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Simulation For Emergency Medicine


Mary Jo Wagner, MD. EM Program Director. Synergy Medical ... Human Patient Simulation Is Effective for Teaching Paramedic Students Endotracheal Intubation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Simulation For Emergency Medicine

Simulation For Emergency Medicine
  • CORD Academic Assembly March 4th, 2006

Steve McLaughlin, MD EM Program Director Medical
Director BATCAVE Simulation Center University
of New Mexico Mary Jo Wagner, MD EM Program
Director Synergy Medical Education
Alliance Michigan State University
  • Describe the current state of education and
    research in simulation.
  • List the various simulators, mannequins and
    models available for emergency medicine training.
  • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each
    simulation modality.
  • List some of the best practice examples for using
    simulation in EM residencies.

  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Simulation Equipment
  • Best Practice Examples
  • Hands-on Practice

  • Simulation is the act of mimicking a real
    object, event or process.
  • Simulation is a person, device or set of
    conditions which present evaluation problems
    authentically. The student responds to the
    problems as they would under natural

  • Characteristics
  • Cues and consequences are like reality
  • Situations can be complex
  • Fidelity (exactness of duplication) is not
  • Feedback to users questions, decisions, and

  • History
  • 1928 Edwin Link develops first flight simulator
    Link Trainer
  • 1960 Laerdal introduces first Resusci-Annie
  • 1968 Harvey cardiology simulator
  • 1970 First power plant simulators
  • 1973 First computer aided modeling of physiology
  • 1975 Standardized patients and OSCEs introduced
  • 1988 First full body, computerized mannequin at
  • 1989 ACRM Anesthesia focused on patient safety
    and education movement at this time
  • 1990 Term Virtual Reality was introduced, Screen
    Based Simulators Introduced

Link Trainer
  • History
  • 1990s US IOM To Err Is Human report.
  • 1994 Boston Center for Medical Simulation
  • 1993 First national/international simulation
    meetings MMVR
  • Late 1990s Introduction of simulation into
    specialties like EM
  • 1997 MIST VR Task Trainer
  • 1998 AAMC MSOP
  • 1991-1993 a total of 30 articles on High Fidelity
  • 2000-1 Current generation of full body mannequins
    introduced by METI and Laerdal
  • 2000-2003 a total of 385 articles on High
    Fidelity Simulation
  • 2005 Society for Medical Simulation
  • 2006 Simulation in Healthcare Journal

  • Why is this a valuable tool? Or is it?
  • Learners can learn without risk to patient.
  • Learning can be focused without regard to patient
    care needs/safety/etc.
  • Opportunity to repeat lesson/skill to mastery.
  • Specific learning opportunities? guaranteed.
  • Learning can be done at convenient times.
  • Performance can be observed/recorded.

  • Why is simulation important in medical education?
  • Problems with clinical teaching
  • New technologies for diagnosis/treatment
  • Assessing professional competence
  • Medical errors and patient safety
  • Deliberate practice

  • CORD Consensus Conference
  • Simulation is a useful tool for assess
    competence. Especially patient care, IP skills
    and SBP.
  • There is a lack of evidence to support the use of
    simulation for high stakes assessment.
  • Definitions of competence and tools to evaluate
    performance must be developed and tested.
  • Scenarios and evaluation tools should be

  • ACGME Toolbox of Assessment Methods
  • Simulation is the best, second best tool for
  • Medical procedures
  • Ability to develop and carry out patient
    management plans
  • Investigative/analytical thinking
  • Knowledge/application of basic sciences
  • Ethically sound practice

  • LCME Requirements
  • Allows simulated patients to count for student
    exposure to particular cases.
  • RRC Requirements
  • Allows simulated procedures to count for
    program/individual totals.
  • Very helpful for rare procedures.

  • Simulation is one tool
  • (new, expensive and exciting)
  • in our educational repertoire.
  • (Similar to lecture, case discussion, skill lab,
    MCQ, SP, etc.)

  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Simulation Equipment
  • Best Practice Examples
  • Hands-on Practice

Available Simulation Equipment
  • Standardized Patients
  • Improvised Technology
  • Screen Based Simulation
  • Task Trainers
  • Low/Mid/High Fidelity Mannequins
  • Virtual Reality

Evaluating Simulators
  • Usability
  • Validity
  • Face, Content, Construct, Concurrent, Predictive
  • Transfer
  • Efficiency
  • Cost
  • Evidence

Standardized Patients
  • Individuals trained to portray specific illness
    or behavior in a realistic and consistent manner
    for the purposes of teaching or assessment.
  • Used in classroom setting, or without knowledge
    in clinical setting
  • Especially useful to teach and assess
    communications and professionalism competencies
    in a standardized method.

