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Strengthening seed systems to meet the challenges of food security

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Title: Strengthening seed systems to meet the challenges of food security


1
Strengthening seed systems to meet the challenges
of food security
M. Larinde, P. Le Coënt, R.G. Guei T.
Osborn Austria Room, 9 July 2009
2
Presentation outline
  • World Food security and hunger
  • Overview of global seed industry issues
  • FAO s Contribution to strengthening seed
    systems in developing countries
  • Seed policy, strategy and programmes formulation
    or review
  • Strengthening local seed production and supply
    systems

3
Food security challenges
  • Nine billion people to feed in 2050 in the face
    of limited resources and climate change.
  • FAOs food price index in March 2009 was still
    23 higher than 2005

4
Food security challenges
  • There is a need to improve agricultural
    productivity and food security in poor rural
    communities.
  • Functional and efficient seed delivery systems
    is critical to sustainable production
    intensification and productivity increase

5
  • Overview of global seed industry issues

6
Estimated size of global seed markets
7
DISTRIBUTION OF SEED MARKET IN AFRICA Market
share in Million US (source ISF)
8
Seed systems development Key issues
  • Policy and legislation ( norms, taxes, subsidy,
    laws, IPR, international and regional
    cooperation)
  • Science (genetics, technology, physiology,
    entomology, pathology, agronomy,
    biodiversity....)
  • Economy (management, marketing, investment,
    finance, credit)
  • Culture and social (livelihoods, traditions,
    indigenous knowledge)

9
  • Formal Versus Informal sectors
  • Business competitiveness and return to investment
  • Higher value crops with higher profit margin
    (hybrid maize, hybrid millet and sorghum,
    vegetables) Vs lower value crops - Self
    pollinated (rice, millet, sorghum, cowpeas), open
    pollinated and vegetative propagated crops
    (cassava, Plantain, yam ..)

10
Most companies deal with hybrid Maize
  • About 47 Distinct Seed Companies.
  • 70 have maize seed.
  • 15 large seed companies in ESA, most of which
    are in Southern Africa.

Cimmyt, 2006
11
  • Cost of seed production and distribution and the
    need for heavy investment in
  • People
  • Land
  • Equipment
  • Infrastructure (drying, storage, treatment, bags)
  • Transport
  • Services (registration, certification, IPR)

12
FAO s contribution to strengthening seed systems
in developing countries
13
  • Assist countries and regions on request to
    formulate conducive, flexible, coherent,
    comprehensive, and integrated seed sector
    development policies, strategies and programmes
    in line with the IT and the GPA

14
Trends in countries requests
  • There is an increasing request for seed policy
    and legislation reform by countries and regions
  • From 2005-2009, 62 of AGP projects including
    emergencies have seed components or seed officers
    as LTO

15
ISFP projects with strong seed components
(AGPS-LTU)
  • 79 TCPs ( 29,998,000)
  • 23 OSRO/GCP/UTP ( 52,359,414)

EC food Facility
Afghanistan, Burkina Faso,CAR, DRC, Guinea
Bissau, Liberia, Mozambique, Nepal, Pakistan,
Zimbabwe TOTAL about 130,000,000 about 10
projects in finalization
16
Trends in countries requests
  • Countries want to improve the use of quality
    seed and improved varieties
  • Productivity increase
  • Mitigate negative impact of the food crisis
  • Climate change adaptation.
  • Need to invest in local seed production
  • Local varieties more adapted and strategically
    important for the national food security.

17
  • FAOs work Seed policy and legislation reform

18
Main Constraints
  • Non conducive Government policies and regulatory
    frameworks
  • Import-export controls, tax, financial services
  • National segmentation
  • IPR (PVP)
  • Overregulation in some countries not adapted to
    farming structure
  • Low level of agricultural development (rainfed
    agric)
  • Limited or no access to market

19
Main Constraints
  • Poor infrastructure
  • Cost of transport, utilities
  • Small Market Size
  • Low effective demand
  • Small, dispersed clients

20
  • Inefficient diffusion of technical knowledge to
    end users
  • Statistics on farming profiles and seed markets
    not reliable
  • Market disturbance due to seed donations

21
Seed Policy Development Process
  • Identification of national priorities and
    problems through, assessment, stakeholders
    consultation/ field visits
  • Joint work with national counterparts for
    elaboration of policy or legal texts
  • Endorsement of policy or legal text by national
    policy makers

