • Obesity is serious and pervasive issue
  • Defined as having BMI of 30
  • Linked to hypertension, diabetes and
    cardiovascular disease

106
  • Dieting
  • Practiced by many
  • Low rate of continuing success

107
  • Most effective programs involve exercise
  • Places individual at risk for other problems?
  • Yo-yo weight loss and gain
  • Liquid diets and low-calories diets linked to
    gall bladder damage

108
7. Regular exercise
  • (313)
  • Exercise helps to prevent disease
  • Heart disease and diabetes
  • Recommend 30 minutes of aerobic exercise per day
  • Aerobic sustained, stimulating heart and lung
    activity

109
  • Exercise also ?
  • Improves self-concept
  • Reduces anxiety and depression

110
8. Substance abuse
  • Alcohol use ?
  • Binge drinking increases during college years
  • Chronic binge drinking more characteristic of
    males

111
  • Consequences of binge drinking missing classes,
    physical injuries, problems with police,
    unprotected sex
  • Binge drinking peaks at ages 21-22

112
  • (314)
  • Alcoholism -?
  • Disorder involving long-term, repeated
    uncontrolled compulsive and excessive alcohol use

113
  • Impairs health and social relationships
  • High frequency of first-degree relatives who
    abuse alcohol

114
  • Cigarette smoking and nicotine -?
  • Dangers of smoking or being around smokers
  • Linked to death as a result of cancer, heart
    disease, chronic pulmonary problems

115
  • Secondhand smoke linked to lung cancer
  • Addiction to nicotine makes quitting difficult

116
  • Nicotine is stimulant
  • Increases energy and alertness
  • Stimulates neurotransmitters that have calming or
    pain-reducing effect
  • Quitting smoking reduces risk of cancer death

117
9. Sexuality
  • Sexual activity (315)
  • By age 18 more than 60 have experienced sexual
    intercourse
  • By age 25, most have experienced sexual
    intercourse
  • Age 18-25 is time most likely sexually active and
    unmarried

118
  • Patterns of heterosexuality -?
  • 1)males more likely to have casual sex and
    females more selective
  • 2)casual sex more likely between 18-25 than other
    times of life

119
  • Sexual orientation and behavior -?(316)
  • Heterosexual attitudes and behavior
  • 3 categories 1/3 have sex 2x/week, 1/3 have sex
    few times/month, 1/3 few times/yr or not at all

120
  • Married and cohabiting couples have sex more
    frequently than noncohabiting couples

121
10. From 1994 survey
  • Most Americans do not report kinky sex activities
  • Adultery is more the exception than the rule
  • Men think about sex more so than females

122
  • Sources of sexual orientation -?
  • Until late 1800s, most believed people were
    either heterosexual or homosexual
  • More recently, sexual orientation is viewed as a
    continuum male-female, same-sex or bisexual

123
  • Most people, regardless of orientation,
    experience similar physiological arousal during
    sexual activity
  • Most people report no differences in attitudes,
    behaviors and adjustments regarding sexual
    activity

124
  • Link between same-sex orientation and being
    exposed to high levels of hormones
  • characteristic of female fetuses between 2-5
    months of prenatal development

125
  • Possible reason why same-sex orientation s
    difficult to modify
  • same-sex orientation likely determined by
  • combination of environmental, physiological,
    hereditary and cognitive factors

126
  • Attitudes and behavior of lesbians and gay males
    -?
  • Gender differences characteristic of heterosexual
    relationships also appear in same-sex and GLB
    relationships
  • Lesbians and gay males develop bicultural identity

127
  • (317)
  • May adapt best if dont define themselves in
    either-or terms

128
  • Sexually-transmitted infections -?
  • Diseases contracted primarily through sexual
    activity
  • Including intercourse, oral-anal and oral genital
    contact

129
  • Most common
  • bacterial infections (gonorrhea, syphilis,
    Chlamydia) and
  • those caused by viruses (AIDS, genital herpes,
    and genital warts)

130
  • Most serious STI infection caused by HIV which
    destroys bodys immune system
  • (319)

131
  • Best strategies for protecting against HIV and
    AIDS
  • Knowing your and your partners risk status
  • Having regular physical exams

132
  • Having protected sex
  • Avoiding sex with multiple partners

133
11. Forcible sexual behavior and sexual
harrassment
  • Rape -?
  • Forcible and nonconsensual sexual intercourse
  • Definitions vary from state to state
  • Victims may be reluctant to experience
    consequences of reporting rape