Standardized Patients
  • Initially started in the 1980s
  • Now - Association of Standardized Patient
  • http//
  • Required Clinical Skills testing for all students
  • USMLE Part II CS exam

Univ of South Florida standardized patient
Standardized Patients
  • Strengths
  • Can consistently reproduce clinical scenario for
    standardized testing of learners
  • Ability to assess rare conditions not otherwise
    reliably seen
  • Patients trained to provide objective accurate
  • Can use in real settings (arrive at office/ED as
    real patient for realistic environment)

Standardized Patients
  • Weaknesses
  • Little research on effectiveness
  • Most studies are from preclinical medical school
  • Few studies done with residents or practitioners
    and nearly all have small numbers (15-50)
  • Cost to pay time to teach standardized
  • Quality of experience heavily dependent upon
    training of the patient and scenarios developed

Standardized Patients
Audience Comments
Improvised Technology
  • Models made of easily available items
  • Closely mimic human tissue
  • Allow for near replica of actual procedural steps
  • Generally used for instruction of procedures
  • Commonly used examples
  • Slab of ribs to teach insertion of chest tubes
  • Pigs feet or head for suturing practice
  • Other examples in the literature
  • Jello for vascular model
  • Lasagna for split skin graft harvesting

Animal Models
Improvised Technology Educational Theory
  • Cognitive process for learning a procedure
  • Understanding of indications, contraindications
  • Knowledge of equipment used for procedure
  • Step-by-step knowledge of technical procedure
  • Identifying anatomical landmarks and tissue
  • E.g. pop when entering dura or peritoneal

Improvised Technology Educational Theory
  • Improvised Technology
  • Useful to teach
  • Knowledge of equipment
  • Step-by-step knowledge of procedure
  • Some tissue clues
  • Less useful for
  • Anatomical landmarks
  • Greatest predictor of procedural competency …
    was the ability to sequentially order procedural
  • Chapman DM et al Open Thoracotomy Procedural…Ann
    Emerg Med 1996 28641.

Improvised Technology
  • Strengths
  • Cheap!!!
  • Made easily available at all sites
  • Easy to duplicate for repetitive use or numerous
  • Minimal instructor education needed
  • Ability to create models otherwise not available
  • Resuscitative Thoractomy

Improvised Technology
  • Weaknesses
  • Almost no research on effectiveness
  • Less real-life experience, therefore stress
    factor removed
  • Often does not duplicate most difficult aspect of
    procedure (E.g. obese patient)
  • Static devices , therefore useful for specific
    procedures only, not actively changing clinical

Examples Vascular model
A Sock skin B Film canister for support C
Foam curler connective tissue D Straw vessel
Examples DPL model
A Fine fabric peritoneum B Foam connective
tissue C Shower curtain skin D PVC pipe
intestines E Umbilicus marking
Examples Lumbar puncture model
A Box spinous process B Film canister lateral
masses b Lid of film canister C Foam curler
connective tissue D Dural pop from packing
bubbles Not seen pillow muscular layer
Examples Thoracotomy model
A Shower curtain skin B Foam connective
tissue C Laundry basket rib cage D Clips E
Packing air bag lungs F Ice cube tray spine G
Plastic bag pericardium with tape
phrenic nerve H covered football heart
with hole I Tubing esophagus with
NG in place J Tubing aorta
Examples Thoracotomy model
Improvised Technology
Audience Comments
Screen Based Simulation
  • Desktop Computer
  • Strengths low cost, distance learning, variety
    of cases, improving realism, self guided
  • Weaknesses procedural skills, teamwork skills

Screen Based Simulation
  • Laerdal Microsim
  • ACLS
  • Critical Care
  • Anesthesia
  • Sedation
  • Neonatal

Screen Based Simulation
Audience Comments
Task Trainers
  • Devices designed to simulate a specific task or
  • Examples
  • Lap simulator
  • Bronch simulator
  • Traumaman
  • Artificial knee

Task Trainers
Task Trainers
  • Strengths
  • High fidelity, good research on efficacy, may
    have self guided teaching, metrics available
  • Weaknesses
  • Poor haptics on most machines, expensive, focus
    on single task, not integrated into complete
    patient care

