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Welcome to IGCSE Geography


But in order to do well you will need to do much more than the hour a week we ... How would steepness (or lack of it) affect lag time? Discharge? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to IGCSE Geography

Welcome to IGCSE Geography
Not that good an impression, but close-ish
  • I am Lindy

IGCSE geography is a good course
  • But in order to do well you will need to do much
    more than the hour a week we are given in class.
  • To help you with this I have started a wiki
    specially for you guys
  • There will be
  • copies of all the files we use in class and
  • together with other links that I hope will be

The wiki is called
  • Ysgol Rhyngrwyd IGCSE Geography
  • the reason for that you can find on the site!
  • The link is
  • http//ysgol-rhyngrwyd-igcse.wikispaces.com/
  • I have also started a blog for the school, where
    I put new items that might be of interest and/or
    help you with your lessons called Coach House
    geography and is found at
  • http//lindym.wordpress.com/

Every week
  • I will email you ( and store on the site) a
    worksheet for class time.
  • You will use it to scribble on so print it off
    before class I never need see it, but you will
    find it useful when it comes to homework/revision
    to have some notes made. Start a file for these
    to be kept in.
  • If you really cannot get it printed off for
    whatever reason, I suggest you keep it open on
    your desktop during class.

Because geography is quite graphics intensive
  • I tend to have several short topics each lesson
  • Each of these will have some homework associated
    with them it might be a simple quiz
  • Or it might be something a bit more complicated.
  • But keeping up to date with homework is ESSENTIAL
    if you are to get a good grade next year.

The Course
  • Unit 1 People and the natural environment
  • Unit 1A Water
  • Unit 1B Hazards
  • Unit 2 People and work
  • Unit 2A Production
  • Unit 2B Development
  • Unit 3 People and places
  • Unit 3A Migration
  • Unit 3B Urban environments
  • Unit 4 Global issues
  • Unit 4A Fragile environments
  • Unit 4B Globalisation
  • Unit 4C Human Welfare

Geography IGCSE
  • Lesson 1

  • Unit 1.1.A The Hydrological Cycle

  • 3. What is happening at No3?
  • 4. And No 4?
  • 5. Now No 5 is in 2 places it is a very much
    simplified version of what happens what is it
    trying to show?
  • 6. Where does all this water eventually end up?
  • Now lets try and fill in some of the gaps this
    one is far too simple!
  • What is happening here?
  • 1. What do the yellow wiggly lines from the sun
    with No 1 attached indicate?
  • 2.What about the blue wiggly lines from the sea
    show with No 2?

  • Now the original simple version implied that the
    sun warmed the ocean which caused some of the sea
    water to evaporate, rise, condense to become
  • But is the ocean the only place where water
    evaporates from?
  • Where else?

So where have we got to?
  • Water evaporates mostly from the ocean, but also
    from rivers, lakes, the soil and from plants.
  • This due to energy from the sun warming the water
    in all these places, allowing it to turn into
    water vapour.
  • As it is warm, the water vapour rises into the
  • As it gets higher, it cools.
  • Cool air can hold less water vapour than warm air
    and so some condenses to form clouds.
  • As more tiny drops of water from, they join,
    getting heavier all the time.
  • Eventually they are heavy enough to be pulled
    back to earth as precipitation in some form, and
    depending on the conditions they fall as rain,
    hail, sleet or snow.

This where we have got to
So once the rain has fallen, the water can stay
where it is or move. If it is going to stay
where it is, where might this be?
If it stays where it is
  • It could catch on the leaves and branches of the
    plants we say the water has been intercepted
  • It could fall into lakes and rivers
  • Puddles could form on the surface. These are all
    fresh water surface storage
  • Some more snow may fall on the icecap or glacier
    this is glacial storage
  • All these are called stores
  • There are another couple of stores as well for

This where we have got to
If the water is going to move, how might this
If it moves
  • It could run down a slope surface run-off
  • It could drop into the river and be carried away
  • It could drip off the trees onto the ground
  • It could soak into the soil this is called
  • If it goes even further down into the spaces
    between a permeable rock, this is called
  • All these are called flows

This is the whole thing
There are 2 flows and one intrusion (another
flow), and 3 storages that we have not talked
about? Also what is the blue dotted line for?
Fresh water storage
Salt water storage
Ground water storage
Water table
So summing up .
  • The missing terms were
  • Fresh surface water storage in lakes and
  • Subsurface flow (or sometimes through flow) we
    have lots of that out every bank in wet weather
    little springs give evidence of it
  • Ground water flow this is water that flows over
    the top of the water table as there is no more
    spaces left to fill
  • Salt water intrusion comes in from the sea
    ever dug a castle on the beach and had water
    filling the hole taste it and you would find
    that is salt water intrusion
  • Ground water storage is the water stored in the
    water table that can stay there for 1000s of
    years more about bore holes another time!
  • The water table is the top layer of rock below
    which all the cracks and crevices in the
    permeable rock is filled

Homework on this topic
  • Download the sheet for homework
  • Visit as many of the games as you like as often
    as you like.
  • Once you feel happy with it, go for the
    HotPotatoes quiz this records marks, times and
    what you answered it is against the clock so
    do not go there until you know your stuff! By the
    way there is nothing to stop you doing the quiz
    more than once after all getting it wrong to
    start with and right later means you have learnt
    something. And that is good your best mark is
    your recorded one!

