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Foundations of Orientation and Mobility

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Title: Foundations of Orientation and Mobility


1
Foundations of Orientation and Mobility
  • Third Edition
  • Wiener, Blasch, Welsh Editors
  • Over 50 Authors

2
Third Edition
  • Update from second edition
  • Expansion into new areas
  • The amount of information generated between
    editions has grown enormously
  • more complex build environment
  • quiet cars
  • technology provides more information about the
    environment

3
Organization
  • Textbook organized as a two volume set
  • First volume focusing on history and theory
  • Second volume would focus on the application of
    these theories
  • Many of the chapters in the first volume have
    accompanying chapters in volume two
  • There is cross referencing between the two
    volumes

4
Structural Elements
  • Questions at the beginning of each chapter to
    promote inquiry based learning 
  • Following each chapter, implications are provided
    as a review of important points
  • Suggestions for independent learning activities
    are offered as an opportunity for readers to
    extend their understanding of the concepts
    presented

5
Assessment Considerations
  • Consideration was given to including a separate
    chapter on assessment
  • Chose instead to embed information about
    assessment in several of the chapters
  • individualized to the population being discussed
  • type of service for which assessment is required
  • Comprehensive treatment of assessment in chapters
    that relate to
  • administration
  • low vision
  • school age children
  • many other chapters

6
Volume One
History, theory, and fundamentals of OM
7
Chapters 1-6
  • Section one on the basic elements of human
    sensory systems

8
Volume 1 Chapter 1 PERCEIVING TO MOVE AND MOVING
TO PERCEIVE CONTROL OF LOCOMOTION BY STUDENTS
WITH VISION LOSS - Guth, Rieser, and Ashmead
  • How perception and movement are intertwined
  • theories and research findings on perceptual
    input
  • walking and environmental flow
  • perceptual and motor learning
  • intersensory integration
  • perceptual error
  • perceiving with low vision
  • perceiving without vision
  • crossing streets without vision
  • cognitive mapping
  • path integration
  • spatial orientation

9
Chapter 1 Environmental Flow
10
Volume 1 Chapter 2 ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING
ORIENTATION FOR OM - Long and Giudice
  • Concepts of orientation such as
  • updating
  • frames of reference
  • impact of information access
  • cognitive mapping
  • organizing space through recognition of critical
    features
  • reestablishing orientation
  • learning new places

11
Chapter 2 Allocentric
12
Volume 1 Chapter 3 LOW VISION FOR OM - Geruschat
and Smith
  • The history and theory of low vision
  • research in low vision and mobility
  • measurement of visual performance
  • functional vision problems
  • differences between reduced acuity and field
  • implications of anatomy and physiological
    limitations
  • optical and non optical devices
  • the use of blindfolding

13
Chapter 3 Low Vision Aids
14
Volume 1 Chapter 4 AUDITION FOR STUDENTS WITH
VISION LOSS Lawson and Wiener
  • The theory of hearing and use of special
    functions for travel
  • principles of sound and audition
  • the anatomy of the hearing system
  • how the hearing mechanism works and is evaluated
  • theory of hearing aids
  • special needs of travelers who are blind such as
  • localization
  • use of reflected sound
  • detecting quiet cars
  • use of traffic sound

15
Chapter 4
16
Volume 1 Chapter 5 KINESIOLOGY AND SENSORIMOTOR
FUNCTIONING FOR STUDENTS WITH VISION LOSS - Rosen
  • Provides basis for understanding how development
    effects movement
  • various issues that affect posture and gate
  • the impact of cognitive and visual impairment on
    sensory-motor development
  • implications for mobility caused by impairment of
    sensory motor development
  • exploratory movement
  • sensory awareness and learning
  • self stimulatory behaviors
  • the role that muscle tone, stability,
    coordination, reflexes, posture, balance, and
    gait play in development of effective mobility

17
Chapter 5
18
Volume 1 Chapter 6 PSYCHOSOCIAL DIMENSSIONS OF
OM - Welsh
  • Examines the psychosocial factors that affect
    behavior as one learns how to travel
  • theories of psychosocial functioning
  • adjustment and vision loss
  • the relationship between OM and adjustment
  • cognitive theory and the self concept
  • self efficacy and mobility
  • theories of motivation
  • contribution of fear and anxiety
  • attitudes toward blindness
  • family dynamics