Task Trainers
Audience Comments
Low Fidelity Mannequins
  • Features
  • Static airways
  • /- rhythm generation
  • No/minimal programmed responses.
  • Strengths Low cost, reliable, easy to use,
  • Weaknesses Limited features, less interactive,
    instructor required

Low Fidelity Mannequins
  • Examples

Mid Fidelity Mannequins
  • Relatively new class of mannequins, often used
    for ACLS training.
  • Features
  • Active airways ETT, LMA, Combitube
  • Breathing/pulses, rhythms
  • Basic procedures pacing, defibrillation
  • Some automated response and programmed scenarios

Mid Fidelity Mannequins
  • Strengths
  • Active airways, somewhat interactive, moderate
    cost, moderate portability
  • Weaknesses
  • Semiskilled instructor, limited advanced
    procedures (lines, chest tubes)

High Fidelity Mannequins
  • Mannequin with electrical, pneumatic functions
    driven by a computer.
  • Adult, child and newborn models
  • Features
  • Dynamic airways, reactive pupils
  • Heart sounds, lung sounds, chest movement
  • Pulses, rhythms, vital signs
  • Abdominal sounds, voice
  • CO2 exhalation, cardiac output, invasive
  • Bleeding, salivation, lacrimation

High Fidelity Mannequins
  • Procedures
  • O2, BVM, Oral/nasal airway, ETT, LMA, Cric
  • Pericardiocentesis, PIV
  • Defibrillation, Pacing, CPR
  • Needle or open thoracentesis
  • TOF, Internal gas analysis
  • Foley placement
  • Reacts to medications

Laerdal vs. METI
  • Laerdal
  • Instructor programmed physiology changes
  • Windows
  • Terrific Airway
  • Reliability
  • Ease of Use
  • Cost 35-45K
  • METI
  • Physiology modeled to respond to interventions
  • Macintosh
  • Drug Recognition
  • Gas Analyzer
  • Two Cost Levels
  • ECS 45K
  • HPS gt150K

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High Fidelity Mannequins
  • Strengths
  • Many dynamic responses, preprogrammed scenarios,
    widest variety of procedures, most immersive.
  • Weaknesses
  • Cost, procedures are not very realistic,
    reliability, lack of portability, significant
    instructor training required.

Audience Comments
Virtual Reality
  • Advanced form of human-computer interaction
  • Allow humans to work in the computers world
  • Environment understandable to us
  • Four necessary components
  • Software
  • Hardware
  • Input devices
  • Output devises

Input and Output devices
Virtual Reality
  • Types of VR applicable to medicine
  • Immersive VR
  • Desktop VR
  • Pseudo-VR
  • Augmented reality

Immersive VR
Desktop VR
Augmented Reality
Virtual Reality
Audience Comments
  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Simulation Equipment
  • Best Practice Examples
  • Hands-on Practice

  • Rapidly expanding body of literature since 2000.
  • First issue of Simulation in Healthcare Jan
  • Many articles on look at what we did level and
    data that says everyone thought it was nifty.
  • Focus on best practices in teaching/learning and
    assessment using simulation.

Best Teaching Practices
  • Screen based teaching with feedback is better
    than self study.
  • Schwid, H. A., G. A. Rooke, et al. (2001).
    "Screen-based anesthesia simulation with
    debriefing improves performance in a
    mannequin-based anesthesia simulator." Teaching
    Learning in Medicine 13(2) 92-6.
  • We measured the effectiveness of screen-based
    simulator training with debriefing on the
    response to simulated anesthetic critical
  • The intervention group handled 10 anesthetic
    emergencies using the screen-based anesthesia
    simulator program and received written feedback
    on their management, whereas the traditional
    (control) group was asked to study a handout
    covering the same 10 emergencies.
  • All residents then were evaluated on their
    management of 4 standardized scenarios in a
    mannequin-based simulator using a quantitative
    scoring system.
  • Residents who managed anesthetic problems using a
    screen-based anesthesia simulator handled the
    emergencies in a mannequin-based anesthesia
    simulator better than residents who were asked to
    study a handout covering the same problems.

