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Title: The Solution to Global Warming is to Change the Way we do Things' Why


1
The Solution to Global Warming is to Change the
Way we do Things. Why?
John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA TecEco Managing
Director
2
The Atmosphere
Source IPCC
The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable.
To do this we must take a long term view and
engineer a new way for us to live.
Source Sam Nelson Greenbase
Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen
today, the level of greenhouse gas in the
atmosphere would still reach double its
pre-industrial levels by 2050. In fact, emissions
are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm
could be reached as early as 2035.
Source http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_atmos
phere 17 Feb 08
Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6
3
The Population Paradox
?
?
Undeveloped Countries
Demographic Explosion gt
Developed Countries
Global population, consumption per capita and our
footprint on the planet are continuing to rise
strongly.
The paradox Affluence Population Control
4
CO2 in the Atmosphere
450 ppm
5
Correlation CO2 and Temperature
Source of graphic Hansen, J et. al. Climate
Change and Trace Gases
The correlation between temperature and CO2 in
the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is
very good. All things being equal the simple
answer is usually the right answer (Occams razor)
Reducing emissions will be difficult because of
the correlation between energy and fossil fuels.
Even if emissions reductions were to succeed we
must still get the CO2 out of the air.
The best plan is a holistic one that reduces
emissions and profitably balances the inevitable
releases from our activities with massive
sequestration.
6
Balancing CO2 in the Atmosphere
  • The problem is fundamentally one of CO2 balance,
    not emissions
  • There are two ways the CO2 in the atmosphere can
    be balanced
  • By reducing emissions.
  • By using (sequestering) at least as much carbon
    as we produce.
  • Both strategies require
  • technological change on a scale never before
    imagined.
  • A high long term high price for carbon to drive
    investment that will result in this change.

7
Where are We?
  • The Kyoto Protocol
  • A treaty intended to implement the objectives and
    principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework
    Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • Requires governments to agree to quantified
    limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through
    sequential rounds of negotiations for successive
    commitment periods.
  • The Kyoto treaty is the result of political
    negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the
    surface not a lot more than short term promises
    to reduce emissions that make politicians look
    good, but that their successors cannot possibly
    keep.
  • The Kyoto treaty is not a viable strategy for
    survival in the future - A treaty agreeing to a
    long term plan is required.
  • Constraint
  • With lots of silly targets with no strategy for
    their achievement
  • Talk about Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Not a lot else

8
We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy
Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is
unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions
will be 41 higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford,
M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A Fisher
B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate
Change, paper presented at the Australian
Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th
Annual Conference). www.aares.info/files/2006_maty
sek.pdf.
Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst
fossil fuels remain
A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to
preserve history for many, many generations to
come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the
Virgin Earth Prize
Gaia Engineering is the way to do so John
Harrison
9
Fossil Fuels
Renewable energy growth is unlikely to even
match the forecast growth for the overall
electricity market "History shows that
transforming the primary sources of energy
require enormous investments in infrastructure
and is likely to be a 100-year challenge ExxonMo
bil's own research had shown that by 2030 fossil
fuels would still supply about three-quarters of
the world's total energy demand
Exxon Mobil Australia chairman John Dashwood
American Chamber of Commerce in Australia
Business Luncheon 28 August, 2009
10
Global Primary Energy Consumption Fuel Mix
Source Abare
11
Oil will Decline
Oil prices will naturally rise as demand
outstrips supply.
Where is the R D for oil replacement?
11
11
12
Research and Development into Alternatives
There is not enough research into alternatives
Composition of Australian Government energy
research and development in 2002
13
The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions
World Industrial Product (deflated world GDP' in
real value - i.e. World physical production).
CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units Doubling time
29 years. Data CDIAC statistics GDI.
The correlation between the WIP and the CO2
emissions is very high.
Source Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure
efficiency gain measures to control future
climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome
and the Global Dynamics Institute
14
The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions
  • The correlation between emissions and GDP is high
    because
  • Fossil fuels supply gtgt 90 of the world's energy.
    There is still a lot of coal left.
  • Energy is used to produce goods (WIP).
  • Only in recent years
  • have we been seriously trying to improve
    efficiency (most of the Kyoto effort)
  • there has been a shift to services with lower CO2
    intensity