22
Elements of a Seed Policy
  • Establishment of institutional arrangements (NSC,
    Seed Fund, Seed observatory)
  • Definition of roles of the various actors to
    avoid unfair competition and maximize efficiency
  • Definition of measures, rules and regulations for
    tax incentives, seed IPR, other measures to
    improve seed trade

23
Elements of a Seed Policy
  • Setting of national interests
  • Compulsory certification vs. true-to-label
    approach
  • Acceptance of landraces in national lists of
    varieties

24
Elements of a Seed Policy
  • Definition of measures or standards
  • Production-conditioning-storage-distribution-marke
    ting
  • Import and Export,
  • Standards for certification
  • Requirements for variety release
  • Support to credit

25
Achievements
  • National level
  • Seed policy reform in Afghanistan, Iran, Sierra
    Leone, The Gambia, Congo DRC, Cote D Ivoire,
    Burkina, Cameroon..
  • Lead to seed industry development in Afghanistan
    and Iran
  • improvement in seed quality control in Burkina
    and Cameroon
  • national seed association and stronger seed
    institutions in Cote D Ivoire

26
Achievements
  • Regional level
  • Seed policy and programmes
  • West and central Africa (1998)
  • Near East North Africa (1999)
  • Asia and the pacific (1999)
  • Latin America and the Caribbean (2000)
  • Central and Eastern Europe (2001)

27
Achievements
  • Regional seed programme for Central Africa
    (CEMAC) adopted in 2009
  • Africa wide African seed and biotechnology
    programme (ASBP) for the African Union- adopted
    in 2007

28
Achievements
  • Harmonizing seed rules and regulations
  • Harmonization of seed rules and regulations in
    Africa
  • West Africa (ECOWAS/UEMOA/CILSS) (Adopted in
    2008)
  • Southern Africa (SADC)
  • Eastern Africa (ASARECA/EAC)
  • Central Africa (CEMAC)
  • COMESA ( being initiated)
  • Harmonization in Central Asia ( Economic
    Community Organization (ECO)

29
Key areas of harmonization
  • Variety release regulation
  • Plant breeders rights
  • Quarantine pest lists- an phytosanitary measures
  • Seed trade regulations
  • Seed certification and standards

30
Harmonizing in Africa
COMESA (19)
CEMAC (6)
ECOWAS -15 countries
EAC/ASARECA (6 )
SADC (14)
30
31
Strengthening local seed production and supply
systems
32
Presentation overview
  • Current state of seed systems
  • FAO strategy to strengthen local seed production
    and supply systems.
  • Examples of FAO projects to support local seed
    production and supply

33
State of seed systems
  • In countries with market oriented agriculture
  • Seed sector is dominated by the formal seed
    system.
  • Huge development of the private seed sector since
    1950 (variety development, seed production and
    distribution)
  • Consequence farmers are using high quality seed
    of improved varieties and agricultural
    productivity is high.

34
State of seed systems
  • In countries dominated by subsistence
    agriculture
  • Farmers seed systems largely dominate.
  • Predominance of landraces and old varieties (in
    Africa less than 20 of the land is planted with
    improved varieties) and a variable seed quality.
  • In these countries, formal seed systems are weak
  • Limited private sector involvement
  • Public sector involved in early generation seed
    multiplication, sometimes certified seed
    multiplication with poor results
  • Inefficient seed quality control systems and
    extension services.

35
State of seed systems
  • In countries dominated by subsistence
    agriculture
  • This situation is mainly due to
  • Limited investments in seed sector development
  • Limited market for seed because
  • Most staple crops are self pollinated,
    vegetatively propagated or dominated by open
    pollinated varieties
  • Weak connection of farmers with output markets
    which limits their revenues and capacity to
    invest in inputs
  • Lack of access to credit
  • Limited access to information
  • Limited farmers use of improved varieties and
    low agricultural productivity.

36
Shifting paradigm of seed sector development
  • Constant objective improve farmers access to
    quality seed of adapted varieties.
  • FAO Seed Industry Development Programme umbrella
    strong investment in public sector seed
    production.
  • System failed because too costly. Transfer to the
    private sector, but in many countries the private
    sector never developed.
  • Current strategy is to facilitate the development
    of local private sector seed enterprises

37
Elements to be considered to develop a national
seed production and supply system
Seed policy and regulation
Formal seed system
Farmers seed system
Variety development and variety release
Seed multiplication
Seed processing and transportation
Seed distribution
Seed Market
Output market
38
Elements to be considered to develop a national
seed production and supply system
  • Strategy must be adapted to the type of crop and
    to the agricultural system in place.
  • Low volume high value crops (Hybrid Maize,
    vegetables...). High profitability of seed
    activities
  • Seed production for this type of crop can be
    easily managed by the private sector
  • High volume - low value crops (wheat, rice,
    groundnut, cassava...). Low profitability of
    those activities.
  • Importance of public sector involvement in plant
    breeding, early generation seed multiplication
    and quality control
  • Limit overhead costs and develop community based
    seed entities.
  • Improve connections between seed producers,
    farmers and the food industry to increase
    investment capacity of farmers.