Best Teaching Practices
  • Comparing simulation to other teaching modalities
    demonstrates some slight advantages.
  • Lee, S. K., M. Pardo, et al. "Trauma assessment
    training with a patient simulator a prospective,
    randomized study." Journal of Trauma-Injury
    Infection Critical Care. 55(4)651-7, 2003 Oct.
  • Interns (n 60) attended a basic trauma course,
    and were then randomized to trauma assessment
    practice sessions with either the patient
    simulator (n 30) or a moulage patient (n 30).
    After practice sessions, interns were randomized
    a second time to an individual trauma assessment
    test on either the simulator or the moulage
  • Within randomized groups, mean trauma assessment
    test scores for all simulator-trained interns
    were higher when compared with all
    moulage-trained interns.
  • Use of a patient simulator to introduce trauma
    assessment training is feasible and compares
    favorably to training in a moulage setting.

Best Teaching Practices
  • Simulation can be an effective replacement for
    live practice for some skills.
  • Hall, R. E., J. R. Plant, et al. (2005). "Human
    Patient Simulation Is Effective for Teaching
    Paramedic Students Endotracheal Intubation." Acad
    Emerg Med 12(9) 850-855.
  • Paramedic students (n 36) with no prior ETI
    training received identical didactic and
    mannequin teaching. After randomization, students
    were trained for ten hours on a patient simulator
    (SIM) or with 15 intubations on human subjects in
    the OR. All students then underwent a formalized
    test of 15 intubations in the OR.
  • When tested in the OR, paramedic students who
    were trained in ETI on a simulator are as
    effective as students who trained on human

Best Teaching Practices
  • Learner centered teaching with simulation.
  • Gordon, J. A. and J. Pawlowski (2002). "Education
    on-demand the development of a simulator-based
    medical education service." Academic Medicine.
    77(7) 751-2.
  • Using the simulator, we wanted to create a
    medical education service-like any other clinical
    teaching service, but designed exclusively to
    help students fill in the gaps in their own
    education, on demand. We hoped to mitigate the
    inherent variability of standard clinical
    teaching, and to augment areas of deficiency.
  • Upon arriving at the skills lab for their
    appointments, students would proceed to
    interview, evaluate, and treat the
    mannequin-simulator as if it were a real patient,
    using the instructor for assistance as needed.
    All students participated in an educational
    debriefing after each session.
  • Customized, realistic clinical correlates are now
    readily available for students and teachers,
    allowing reliable access to "the good teaching

Best Teaching Practices
  • Cheap may be as good as expensive.
  • Keyser, E. J., A. M. Derossis, et al. (2000). "A
    simplified simulator for the training and
    evaluation of laparoscopic skills." Surg Endosc
    14(2) 149-53.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare a
    simplified mirrored-box simulator to the video-
    laparoscopic cart system.
  • 22 surgical residents performed seven structured
    tasks in both simulators in random order. Scores
    reflected precision and speed.
  • There were no significant differences in mean raw
    scores between the simulators for six of the
    seven tasks.
  • A mirrored-box simulator was shown to provide a
    reasonable reflection of relative performance of
    laparoscopic skills.

Best Teaching Practices
  • Team behavior can be effected by focused
    simulation experiences.
  • Shapiro, M. J., J. C. Morey, et al. (2004).
    "Simulation based teamwork training for emergency
    department staff does it improve clinical team
    performance when added to an existing didactic
    teamwork curriculum?" Quality Safety in Health
    Care 13(6) 417-21.
  • ED staff who had recently received didactic
    training in the Emergency Team Coordination
    Course (ETCC) also received an 8 hour intensive
    experience in an ED simulator in which three
    scenarios of graduated difficulty were
    encountered. A comparison group, also ETCC
    trained, was assigned to work together in the ED
    for one 8 hour shift.
  • Experimental and comparison teams were observed
    in the ED before and after the intervention.
  • The experimental team showed a trend towards
    improvement in the quality of team behavior (p
    0.07) the comparison group showed no change in
    team behavior during the two observation periods
    (p 0.55).

Best Teaching Practices
  • Innovative use of two new technologies helps to
    engage learners in a large group setting.
  • Vozenilek, J., E. Wang, et al. (2005).
    "Simulation-based Morbidity and Mortality
    Conference New Technologies Augmenting
    Traditional Case-based Presentations." Acad Emerg
    Med j.aem.2005.08.015.
  • The use of two separate technologies were
    enlisted a METI high-fidelity patient simulator
    to re-create the case in a more lifelike fashion,
    and an audience response system to collect
    clinical impressions throughout the case
    presentation and survey data at the end of the
  • The re-creation of the patient encounter with all
    relevant physical findings displayed in high
    fidelity, with relevant laboratory data, nursing
    notes, and imaging as it occurred in the actual
    case, provides a more engaging format for the