Energy Money ?
15
The Limits to Efficiency Improvements
There are may ways the second law of
thermodynamics can be enunciated but relevant to
us is Lord Kelvins version. It is impossible
to convert heat completely into work Using
Carnots law it is possible to calculate the
theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine
such as a power station turbine or engine of a
car, bus or train. (Try the calculator at
http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/
carnot.html) Most heat engines run at much lower
efficiencies than the theoretical limit so there
is still scope for improvements however the law
of diminishing returns applies in terms of cost.
16
Efficiency Limitations to Emissions Reduction
Total per capita emissions reduction
Rate of Per Capita Emissions Reduction
Per capita emissions reduction through Pilzer 1st
law substitution (Technology change resource
use change)
Per capita emissions reduction through
thermodynamic efficiency
The Future
2008
Conclusion It is essential that R D into
substitution technologies occurs now in order to
ramp up Pilzer first law substitution later and
avoid thermodynamic constraints. This is not
happening in Australia
17
Kyoto Strategies are Not Working
Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is
unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions
will be 41 higher in 2010 than in 1990, 1 less
than without Kyoto.
Ford M, Matyseka M, et al. (2006). Perspectives
on international climate policy. Australian
Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 50th
Annual Conference, Sydney, ABARE.
www.aares.info/files/2006_matysek.pdf.
We are tracking on worst case scenarios.
Whetton, P, Leader, Climate Impacts Risk Group,
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale,
Vic, Australia in presentation Climate Change
What is the science telling us?
A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to
preserve history for many, many generations to
come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the
Virgin Earth Prize
18
The Techno - Process
Underlying the techno-process that describes and
controls the flow of matter and energy through
the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks
and flows. If out of synch with earth systems
these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects.
To reduce the impact on earth systems new
technical paradigms need to be invented and
cultural changes evolve that result in materials
flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic
or at least do not interfere with natural flows
and that support rather than detrimentally impact
on earth systems.
I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of
immense proportion and importance. John
Harrison, TecEco
19
Detrimental Linkages of the Techno - Process
Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system
flows
Take manipulate and make impacts
End of lifecycle impacts
There is no such place as away
Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno-Sphere
Utility zone
Materials are everything between the take and
waste and affect earth system flows.
Greater Utility
Less Utility
20
Moleconomic Flows
Take ? Manipulate ? Make ? Use ? Waste
?Materials flow? ?
Underlying molecular flow ?
If the underlying molecular flows are out
of tune with nature there is damage to the
environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, chalogen
compounds and CO2
To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our
planet we must first fix the materials flows in a
bottom up approach
21
The Earth System
The earth system consists of positive and
negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by
man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well
as pollution impact right across all
interconnected systems throughout the global
commons.
Atmosphere
Anthropo-sphere
Biosphere
Geosphere
Hydrosphere
22
Earth Systems Science
Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate,
land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal
zones, freshwater salinity etc.
Source graphic NASA
Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a
system in its own right, which evolves as a
result of positive and negative feedback between
constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are
ideally homeostatic.
23
The Carbon Cycle and Emissions
Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production
are a significant cause of global warming.
We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink
After David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National
Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003
24
Darwin - Evolution
As many more individuals of each species are born
than can possibly survive and as, consequently,
there is a frequently recurring struggle for
existence, it follows that any being, if it vary
however slightly in any manner profitable to
itself, under the complex and sometimes varying
conditions of life, will have a better chance of
surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From
the strong principle of inheritance, any selected
variety will tend to propagate its new and
modified form
25
Conclusions
  • Natural selection applies to us.
  • Charles Darwin
  • Natural selection is a too way street. We
    influence our environment
  • William E Rudderman Jarrod Dimond and others
  • There is a global homeostasis and our environment
    may influence us by naturally rejection if it
    changes too much under our influence.
  • John Harrison, James Lovelock

26
A Future with Choices?
  • To avoid future disaster three choices
  • Restraint, change the way we do things or both.
  • Can we have our cake and eat it?.
  • Only if we change the way we do things.

27
Changing the Way we do Things Without Economic
Downsides
  • The challenge is to find ways of reducing CO2 in
    the air without negatively impacting the economy.
  • Substitution to Non Fossil Fuel Sources of Energy
  • Geothermal, Wind, Solar etc.
  • Nuclear
  • Sequestration on a Massive Scale
  • Geo-sequestration (clean coal, hydrogen fuel
    etc.) - limited
  • Anthropogenic sequestration in the built
    environment - our preferred option

I am not going to talk so much about Energy
Substitution in this presentation
28
Changing the Techno-Process
Take gt manipulate gt make gt use gt waste
Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste
impacts.
By changing the technology paradigms we can
change the materials flows and thus the
underlying molecular flows.
Reduce Re-use Recycle
This is biomimicry!
gt Materials gt
The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global
commons
Moleconomics
28
29
Geosequestration
  • Is not safe due to leakage (China recently?)
  • Is not likely to be ready before 2015 for coal
    fired power stations in Australia
  • Authoritative published studies estimate the cost
    of geosequestration at between 30-140/tCO2. (a
    wide range due to so many uncertainties)
  • Added to the cost of coal or hydrogen, these
    sources of energy with geosequestration may be
    more expensive that alternatives.