39
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Ethiopia
  • Objective Strengthening the Farmer Based Seed
    Production and Marketing Scheme in the Oromiya
    region.
  • Principle formal public system is not able to
    meet seed demand. Improve farmers seed systems
    to ensure local seed production.
  • Main crop wheat

40
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Ethiopia
  • Principles
  • Providing basic seed of improved varieties and
    inputs to farmers groups on a credit basis
  • Seed production by farmers groups
  • Seed collected by cooperatives, processed and
    sold to farmers on a credit basis.
  • Quality control and technical support from local
    extension service
  • Project activities
  • Linkages with research and make variety
    demonstrations
  • Training of farmers on seed production
    technologies
  • Provide equipment to farmers cooperatives
  • Training and equipment to local extension
    services to improve technical support to seed
    production activities and seed quality control

41
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Ethiopia
  • Strengths
  • Farmers involvement, knowledge and work in a
    high potential region
  • Strong grain cooperatives need seed activities to
    improve overall profitability
  • Active extension services at the community level
  • Demand for quality seed and improved varieties
  • Market for wheat.
  • Weaknesses
  • Limited quantities of basic seed available
  • Limited profits from seed production limited
    interest of cooperatives.
  • Weak seed quality assurance system
  • Weak seed policy

42
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Afghanistan
  • Since 2003, FAO seed programme focuses on the
    development of the national seed sector.
  • Activities
  • Seed policy and seed legislation
  • Variety testing and variety maintenance
  • Early generation seed multiplication
  • Quality assurance systems
  • Support to private seed enterprises

43
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Afghanistan
  • Principle Private entrepreneurs buy raw seed
    from contracting seed growers and then process
    and sell seed
  • A critical problem for seed enterprises is the
    cash need to purchase seed from seed growers at
    harvest time

Grain sales
Seed Sales
Growing season n 1
Growing season n
November
June
November
June
Seed processing
Inputs
Basic seed
44
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Afghanistan
  • To tackle this problem, an innovative approach
    is being undertaken in Afghanistan
  • Principle
  • make loan funds available to eligible enterprises
    for buying raw seed from growers
  • enterprises payback all loans received for
    procuring raw seed and
  • repaid loans deposited in a special fund of the
    Afghanistan National Seed Association (ANSA).

45
Examples of seed production and supply projects
Sierra Leone
  • Seed project in Sierra Leone an input / output
    approach
  • Weak seed demand is a major reason for the lack
    of sustainability of seed production projects.
  • Farmers are able to buy seed if they can market
    their crops at a better price
  • Principle vertical integration of seed
    production activities and activities to improve
    value addition of crop outputs
  • In the Sierra Leone project create rice milling
    facilities in the seed enterprise.

46
What the examples illustrate?
  • Ethiopia
  • Strengthening farmers seed system can be an
    efficient way to establish a sustainable seed
    production system for self pollinated crops if
    appropriate support services are available.
  • Afghanistan
  • Access to credit is a critical issue for the
    development of seed enterprises.
  • Sierra Leone
  • Integrated input/ouput approach is a way to
    increase seed demand and strengthen seed
    production activities.

47
General conclusion
  • Formulation and implementation of national and
    regional seed policies and regulations are key
    to the development of seed systems in developing
    countries
  • Both the public and the private seed sectors need
    to be supported
  • Investing in small scale seed enterprises,
    including farmer organizations with an
    input/ouput market approach

48
  • Development strategies must be adapted to the
    type of crops, market opportunities, ie specific
    country conditions
  • Importance of linking farmers seed systems with
    formal seed systems
  • Strengthening seed systems is part of
    sustainable production intensification.

49
Technology transfer and good extension approaches
Develop irrigation facilities
Improve storage capacity and access to markets
Upgraded farmers technical knowledge
Increased input access and use (seed,
fertilizer,water) Better infrastructure
Development of the input supply sector
Improved food production
Improved food availability Lower food prices
More structured food marketing sector
FARMERS
Vibrant input supply sector
Support to the seed production sector
Improve processing capacity
Investment capacity
Better income
Improve credit access
50
Strengthening local seed production and seed
supply systems
51
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