Best Teaching Practices
  • Orientation
  • Introduction to session
  • Expectations
  • What is real/what is not
  • Self assessment
  • Debriefing
  • Evaluation

How To Best Use Simulation
  • Provide feedback
  • Give opportunities for repetitive practice
  • Integrate simulation into overall curriculum
  • Provide increasing levels of difficulty
  • Provide clinical variation in scenarios
  • Control environment
  • Provide individual and team learning
  • Define outcomes and benchmarks

Best Teaching Practices
Audience Comments
Best Assessment Practices
  • Simulation has some data to support its use as an
    assessment modality.
  • Schwid, H. A., G. A. Rooke, et al. (2002).
    "Evaluation of anesthesia residents using
    mannequin-based simulation a multiinstitutional
    study." Anesthesiology 97(6) 1434-44.
  • 99 anesthesia residents consented to be
    videotaped during their management of four
    simulated scenarios on MedSim or METI
    mannequin-based anesthesia simulators
  • Construct-related validity of mannequin-based
    simulator assessment was supported by an overall
    improvement in simulator scores from CB and CA-1
    to CA-2 and CA-3 levels of training.
  • Criterion-related validity was supported by
    moderate correlation of simulator scores with
    departmental faculty evaluations (0.37-0.41, P lt
    0.01), ABA written in-training scores (0.44-0.49,
    lt 0.01), and departmental mock oral board scores
    (0.44-0.47, P lt 0.01).
  • Reliability of the simulator assessment was
    demonstrated by very good internal consistency
    (alpha 0.71-0.76) and excellent interrater
    reliability (correlation 0.94-0.96 P lt 0.01
    kappa 0.81-0.90).

Best Assessment Practices
  • Task trainers appear to be a valid method for
    assessing procedural competence.
  • Adrales, G. L., A. E. Park, et al. (2003). "A
    valid method of laparoscopic simulation training
    and competence assessment." Journal of Surgical
    Research 114(2) 156-62.
  • Subjects (N 27) of varying levels of surgical
    experience performed three laparoscopic
    simulations, representing appendectomy (LA),
    cholecystectomy (LC), and inguinal hemiorrhaphy
  • Years of experience directly correlated with the
    skills ratings (all P lt 0.001) and with the
    competence ratings across the three procedures (P
    lt 0.01). Experience inversely correlated with the
    time for each procedure (P lt 0.01) and the
    technical error total across the three models (P
    lt 0.05).

Best Assessment Practices
  • Multiple simulated encounters are needed to
    accurately assess resident abilities.
  • Boulet, J. R., D. Murray, et al. (2003).
    "Reliability and validity of a simulation-based
    acute care skills assessment for medical students
    and residents." Anesthesiology 99(6) 1270-80.
  • The authors developed and tested 10 simulated
    acute care situations that clinical faculty at a
    major medical school expects graduating
    physicians to be able to recognize and treat at
    the conclusion of training. Forty medical
    students and residents participated in the
    evaluation of the exercises.
  • The reliability of the simulation scores was
    moderate and was most strongly influenced by the
    choice and number of simulated encounters.
  • However, multiple simulated encounters, covering
    a broad domain, are needed to effectively and
    accurately estimate student/resident abilities in
    acute care settings.

Best Assessment Practices
  • Checklists scoring of videotaped performance can
    have a high degree of inter-rater reliability.
  • Devitt, J. H., M. M. Kurrek, et al. (1997).
    "Testing the raters inter-rater reliability of
    standardized anaesthesia simulator performance."
    Can J Anaesth 44(9) 924-8.
  • We sought to determine if observers witnessing
    the same event in an anaesthesia simulator would
    agree on their rating of anaesthetist
  • Two one-hour clinical scenarios were developed,
    each containing five anaesthetic problems.
  • Video tape recordings were generated through
    role-playing with recording of the two scenarios
    three times each resulting in a total of 30
    events to be evaluated. Two clinical
    anaesthetists, reviewed and scored each of the 30
    problems independently.
  • The raters were in complete agreement on 29 of
    the 30 items. There was excellent inter- rater
    reliability ( 0.96, P 0.001).