134
  • Women more likely victims of rape
  • Traumatic for victims and those close to them

135
  • Consequences of rape -?
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Increased substance use and/or abuse
  • Sexual dysfunction (reduced desire and inability
    to experience orgasm)

136
  • Date or acquaintance rape is increasing concern
  • Coercive sexual activity with someone known to
    the victims

137
  • Sexual harassment -?
  • Power display of one person over another

138
  • Many forms
  • inappropriate sexual remarks and physical
    contact,
  • blatant propositions and
  • physical assault

139
  • Women more likely victims than men
  • Serious psychological consequences

140
12. Cognitive development
  • (321)
  • Piagets view -?
  • Concluded adults and adolescents think
    qualitatively basically the same

141
  • At 11-15 years we enter formal operational stage
  • Young adults more quantitatively advanced
    compared to adolescents

142
  • Piaget and information processing theorists
    believe -?
  • adults increase amount of knowledge in specific
    areas

143
13. Realistic and pragmatic thinking
  • Realistic idealism of adolescents decreases as
    young adults face realities of post-adolescent
    life
  • Switch from acquiring knowledge to applying
    knowledge as pursue success in employment

144
14. Reflective and relativistic thinking
  • Adolescents often view world in either-or terms
    and polarities
  • Young adults often move away from absolutist
    thinking
  • Reflective thinking also becomes possible

145
  • Developmental changes -?
  • Young children often have
  • idealistic fantasies of what life will be like as
    adults (superheroes, sports or entertainment
    stars)

146
  • High school age adolescents
  • think about careers,
  • less idealistic as realize the requirements for
    certain occupations

147
  • Late adolescents and young adults
  • become aware of training and educational
    requirements in terms of college majors

148
  • By early to mid-20s, many are settling into
    full-time employment
  • Begin to establish themselves in their chosen
    career fields

149
  • (324)
  • Monitoring occupational outlook -?
  • Important to be knowledgeable about a variety of
    career fields and employers

150
  • Good source is Occupational Outlook Handbook
  • OOH describes employment possibilities for
    various career fields as well as
  • training/education requirements and job duties
    and responsibilities

151
15. Impact of work and employment
  • Work defines an important part of a persons
    identity
  • Influences financial standing, housing, where and
    how we spend our time, friendships and health
  • Creates structure and rhythm to life, often not
    conscious of until missed
  • Creates stress

152
  • (324)
  • 4 characteristics of work settings linked to
    stress and health problems
  • High job demands
  • Inadequate opportunities to participate in
    decision making
  • High level of supervisor control
  • Lack of clarity about criteria for competent
    performance

153
  • (325)
  • Work during college -?
  • Many college students work full or part-time
  • Can help pay for or offset college expenses
  • Can restrict student opportunities to learn
  • Increased work hours linked to increased risk of
    dropping out of school

154
  • Employment can contribute positively to education
  • Cooperative or co-op programs involve paid
    apprenticeships for students

155
  • Internships or summer employment can support
    education, especially in your field of study
  • Can lead to employment after graduation

156
  • (325)
  • Dual career couples -?
  • May have special problems balancing work and
    other life responsibilities
  • If both partners work, sharing household tasks
    can be an issue
  • Having children as well can cause complications

157
  • (236)
  • For dual career couples, division of home
    responsibilities is changing
  • US men take increased responsibility for
    maintaining the home

158
  • US women taking increased responsibility for
    working outside the home
  • US men showing greater interest in family life
    and parenting

159
  • Diversity in the workplace -?
  • In developed countries, women increasingly
    working outside the home
  • Ethnic diversity increasing in the workplace

160
  • Women and ethnic minority members experience
    problems breaking through glass ceiling
    (invisible barrier to career advancement and
    being hired in managerial positions

161
ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?
  • REQUIRED EXAM AND SGQ CONTENT FROM CHAPTERS 9,
    10, 11
  • BRING YOUR REFERENCE CARD TO THE EXAM

162
LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT
  • CHAPTER 12
  • SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD
  • SOURCE OF BONUS ITEM CONTENT

163
Intimacy
  • 331
  • Self-disclosure and sharing private thoughts
    important for intimacy
  • 332
  • Eriksons stage of intimacy versus isolation
  • Inability to establish meaningful relationships
    can interfere with healthy personality development

164
  • Important to develop balance between intimacy and
    isolation
  • Challenge of developing independence from parents
  • Task of making own decisions without relaying
    excessively on other people
  • 332