A long term plan would included the required R
D now
30
Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration
"The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage
may be an extreme one, however the example
illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency
and increased reliance on renewable energy must
be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation.
The higher the expected leakage rate and the
larger the uncertainty, the less attractive
geosequestration is compared to other mitigation
alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy
sources, and improved efficiency in production
and consumption of energy."
Source CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and
Geosequestration, Climate Action Network
Australia.
Downloadable Model at http//www.tececo.com/files/
spreadsheets/GaiaEngineeringVGeoSequestrationV1_26
Apr08.xls
31
Size of Natural Carbon Sinks
Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P.
Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New
Concept." from http//www.netl.doe.gov/publication
s/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/2b2.pdf by the
inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks
32
Carbon Sink Permanence
Carbonate sediment 40,000,000 Gt
Sequestration Permanence and time
Plants 600 Gt
33
Synopsis
  • We must accept our long term role of maintaining
    spaceship earth as planetary engineers and find
    ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide,
    oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at
    desirable levels.
  • We cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases
    in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring
    through efficiency, emissions reduction
    (constraint) or substitution alone
  • Geo-sequestration is at best short term and at
    worst highly risky.
  • We have a good chance of preserving the future if
    we mimic nature and find profitable uses for
    carbon and other wastes.

34
Synopsis (2)
  • Uses for carbon and other wastes must be
    economically driven and result in a real value
    that puts profit in the pocket of a large number
    who will as a consequence wish to engage
    otherwise they cannot be implemented on the
    massive scale required.
  • Anthropogenic sequestration as man made carbonate
    in the built environment is a new technology
    platform that has the promise of profitably
    sequestering massive amounts of carbon
    profitably.
  • The markets created for man made carbonate in
    buildings are insatiable, large enough and
    indefinitely continuing.
  • Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man
    made carbonate is doable and most likely presents
    the only option we have for saving the planet
    from runaway climate change until such time as
    safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to
    fossil fuels can be developed
  • Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man
    made carbonate must be part of any long term
    planetary maintenance strategy.

35
Biomimicry - Geomimicry
  • The term biomimicry was popularised by the book
    of the same name written by Janine Benyus
  • Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that
    uses natural processes and systems as a source of
    knowledge and inspiration.
  • It involves nature as model, measure and mentor.
  • Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models
    geological rather than biological processes.

The theory behind biomimicry is that natural
processes and systems have evolved over several
billion years through a process of research and
development commonly referred to as evolution. A
reoccurring theme in natural systems is the
cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there
is no waste of matter and very little of
energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of
biomimicry and applies to geological rather than
living processes
All natural processes are very economical. We
must also be MUCH more economical
36
Learning to Use Carbon - Geomimicry for Planetary
Engineers?
  • Large tonnages of carbon (7 of the crust) were
    put away during earths geological history as
    limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the
    activity of plants and animals.
  • Orders of magnitude more than as coal or
    petroleum!
  • Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn
    it into wood.
  • These same plants and animals wasted nothing
  • The waste from one is the food or home for
    another.
  • Because of the colossal size of the flows
    involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse
    gas and waste is to use them both in an
    insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing
    market.
  • Such a market exists for building and
    construction materials.

37
Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
  • The required paradigm shift in resource usage
    will not occur because it is the right thing to
    do. It can only happen economically.
  • To put an economic value on carbon and wastes
  • We have no choice but to
  • invent new technical paradigms such as offered by
    TecEco.
  • Evolve culturally to effectively use new these
    technical paradigms
  • By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as
    building materials we can economically reduce
    their concentration in the global commons.

38
Sequestration of Carbon and Wastes as Building
Materials
  • During earth's geological history large tonnages
    of carbon were put away as limestone and other
    carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the
    activity of plants and animals.
  • Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium
    carbonate materials and other wastes in the built
    environment mimics nature in that carbon is used
    in the homes or skeletal structures of most
    plants and animals.

CO2
CO2
In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate
and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and
wastes. This is geomimicry
CO2
C
CO2
Waste
Pervious pavement
39
Geomimicry
  • There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about .4
    grams of calcium in every litre of seawater.
  • There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater
    with replenishment to last billions of years at
    current needs for sequestration.
  • To survive we must build our homes like these
    seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations.
    This is geomimicry
  • Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs
    represent billions of years of sequestration and
    cover 7 - 8 of the crust.