Best Assessment Practices
  • Validation that simulator performance correlates
    with real practice.
  • Fried, G. M., A. M. Derossis, et al. (1999).
    "Comparison of laparoscopic performance in vivo
    with performance measured in a laparoscopic
    simulator." Surg Endosc 13(11) 1077-81
    discussion 1082.
  • Twelve PGY3 residents were given a baseline
    evaluation in the simulator and in the animal
    model. They were then randomized to either five
    practice sessions in the simulator (group A) or
    no practice (group B). Each group was retested in
    the simulator and in the animal (final test).
  • Performance in an in vitro laparoscopic simulator
    correlated significantly with performance in an
    in vivo animal model. Practice in the simulator
    resulted in improved performance in vivo.

Best Assessment Practices
  • ABEM type assessment tools measure performance
    equally well in oral or simulation environments.
  • Gordon, J. A., D. N. Tancredi, et al. (2003).
    "Assessment of a clinical performance evaluation
    tool for use in a simulator-based testing
    environment a pilot study." Academic Medicine
    78(10 Suppl).
  • Twenty-three subjects were evaluated during five
    standardized encounters using a patient
  • Performance in each 15-minute session was
    compared with performance on an identical number
    of oral objective-structured clinical examination
    (OSCE) sessions used as controls.
  • In this pilot, a standardized oral OSCE scoring
    system performed equally well in a
    simulator-based testing environment.

Best Assessment Practices
  • There are many aspects of human
    knowledge/skills/attitudes to assess and the
    correct tool must be used for each one.
  • Kahn, M. J., W. W. Merrill, et al. (2001).
    "Residency program director evaluations do not
    correlate with performance on a required 4th-year
    objective structured clinical examination."
    Teaching Learning in Medicine 13(1) 9-12.
  • We surveyed program directors about the
    performance of 50 graduates from our medical
    school chosen to represent the highest (OSCEHI)
    and lowest (OSCELO) 25 performers on our required
    4th-year OSCE.
  • OSCE scores did not correlate with Likert scores
    for any survey parameter studied (r lt .23, p gt
    .13 for all comparisons). Similarly, program
    director evaluations did not correlate with class
    rank or USMLE scores (r lt .26, p gt .09 for all
  • We concluded that program director evaluations of
    resident performance do not appear to correlate
    with objective tests of either clinical skills or
    knowledge taken during medical school.

Best Assessment Practices
  • Softer competencies like professionalism can be
    assessed with the aid of simulation technology.
  • Gisondi, M. A., R. Smith-Coggins, et al. (2004).
    "Assessment of Resident Professionalism Using
    High-fidelity Simulation of Ethical Dilemmas."
    Acad Emerg Med 11(9) 931-937.
  • Each resident subject participated in a simulated
    critical patient encounter during an Emergency
    Medicine Crisis Resource Management course. An
    ethical dilemma was introduced before the end of
    each simulated encounter. Resident responses to
    that dilemma were compared with a
  • It was observed that senior residents (second and
    third year) performed more checklist items than
    did first-year residents (p lt 0.028 for each
    senior class).
  • Residents performed a critical action with 100
    uniformity across training years in only one
    ethical scenario ("Practicing Procedures on the
    Recently Dead"). Residents performed the fewest
    critical actions and overall checklist items for
    the "Patient Confidentiality" case.
  • Although limited by small sample size, the
    application of this performance-assessment tool
    showed the ability to discriminate between
    experienced and inexperienced EMRs with respect
    to a variety of aspects of professional

Best Assessment Practices
  • The scoring/evaluation system chosen to assess
    simulated performance is critical.
  • Regehr, G., R. Freeman, et al. (1999). "Assessing
    the generalizability of OSCE measures across
    content domains." Academic Medicine 74(12)
  • Students' scores from three OSCEs at one
    institution were correlated to determine the
    generalizability of the scoring systems across
    course domains.
  • Analysis revealed that while checklist scores
    showed quite low correlations across examinations
    from different domains (ranging from 0.14 to
    0.25), global process scores showed quite
    reasonable correlations (ranging from 0.30 to
  • These data would seem to confirm the intuitions
    about each of these measures the checklist
    scores are highly content-specific, while the
    global scores are evaluating a more broadly based
    set of skills.

