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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Part 2 Topics Anatomy & Physiology Related to Pharmacology Common Prehospital Medications Common Patient Scenarios Common Patient ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY


1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY
2
Part 2 Topics
  • Anatomy Physiology Related to Pharmacology
  • Common Prehospital Medications
  • Common Patient Scenarios
  • Common Patient Medications

3
Drugs Used to Affect the Nervous System
4
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5
Central Nervous System Medications
  • Analgesics Antagonists
  • Anesthetics
  • Anti-anxiety Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs
  • Antiseizure or Anti-epileptic Drugs
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Psychotherapeutic Medications
  • Parkinsons Medications

6
Autonomic Nervous System Medications (1 of 2)
  • Drugs Affecting the Parasympathetic System
  • Cholinergics
  • Anticholinergics
  • Ganglionic Blocking Agents
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
  • Ganglionic Stimulating Agents

7
Autonomic Nervous System Medications (2 of 2)
  • Drugs Affecting the Sympathetic System
  • Adrenergic Receptors
  • Adrenergic Agonists
  • Adrenergic Antagonists
  • Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

8
Distribution of Sympathetic Post-Ganglionic
Fibers
9
Sympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous System
10
Physiology of an Adrenergic Synapse
11
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12
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13
Drugs Used to Affect the Cardiovascular System
14
Blood Flow Through the Heart
15
Cardiac Conductive System
16
Action Potential of Cardiac Contractile Tissue
17
Action Potential of Cardiac Pacing Cells
18
Reentrant Pathways
19
Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (1 of 2)
  • Antidysrhythmics
  • Used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac
    rhythms.
  • Antihypertensives
  • Drugs used to treat hypertension.

20
Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (2 of 2)
  • Hemostatic Agents
  • Drugs used to stop bleeding.
  • Antihyperlipidemic Agents
  • Drugs used to treat high cholesterol.

21
Antidysrhythmics
22
Antihypertensives
  • Diuretics
  • Adrenergic inhibiting agents
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Direct vasodilators

23
Hemostatic Agents
  • Antiplatelets
  • Drugs that decrease the formation of platelet
    plugs.
  • Anticoagulants
  • Drugs that disrupt the clotting cascade.
  • Thrombolytics
  • Drugs that act directly on thrombi to break them
    down.

24
Antihyperlipidemics
  • Drugs used to treat high blood cholesterol.
  • Examples
  • Lovastatin (mevacor).
  • Simvastatin (zocor).

25
Drugs Used to Affect the Respiratory System
26
Antiasthmatic Medications
27
Drugs Used for Rhinitis and Cough
  • Nasal Decongestants
  • Antihistamines
  • Antitussives
  • Expectorants
  • Mucolytic

28
Drugs Used to Affect the Gastrointestinal System
29
Main Indications for GI Drug Therapy
  • Peptic Ulcers
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea and Emesis
  • Digestion

30
Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (1 of 2)
  • H2 Receptor Antagonists
  • Cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac),
    famotidine (Pepcid),
  • nizatidine (Axid).
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Omeprazole (Prilosec),
  • lansoprazole (Prevacid).

31
Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (2 of 2)
  • Antacids
  • Aluminum, magnesium, or sodium compounds.
  • Anticholinergics
  • Pirenzepine (Gastrozepine).

32
Drugs Used to Treat Constipation
  • Categories of Laxatives
  • Bulkforming (methylcellulose or Citrucel).
  • Stimulant (phenolphthalein or Ex-Lax).
  • Osmotic (Milk of Magnesia).
  • Surfactant (Colace).

33
Drugs Used to Treat Diarrhea
  • Although a nuisance, diarrhea is often a
    helpful process.
  • Specific or non-specific agents may be used.

34
Drugs Used to Treat Emesis
  • Antiemetics
  • Medication used to prevent vomiting.
  • Serotonin Antagonists
  • Zofran.
  • Dopamine Antagonists
  • Compazine, Phenergan, Inapsine, Reglan.
  • Cannabinoids
  • Marinol, Cesamet.

35
Drugs Used to Aid Digestion
  • Several drugs are available to aid digestion of
    carboyhydrates and fats.
  • Two such drugs are pancreatin (Entozyme) and
    pancrelipase (Viokase).

36
Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes
37
Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes
  • Opthalmic drugs are used to treat conditions
    involving the eyes, primarily glaucoma and
    trauma.
  • Medications used to treat glaucoma are all aimed
    at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Examples
    include timolol (Timoptic) and betaxolol
    (Betoptic).
  • Tetracaine (Pontocaine) is a local anesthetic of
    the ester class.