40
Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia
Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle
More about Gaia Engineering at http//www.tececo.c
om.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php
41
Building and Construction Represents an
Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing
Market for Man Made Carbonate Sequestration
  • The built environment is made of materials and is
    our footprint on earth.
  • It comprises buildings and infrastructure.
  • Construction materials comprise
  • 70 of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure
    etc.)
  • 40-50 of waste that goes to landfill (15 of
    new materials going to site are wasted.)
  • Around 50 billion tonnes of building materials
    are used annually on a world wide basis.
  • The single biggest materials flow (after water)
    is concrete at around 18 billion tonnes or gt 2
    tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet.
  • 40 of total energy in the industrialised world
    (researchandmarkets)

Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and
building components from Greensols and
Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?
42
Only the Built Environment is Big Enough
The built environment is our footprint, the major
proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting
legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and
infrastructure
Source of graphics Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007
43
Economically Driven Technological Change
New, more profitable technical paradigms are
required that result in more sustainable
moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or
better, reverse damaging flows from the Techno
Process.
- ECONOMICS -
Change is only possible economically. It will not
happen because it is necessary or right.
44
Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and
Technology Meet
Increase in demand/price ratio for greater
sustainability due to cultural change.

Supply
Equilibrium Shift
Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and
economic growth
ECONOMICS
We must rapidly move both the supply and demand
curves for sustainability
Demand
Increase in supply/price ratio for more
sustainable products due to technical innovation.

A measure of the degree of sustainability is
where the demand for more sustainable
technologies is met by their supply.
45
Changing the Technology Paradigm
It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation
or constraint as a question of changing the
underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials
that require less energy to make them, do not
pollute the environment with CO2 and other
releases, last much longer and that contribute
properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key
is to change the technology paradigms
  • By enabling us to make productive use of
    particular raw materials, technology determines
    what constitutes a physical resource1
  • Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory
    and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown
    Publishers Inc. New York.1990

Or more simply the technical paradigm
determines what is or is not a resource!
46
Cultural Change is Happening!
  • Al Gore (SOS)
  • CSIRO reports
  • STERN Report
  • Lots of Talkfest
  • IPCC Report
  • Political change
  • Branson Prize
  • Live Earth (07/07/07)

The media have an important growing role
47
Gaia Engineering Flowchart
Portland Cement Manufacture
CaO
TecEco Tec-Kiln
Industrial CO2
MgO
Clays
Brine or Sea water
TecEco Cement Manufacture
MgCO3 and CaCO3 Stone
Extraction
Fresh Water
Eco-Cements
Tec-Cements
Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method
chosen
Building components aggregates
Building waste
Built Environment
Other waste
48
Gaia Engineering Process Diagram
Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes
whilst reversing underlying undesirable
moleconomic flows from other less sustainable
techno-processes outside the tececology.
Inputs Atmospheric or industrial CO2, brines,
waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs Carb
onate building materials, potable water, valuable
commodity salts.
Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds
Carbonate building components
Solar or solar derived energy
TecEco Kiln
TecEco MgCO2 Cycle
MgO
Eco-Cement
MgCO3
Extraction Process
1.29 gm/l Mg .412 gm/l Ca
Coal
Fossil fuels
Oil
49
The Technical Case
The Carbon Cycle
Source The Woods Hole Institute converted to
billion metric tonnes or petograms CO2
TecEco plan through Gaia Engineering to modify
the carbon cycle by creating a new man made
carbon sink in the built environment. The need
for a new and very large sink can be appreciated
by considering the balance sheet of global carbon
in the crust after Ziock, H. J. and D. P.
Harrison5 depicted in another slide.
50
Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the
Global Warming Problem
  • Our new technologies will enable easy low cost
    production of carbonate building materials.
  • Our source of calcium or magnesium is from
    seawater, brines or bitterns and our source of
    CO2 can be from the air.
  • If carbonates such as magnesite were our building
    material of choice and we could make it without
    releases as is the case with our Gaia
    Engineering, we have the problem of too much in
    the atmosphere as good as solved!

Anthropogenic sequestration - building with
carbonate and waste is the answer
51
Why Magnesium Carbonates?
  • Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium,
    it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and
    sequestering the gas into the built environment
  • Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more
    CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as the
    calculations below show.
  • At 2.09 of the crust magnesium is the 8th most
    abundant element
  • Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium
    at .412 g/l
  • Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in
    composites making them suitable for the
    utilisation of other wastes.