Best Assessment Practices
  • Learners are smart and will figure out the game.
  • Jones, J. S., S. J. Hunt, et al. (1997).
    "Assessing bedside cardiologic examination skills
    using "Harvey," a cardiology patient simulator ."
    Acad Emerg Med 4(10) 980-5.
  • To assess the cardiovascular physical examination
    skills of emergency medicine (EM) housestaff and
    attending physicians.
  • Prospective, cohort assessment of EM housestaff
    and faculty performance on 3 valvular abnormality
    simulations conducted on the cardiology patient
    simulator, "Harvey."
  • Forty-six EM housestaff (PGY1-3) and attending
    physicians were tested over a 2-month study
    period. Physician responses did not differ
    significantly among the different levels of
    postgraduate training.
  • Housestaff and faculty had difficulty
    establishing a correct diagnosis for simulations
    of 3 common valvular heart diseases. However,
    accurate recognition of a few critical signs was
    associated with a correct diagnosis in each

Best Assessment Practices
  • Determine what you want to assess.
  • Design a simulation that provokes this
  • Observe/record the performance.
  • Analyze the performance using some type of
    rubric checklist, GAS, etc.
  • Debriefing, feedback and teaching.

Best Assessment Practices
Audience Comments
  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Simulation Equipment
  • Best Practice Examples
  • Hands-on Practice

  • Simulation is one tool
  • (new, expensive and exciting)
  • in our educational repertoire.
  • (Similar to lecture, case discussion, skill lab,
    MCQ, SP, etc.)

  • Provide feedback
  • Give opportunities for repetitive practice
  • Integrate simulation into overall curriculum
  • Provide increasing levels of difficulty
  • Provide clinical variation in scenarios
  • Control environment
  • Provide individual and team learning
  • Define outcomes and benchmarks
  • Determine what you want to assess.
  • Design a simulation that provokes this
  • Observe/record the performance.
  • Analyze the performance using some type of
    rubric checklist, GAS, etc.
  • Debriefing, feedback and teaching.

  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Simulation Equipment
  • Best Practice Examples
  • Hands-on Practice

  • Features and uses of high-fidelity medical
    simulations that lead to effective learning a
    BEME systematic review. Issenberg, McGaghie,
    Petrusa, Gordon and Scalese. Medical Teacher, vol
    27, 2005, p 10-28.
  • Loyd GE, Lake CL, Greenberg RB. Practical Health
    Care Simulations. Philadelphia, PA.
    Elsevier-Mosby. 2004.
  • Bond WF, Spillane L, for the CORD Core
    Competencies Simulation Group The use of
    simulation for emergency medicine resident
    assessment. Acad Emerg Med 200291295-1299.
  • ACGME Resources
  • Accessed on Feb 2nd 2006.

Additional References
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    Using standardized patients to measure quality
    evidence from the literature and a prospective
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  • 2. Owen H, Plummer JL. Improving learning of a
    clinical skill the first year's experience of
    teaching endotracheal intubation in a clinical
    simulation facility. Medical Education. 2002
  • 3. Pittini R, Oepkes D, Macrury K, Reznick R,
    Beyene J, Windrim R. Teaching invasive perinatal
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    simulator-based curriculum. Ultrasound in
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  • 4. Kurrek MM, Devitt JH, Cohen M. Cardiac arrest
    in the OR how are our ACLS skills? Can J
    Anaesth. 1998 45130-2.
  • 5. Schwid HA, Rooke GA, Ross BK, Sivarajan M. Use
    of a computerized advanced cardiac life support
    simulator improves retention of advanced cardiac
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  • 6. Rosenblatt MA, Abrams KJ, New York State
    Society of Anesthesiologists I, Committee on
    Continuing Medical E, Remediation, Remediation
    S-C. The use of a human patient simulator in the
    evaluation of and development of a remedial
    prescription for an anesthesiologist with lapsed
    medical skills. Anesthesia Analgesia. 2002
    94149-153, table of contents.
  • 7. Gisondi MA, Smith-Coggins R, Harter PM,
    Soltysik RC, Yarnold PR. Assessment of Resident
    Professionalism Using High-fidelity Simulation of
    Ethical Dilemmas. Acad Emerg Med. 2004
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    Screen-based anesthesia simulation with
    debriefing improves performance in a
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    Learning in Medicine. 2001 1392-96.
  • 9. Gaba DM, Fish K.J., Howard S.K. Crisis
    Management in Anesthesiology. New York Churchill
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  • 10. Reznek M, Smith-Coggins R, Howard S, Kiran K,
    Harter P, Sowb Y, Gaba D, et al. Emergency
    Medicine Crisis Resource Management (EMCRM)
    Pilot Study of a Simulation-based Crisis
    Management Course for Emergency Medicine. Acad
    Emerg Med. 2003 10386-389.
  • 11. Small SD, Wuerz RC, Simon R, Shapiro N, Conn
    A, Setnik G. Demonstration of high-fidelity
    simulation team training for emergency medicine.
    Academic Emergency Medicine. 1999 6312-323.