38
Drugs Used to Affect the Ears
39
Drugs Used to Affect the Ears
  • Most drugs used to treat conditions involving
    the ear are aimed at eliminating underlying
    bacterial or fungal infections or at breaking up
    impacted ear wax.
  • Chlorampenicol (Chloromycetin otic).
  • Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin).

40
Drugs Used to Affect the Endocrine System
41
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42
Drugs Affecting the Pituitary Gland
  • Anterior Pituitary DrugsThe only conditions
    treated with these drugs are those associated
    with abnormal growth such as dwarfism.
  • Posterior Pituitary DrugsThe two drugs in this
    category are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.

43
Drugs Affecting the Parathyroid and Thyroid Glands
  • Parathyroid glands are primarilyresponsible for
    regulating calciumlevels.
  • Hypothyroidism leads to decreasedlevels of
    calcium and Vitamin D.
  • Treatment is therefore throughcalcium and
    Vitamin D supplements.

44
Drugs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex
  • The Adrenal Cortex synthesizes andsecretes 3
    classes of hormonesglucocorticoids,
    mineralocorticoids,and androgens.
  • Two diseases typify the disordersassociated with
    the Adrenal CortexCushings disease and
    Addisonsdisease.

45
Drugs Affecting the Pancreas
  • Diabetes mellitus is the most important disease
    involving the pancreas.
  • Insulina substance that decreasesblood glucose
    level.
  • Glucagona substance that increasesblood glucose
    level.

46
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47
Oral Hypoglycemics
  • Orinase (chlorpropamide)
  • Glucotrol (glipizide)
  • Micronase (glyburide)

48
Hyperglycemic Agents
  • D50W is a sugar solution givenintravenously for
    acute hypoglycemia.
  • Glucagon is indicated for emergency treatment
    when an
  • IV is unobtainable.

49
Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System
  • Estrogens and Progestins
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Uterine stimulants and relaxants
  • Brethine, Yutopar.
  • Infertility agents
  • Clomid, Metrodin.

50
Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System
  • Testosterone deficiency
  • Metandren.
  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
  • Proscare.

51
Drugs Affecting Sexual Behavior
  • L-dopa (Levodopa) has demonstrated increased
    libido as a side effect.
  • Sildenafil (Viagra) was approved in 1998 for
    patients suffering erectiledysfunction.
  • NOTE If you treat a patient with chest pain who
    has taken Viagra recently, do NOT give
    nitroglycerin or any other nitrate.

52
Drugs Used to Treat Cancer
53
Drugs Used to Treat Cancer
  • Drugs used to treat cancer arecalled
    antineoplastic agents.
  • Examples include
  • fluorouracil (Adrucil)
  • mechlorethamine (Mustargen)
  • vinblastine (Velban)
  • vincristine (Oncovin)

54
Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and
Inflammation
55
Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and
Inflammation (1 of 3)
  • Antibiotics.
  • An antibiotic agent mayeither kill the offending
    bacteria orso decrease the bacterias
    growththat the patients immune systemcan
    effectively fight the infection.
  • Antifungal Agents.
  • Fungi are parasitic microorganisms that cannot
    synthesize their own food.

56
Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and
Inflammation (2 of 3)
  • Antimicrobial and Antiparasitic Drugs.
  • Although most diseases treated withthese drugs
    are uncommon indeveloped countries, they are
    leading causes of death in third-world countries.
  • They include malaria, leprosy, and helminthiasis.

57
Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and
Inflammation (3 of 3)
  • Tuberculosis, caused by bacteria, is increasing
    in the United States.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
    drugs)Commonly used as analgesics and
    antipyretics.
  • Uricosuric drugsUsed to treat gout.
  • Serums, vaccines, and other immunizing agents.

58
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59
Drugs Used to Affect the Skin
60
Drugs Used to Affect the Skin
  • Dermatologic drugs are used to treat skin
    irritations.
  • They are common over-the-counter medications.

61
Drugs Used to Affect the Diet
62
Many disease processes affect the production,
distribution, and utilization of essential
dietary nutrients.
63
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64
Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses
65
Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses
  • The treatment for poisoning andoverdose depends
    greatly on the substance involved.
  • Syrup of Ipecac
  • Activated Charcoal
  • Mucomyst
  • Atropine
  • Pralidoxime

66
Part 2 Summary
  • Anatomy and Physiology Related to Pharmacology
  • Common Prehospital Medications
  • Common Patient Scenarios
  • Common Patient Medications
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