52
How much Carbonate to Balance Emissions?
MgO H2O gt Mg(OH)2 CO2 2H2O gt
MgCO3.3H2O 40.31 18(l) gt 58.31 44.01(g) 2
X 18(l) gt 138.368 molar masses. 44.01 parts by
mass of CO2 138.368 parts by mass MgCO3.3H2O 1
138.368/44.01 3.144 12 billion tonnes CO2
37.728 billion tonnes of nesquehonite MgO H2O
gt Mg(OH)2 CO2 2H2O gt MgCO3 40.31 18(l) gt
58.31 44.01(g) 2 X 18(l) gt 84.32 molar
masses. CO2 MgCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2
84.32 parts by mass MgCO3 1 84.32/44.01
1.9159 12 billion tonnes CO2 22.99 billion
tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3
gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion
cubic metres 7.63 cubic kilometres of
magnesite CaO H2O gt Ca(OH)2 CO2 2H2O gt
CaCO3 56.08 18(l) gt 74.08 44.01(g) 2 X
18(l) gt 100.09 molar masses. CO2 CaCO3 44.01
parts by mass of CO2 100.09 parts by mass
MgCO3 1 100.09/44.01 2.274 12 billion tonnes
CO2 27.29 billion tonnes calcite (limestone)
The density of calcite is 2.71 gm/cm3 or 2.71
tonne/metre3 Thus 27.29/2.71 billion cubic metres
10.07 cubic kilometres of limestone
Full calculation http//www.tececo.com/sustainabi
lity.carbon_cycles_sinks.php
53
Technical implications
  • A range of hydraulic concretes can be specified
    in which a variable hydroxide component is more
    or less carbonated and in which the silicate
    components (e.g. CSH) play an important catalytic
    role.
  • Coarse and fine aggregate can be made in the same
    way.
  • The kinetics are just as important as the
    thermodynamics of the chemistry.
  • The pH Eh stability fields of concrete can be
    maintained so steel reinforcing can continue to
    be used (subject matter of a new patent).
  • Mixed calcium-magnesium carbonation does not
    result in shrinkage problems.
  • Such concretes are suitable for at least the
    Pareto proportion of uses.

54
How Do we Make Carbonate?
  • The key is to understand the nature of polar or
    hydrogen bonding in water as it is this bonding
    that keeps ions such as calcium and magnesium as
    dissolved species.
  • We have our own highly secret ideas about how to
    sufficiently weaken hydrogen bonding to cause
    massive precipitation of carbonates and there are
    other contenders such as the Calera and Greensols
    process.

55
Global Producion of Cement and Concrete
56
The Economic Case
  • The profit margin for the production of cement
    and concrete is low.
  • Generally less than 5 more often less than 3.
  • It follows that
  • A carbon cost if fully implemented (i.e. a zero
    tax or cap) is likely to be much more than the
    current profit margin.
  • A carbon credit (offset) of the same amount or
    more (as in the case of Gaia Engineering) would
    result in considerably more profit than is
    currently being made.
  • If fully implemented with both binder and
    aggregates made of man made carbonate the
    potential trade in credits or offsets is
    enormous.
  • There is likely to be a high level of government
    support if the technology is promoted by the
    industry.

57
Gaia Engineering Flow chart
Portland Cement Manufacture
CaO
TecEco Tec-Kiln
Industrial CO2
MgO
Clays
Brine or Sea water
TecEco Cement Manufacture
MgCO3 and CaCO3 Stone
Extraction
Fresh Water
Eco-Cements
Tec-Cements
Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method
chosen
Building components aggregates
Building waste
Built Environment
Other waste
58
Gaia Engineering Process Diagram
Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes
whilst reversing underlying undesirable
moleconomic flows from other less sustainable
techno-processes outside the tececology.
Inputs Atmospheric or industrial CO2, brines,
waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs Carb
onate building materials, potable water, valuable
commodity salts.
Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds
Carbonate building components
Solar or solar derived energy
TecEco Kiln
TecEco MgCO2 Cycle
MgO
Eco-Cement
MgCO3
Extraction Process
1.29 gm/l Mg .412 gm/l Ca
Coal
Fossil fuels
Oil
59
Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia
Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle
More about Gaia Engineering at http//www.tececo.c
om.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php
60
Implementation Difficulties
  • Long supply chain. Too big for TecEco to change?
  • No long term secure price for carbon to drive
    investment.
  • Building and construction has huge potential for
    emissions reduction yet is in the too hard
    basket for most governments because of perceived
    difficulties in implementation.

61
Driving the Change to Green
62
Gaia Engineering Summary
  • Gaia Engineering is
  • Potentially profitable
  • Technically feasible
  • Would put the concrete industry back in control
    of the carbon agenda
  • Solve the industries profitability problems
  • Solve the global warming problem
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