Additional References
  • 12. Shapiro MJ, Morey JC, Small SD, Langford V,
    Kaylor CJ, Jagminas L, Suner S, et al. Simulation
    based teamwork training for emergency department
    staff does it improve clinical team performance
    when added to an existing didactic teamwork
    curriculum?see comment. Quality Safety in
    Health Care. 2004 13417-421.
  • 13. Berkenstadt H, Ziv A, Barsuk D, Levine I,
    Cohen A, Vardi A. The use of advanced simulation
    in the training of anesthesiologists to treat
    chemical warfare casualties. Anesthesia
    Analgesia. 2003 961739-1742, table of contents.
  • 14. Kyle RR, Via DK, Lowy RJ, Madsen JM, Marty
    AM, Mongan PD. A multidisciplinary approach to
    teach responses to weapons of mass destruction
    and terrorism using combined simulation
    modalities.see comment. Journal of Clinical
    Anesthesia. 2004 16152-158.
  • 15. Kobayashi L, Shapiro MJ, Suner S, Williams
    KA. Disaster medicine the potential role of high
    fidelity medical simulation for mass casualty
    incident training. Medicine Health, Rhode
    Island. 2003 86196-200.
  • 16. Kassirer JPaK, R. I. Learning Clinical
    Reasoning. First ed. Baltimore, MD Williams and
    Wilkins 1991.
  • 17. Bond WF DL, Kostenbader M, Worrilow CC.
    "Using Human Patient Simulation to Instruct
    Emergency Medicine Residents in Cognitive Forcing
    Strategies". Paper presented at Innovation in
    Emergency Medical Education Exhibit, SAEM Annual
    Meeting, . 2003 Boston.
  • 18. Croskerry P. Achieving quality in clinical
    decision making cognitive strategies and
    detection of bias. Academic Emergency Medicine.
    2002 91184-1204.
  • 19. Croskerry P. The importance of cognitive
    errors in diagnosis and strategies to minimize
    them.comment. Academic Medicine. 2003
  • 20. Boulet JR, Murray D, Kras J, Woodhouse J,
    McAllister J, Ziv A. Reliability and validity of
    a simulation-based acute care skills assessment
    for medical students and residents.
    Anesthesiology. 2003 991270-1280.
  • 21. Bond WF, Spillane L. The use of simulation
    for emergency medicine resident assessment.
    Academic Emergency Medicine. 2002 91295-1299.
  • 22. Byrne AJ, Greaves JD. Assessment instruments
    used during anaesthetic simulation review of
    published studies. British Journal of
    Anaesthesia. 2001 86445-450.
  • 23. Gordon JA, Tancredi DN, Binder WD, Wilkerson
    WM, Shaffer DW. Assessment of a clinical
    performance evaluation tool for use in a
    simulator-based testing environment a pilot
    study. Academic Medicine. 2003 78.

Additional References
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    Spillane L, Graff L, Becher J, et al.
    Interobserver variability among faculty in
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    Academic Emergency Medicine. 1999 638-44.
  • 25. Morgan PJ, Cleave-Hogg D, McIlroy J, Devitt
    JH. Simulation technology a comparison of
    experiential and visual learning for
    undergraduate medical students. Anesthesiology.
    2002 9610-16.
  • 26. Schwid HA, Rooke GA, Carline J, Steadman RH,
    Murray WB, Olympio M, Tarver S, et al. Evaluation
    of anesthesia residents using mannequin-based
    simulation a multiinstitutional study.
    Anesthesiology. 2002 971434-1444.
  • 27. Beaulieu MD, R. M., Hudon E, Saucier D,
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    Panacek EA. Martinez D. Brofeldt BT. Cavanaugh
    SH. Open thoracotomy procedural competency
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    modalities. Annals of Emergency Medicine.
    28(6)641-7, 1996 Dec.
  • 29. Cubison, T. C. S. and T. Clare (2002).
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    skills of split-skin graft harvesting and
    meshing." British Journal of Plastic Surgery
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  • 30. Davidson R, D. M., Rathe R, Pauly R, Watson
    RT (2001). "Using standardized patients as
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    cardiac surgery." European Journal of
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  • 32. Maran, N. J. and R. J. Glavin (2003). "Low-
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    medical education?see comment." Medical
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  • 33. Nikendei, C., A. Zeuch, et al. (2005).
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    B. E., S. G. Clyman, et al. (1996). "Are fully
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