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The Black Death

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The place, Europe, the time 1347, a ship traveling from the Black Sea port of Kaffa docks in Sicily. Aboard this ship was death, though the people did not know it. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Black Death


1
The Black Death
1347 - 1351
2
The Culprits
3
The Famine of 1315-1317
  • By 1300 Europeans were farming almost all the
    land they could cultivate.
  • A population crisis developed.
  • Climate changes in Europe produced three years of
    crop failures between 1315-17 because of
    excessive rain.
  • As many as 15 of the peasants in some English
    villages died.
  • One consequence ofstarvation povertywas
    susceptibility todisease.

4
  • The place, Europe, the time 1347, a ship
    traveling from the Black Sea port of Kaffa docks
    in Sicily. Aboard this ship was death, though
    the people did not know it. Over the next 4
    years 25 million people or 1/3 of the population
    of Europe died of this dreaded affliction

5
1347 Plague Reaches Constantinople!
6
The Disease Cycle
Flea drinks rat blood that carries the
bacteria.
Bacteria multiply in fleas gut.
Human is infected!
Fleas gut cloggedwith bacteria.
Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into
human wound.
7
SYMPTOMS OF THE PLAGUE
Painful swellings in armpits, neck, and groin
called buboes (boo-bows). High fever
Blood vessels burst under skin turning it
black. Untreated mortality rate- 75
8
The Symptoms
Bulbous
Septicemic Formalmost 100 mortality rate.
9
BLACK DEATH A TWO-HEADED HYDRA
  • The plague outbreak of 1347 was one of the first
    signs of an organisms ability to mutate to
    another form. A pneumonic version of the plague
    developed that killed even more quickly and
    spread more readily.
  • What mode of transmission would pneumonic plague
    use to infect a host?

10
  • Airborne transmission. The term pneumatic refers
    to the pneumothorax or chest cavity of the human
    body. The pneumatic plague was inhaled by the
    victim, infected the lungs, and killed them due
    to respiratory failure sometimes within 24 hours
    !

11
From the Toggenburg Bible, 1411
12
Treatment
13
TREATMENT FOR THE PLAGUE (14TH CENTURY)
  • In the 14th century, knowledge of disease was
    non-existent. They believed it was caused by bad
    vapors or blood imbalances. The treatment used
    to cure plague would seem bizarre by modern
    standards.
  • Bathing in human urine. Placing dead animals in
    the home.
  • Use of leeches or bleeding the individual.

14
Attempts to Stop the Plague
Leeching
A Doctors Robe
15
Attempts to Stop the Plague
FlagellantiSelf-inflicted penance for our
sins!
16
Attempts to Stop the Plague
Pograms against the Jews
Golden Circle obligatory badge
Jew hat
17
social and historical consequences
  • The outbreak of plague and subsequent death of
    1/3 of the population of Europe had very profound
    social and historical consequences.
  • What could have been some consequences of the
    plague?

18
Pre-plague artwork
  • Flat style, religious, idealistic themesFocus on
    decoration, spiritual themes

19
Artwork of plague years and immediately after
  • Obsession with death and death figuresFar more
    realistic depiction of human figure and illness,
    injury (clearly evident in crucifixion images)

20
(No Transcript)
21
Bring out your dead!
22
Medieval Art the Plague
23
Medieval Art the Plague
An obsession with death.
24
The victims ate lunch with their friends and
dinner with their ancestors.
25
The Danse Macabre
26
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27
Death Triumphant !A Major Artistic Theme
28
A Little Macabre Ditty
A sickly season, the merchant said,The town I
left was filled with dead,and everywhere these
queer red fliescrawled upon the corpses
eyes,eating them away.Fair make you sick,
the merchant said,They crawled upon the wine
and bread.Pale priests with oil and
books,bulging eyes and crazy looks,dropping
like the flies.
29
A Little Macabre Ditty (2)
I had to laugh, the merchant said,The doctors
purged, and dosed, and bledAnd proved through
solemn disputationThe cause lay in some
constellation.Then they began to die.First
they sneezed, the merchant said,And then they
turned the brightest red,Begged for water, then
fell back.With bulging eyes and face turned
black,they waited for the flies.
30
A Little Macabre Ditty (3)
I came away, the merchant said,You cant do
business with the dead.So Ive come here to ply
my trade.Youll find this to be a fine brocade
And then he sneezed.!
31
The Mortality Rate
35 - 70
25,000,000 dead !!!
32
Estimated Toll
  • 25 Million Dead
  • 1/3 of Europe
  • Half of Asia
  • 3/4 to 5/6 of the population of Florence and
    some other port cities

33
Consequences
  • Art and popular mindset
  • Church strength
  • Economic changes

34
Return of Plague?Largest Outbreaks 500s1349-13
51 1660-1663Last Epidemic 1942Last Outbreak
1994
35
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36
COULD IT HAPPEN AGAIN ?
  • The conditions present in the 14th century
    provided an ideal situation for the development
    of this devastating epidemic.
  • How can we stop it?

37
  • Control of rat population
  • Use of insecticides
  • Sanitary disposal of garbage and waste
  • Improved personal hygiene
  • Improvements in the medical profession
  • Increased knowledge of communicable disease
  • Quarantine procedures on imports of food and
    animals

38
What were thepolitical,economic,Religious and
social effectsof the Black Death??
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