165
  • Friendship in adult life serves several functions
  • Companionship
  • Intimacy
  • Support
  • Source of self-esteem

166
  • Friends can be better source of support in times
    of stress compared to family members
  • We choose our friends
  • Adult friends tend to come from same age group
  • 333

167
  • Romantic love
  • Also called passionate love
  • Strong components of sexuality and infatuation
  • Complex combination of passion, fear, anger,
    sexual desire, joy and jealousy

168
  • Affectionate love
  • Also called companionate love
  • Occurs when desire to have another person close
    by
  • Deep caring affection for the other person

169
  • 334
  • Consummate love
  • (can think of love components Sternberg, 1988
    as intimacy, commitment and passion)
  • Involves optimal levels of all three components
  • Infatuation high in passion, low in commitment

170
  • Affectionate love high in intimacy and
    commitment lower in passion

171
  • Single adults
  • 335
  • Enjoy lifestyles
  • Can be stereotyped
  • Swinging single versus being desperately lonely

172
  • Singles share some issues
  • Common problems forming intimate relationships,
    confronting loneliness, finding place in a
    couples-oriented society

173
  • Advantages of being single
  • Time to make decisions about life, time to
    develop personal resources, freedom to make
    decisions on your own, opportunities to explore
    possibilities and new places

174
  • 335
  • Cohabiting adults
  • Living together in sexual relationship without
    being married
  • Percentage increased between 1970 and 2005
  • May view cohabiting as on-going lifestyle
  • Avoid official aspects of marriage

175
  • Cohabiting relationships tend to be short-lived
  • Offers problems as well as advantages
  • Increased risk of domestic violence
  • Higher level of disapproval from parents and
    friends
  • Difficulty with owning property jointly

176
  • Married adults
  • Stable marriage viewed as most desired endpoint
    of adult relationship development until about
    1930
  • More recently, personal fulfillment more often a
    goal compared to marriage stability

177
  • Benefits of a good marriage
  • Live longer, healthier lives
  • Potential for lower level of biological and
    cardiovascular risk factors

178
  • Divorced adults
  • Number of divorced adults increased between 1950
    and 2002

179
  • Risk factors for divorce
  • Youthful marriage
  • Low educational level
  • Lack of religious affiliation
  • Having parents who are divorce
  • Having a baby before marriage

180
  • 337
  • Divorce more likely early in marriage

181
  • Remarried adults
  • Divorced adults usually remarry within 4 years of
    divorce
  • Men remarry sooner than women
  • Stepfamilies occur in many forms
  • 338

182
  • Strategies for coping with stress of living in a
    stepfamily
  • Have realistic expectations
  • Develop new positive relationships within the
    family

183
  • Gay male and lesbian adults
  • Gay and lesbian relationships tend to be similar
    to heterosexual relationships in satisfactions,
    joys, loves and conflicts
  • Increasing number of gml couples create families
    that include children

184
  • 338 - misconceptions about gml relationships
  • Stereotype of having one masculine and one
    feminine partner true in small percentage of
    relationships
  • Having large number of multiple partners is rare

185
  • 338
  • Majority of gml individuals prefer long-term,
    committed relationships

186
  • 339
  • Gottman, 1994
  • Principles for making marriage work
  • Establish love maps personal insights and
    detailed maps of partners life and world
  • Nurture fondness and admiration

187
  • Turn toward your partner rather than away, seeing
    your partner as a friend
  • Allow your partner to influence you
  • Create shared meaning, being honest and sensitive
    with your partner

188
  • Becoming a parent
  • Requires number of interpersonal skills
  • Imposes emotional demands
  • Learning to be a parent presents challenges
  • 340

189
  • Trends in childbearing
  • Women who give birth to fewer children have more
    freedom in other aspects of their lives
  • Increased numbers of women who work outside the
    home invest less actual time in childrens
    development

190
  • Men are investing more time in parenting
  • Parental care is often supplemented by
    institutional care

191
  • Dealing with divorce
  • Think of divorce as opportunity to grow
    personally
  • Make decisions carefully

192
  • Focus more on future than on the past
  • 342
  • Use strengths and resources to cope with problems

193
  • Dont expect to be happy and successful in
    everything you do

194
  • 342
  • Gender, communication and relationships
  • Tannen (1990)
  • Report talk designed to give information
  • Rapport talk language of conversation,
    establishing connections and negotiating
    relationships
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