Unit 1.1B The Drainage Basin
  • As you see the watershed is the line that defines
    the limits of the drainage basin.
  • Any water that lands within its limits (green
    arrows) will run off or infiltrate and most will
    eventually end up in the river channel.
  • Any water falling on the other side of the
    watershed (red arrows) will end up in another
    drainage basin

More thoughts
  • What is the difference between a tributary and a
  • A source and a mouth?
  • A river basin and a river channel?
  • Remember we said the hydrological system was a
    closed system? What did that mean?
  • Do you think a drainage basin is an open or
    closed system? Why?

More thoughts
  • What do you think might make the flow through one
    drainage basin quicker or slower than another
  • Why do we might we need to know whether a river
    basin has a fast flow through or not?
  • What might help us find out which river system is
    likely to cause a problem and which isnt? What
    would we have to measure?
  • http//techalive.mtu.edu/meec/demo/Watershed.html
    a great animation of a drainage basin
  • HOMEWORK another HotPotatoes quiz!

Unit 1.2 River Regimes Hydrographs
So .
  • We were working our way toward the idea that
    flooding is one of the problems within in river
  • I hope we also got to the idea that we would need
    to link rainfall with how much water and how
    quickly the water reaches the river.
  • And that this was to an extent dependent on some
    of the features of the river basin the things
    that make the run-off slower or faster
  • We have a geographical technique that can show
    how the rainfall and amount of water in river
    channels or even outside of the river channel
    if the rainfall is very heavy can be linked.

So .
  • If we measure the rainfall and put it on a time
    graph and link that to the amount of water in the
    river, we have some really useful information!
  • This graph is hydrograph. It plots rainfall
    against discharge (that is the amount of water in
    the river as it passes a particular point
    measured in cubic metres per seconds or cumecs).
  • Changes measured over time is river regime - eg
    in winter more rain, less evaporation, less
    vegetation to absorb it.

This what a hydrograph looks like
Often you will have mm for rain on the left
vertical axes and cumecs on the right vertical
Words Ideas
  • Lag time peak discharge peak rainfall
  • The angle of the rising limb (the line from
    Normal or base flow up to peak flow) is very
    dependent on how quickly the water in the river
  • The peak flow depends on how much of the rainfall
    actually ends up in the river does some
    evaporate or does it soak into the ground or does
    it all run straight down the slope into the river?

Variations in discharge
  • How would climate affect lag time? Discharge?
  • How would vegetation (or lack of it) affect lag
    time? Discharge?
  • How would steepness (or lack of it) affect lag
    time? Discharge?
  • How would rock type affect lag time? Discharge?
  • How the size of the drainage basin affect lag
    time? Discharge?
  • How would urbanisation affect lag time?
  • How might abstraction/ dams affect discharge?

Variations in discharge - summary
  • Climate (amount/intensity of rain influence lag
  • Lots of trees/vegetation increase intercept, slow
    lag time bare ground speeds it up
  • Relief steep slopes increase speed of run-off
  • Flat land water infiltrates soil, less run-off
  • Rock type impermeable run-off, permeable
  • large drainage basin takes longer
  • Tarmac speeds up run-off
  • Abstraction/ dams affect discharge

  • Here are 4 hydrographs, each with outputs from 2
    different conditions on them.
  • We will look at them one at a time, notice the
    differences in the graph and then decide which is

Graph A
  • Recall that the blue graph on the lower left is
    telling you how many mm of rainfall fell in the
  • First of all, how are the 2 graphs different from
    one another?
  • Now which is the large basin and which is the
    small one? Explain
  • These 2 are different because they have different
    sized drainage basins one small and one large

Graph B
  • First of all, how are the 2 graphs different from
    one another?
  • Now which is the bare earth basin and which is
    forested. Explain.
  • These 2 different types of ground cover in their
    basins one is mostly bare earth, while the
    other well forested

Graph C
  • First of all, how are the 2 graphs different from
    one another?
  • Now which is gently sloping and which is steep
    sided? Explain.
  • These 2 different shapes of basin one has
    gently sloping sides and the other is very steep

Graph D
  • First of all, how are the 2 graphs different from
    one another?
  • Now which has permeable rock and which has
    impermeable rock? Explain.
  • These 2 basins have different kinds of rock. One
    of them has permeable rock while the other has
    impermeable rock.
  • Do you know the difference?

  • There is a blank graph in word.
  • It has some data for you to fill in and some
    labels round it for you to draw lines to the
    points on the graph.
  • Instructions are on the sheet as to how to do it
    on your computers
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