19
Chapters 7 -12
  • Next set of chapters address a number of other
    issues that are important to learning to travel
    without vision

20
Volume 1 Chapter 7 LEARNING THEORIES AND TEACHING
METHODOLOGIES FOR OM - Jacobson and Bradley
  • Identification of the various learning theories
    and how they can be applied in teaching
    orientation and mobility
  • behavioral learning theory
  • cognitive learning theory
  • social cognitive theory
  • memory and information processing
  • guided learning
  • discovery learning

21
Chapter 7
22
Volume 1 Chapter 8 ADAPTIVE TECHOLOGY FOR OM -
Smith and Penrod
  • Description of the various types of adaptive
    technology
  • canes
  • adaptive mobility devices
  • historical electronic travel aids
  • current primary and secondary electronic travel
    aids
  • electronic orientation aids

23
Chapter 8
24
Volume 1 Chapter 9 DOG GUIDES FOR OM - Franck,
Haneline, Brooks, and Whitstock
  • The history and use of dog guides
  • the development of dog guides
  • the functioning of dog guides
  • the handlers responsibilities
  • dog guide schools and organizations
  • the use of service dogs

25
Chapter 8
26
Volume 1 Chapter 10 ORIENTATION AIDS FOR STUDENTS
WITH VISION LOSS - Bentzen and Marston
  • The basis for orientation aids
  • spatial and cognitive mapping
  • categories of orientation aids and examples of
    their usage
  • digital maps and their use with global
    positioning satellite systems

27
Chapter 10
28
Volume 1 Chapter 11 ENVIRONMENTAL ACCESSIBILITY
FOR STUDENTS WITH VISION LOSS - Barlow, Bentzen,
and Franck
  • Environmental access issues
  • universal design
  • accessibility standards and guidelines
  • accessibility of buildings
  • signage
  • sidewalks and street crossings
  • ramps
  • detectable warnings
  • types and features of accessible pedestrian
    signals
  • intersection configuration
  • determining when to cross different types of
    intersections
  • accessibility of transit systems
  • the responsibility of the OM specialist in
    working towards accessibility

29
Chapter 11
30
Volume 1 Chapter 12 ADMINISTRATION, ASSESSMENT,
AND PROGRAM PLANNING OF OM SERVICES - Bina,
Naimy, Fazzi, and Crouse
  • Understanding and constructing quality programs
  • administration, assessment, and program planning
  • Laws and policies
  • eligibility for services
  • services delivery options
  • administrative planning
  • selecting training environments
  • third party reimbursement
  • trends in service
  • standards of high quality programs
  • safety and risk management
  • provides a framework for evaluating students that
    leads to individual program planning

31
Chapter 12
32
Chapters 13-16
  • The next group of chapters highlight the
    development and growth of OM

33
Volume 1 Chapter 13 THE HISTORY AND PROGRESSION
OF THE PROFESSION OF OM - Wiener and Siffermann
  • History of the profession and updates on current
    issues
  • distance education
  • non-visual programs
  • current certification
  • alternative certification
  • university program review
  • visual occlusion training
  • instruction through group lessons
  • Dept. of Education study comparing certifications

34
Volume 1 Chapter 14 THE ORIGINATORS OF OM
TRAINING - Bledsoe
  • Origin of orientation and mobility and the people
    responsible for it as it developed
  • Summary of an interview by Welsh with Russell
    Williams that sheds new light on his role as a
    blind man in the early development of techniques

35
Chapter 14
36
Volume 1 Chapter 15 DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROFESSION
OF OM AROUND THE WORLD - Noy and LaGrow
  • Overview of the growth of orientation and
    mobility around the world.
  • the United Kingdom and Northern and Western
    Europe
  • Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union
  • the South Pacific and Asia
  • India
  • Bangladesh
  • Tajikistan
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • the Middle East and Africa
  • Canada
  • Latin and South America

37
Chapter 15
38
Volume 1 Chapter 16 RESEARCH AND THE OM
SPECIALIST - Wall-Emerson and De lAune
  • Fundamentals of research in the profession
  • Various research approaches and designs such as
  • descriptive
  • experimental
  • single subject
  • small sample
  • surveys
  • data analysis using those designs
  • Examples of OM research using different designs
    and highlights a pragmatic approach to research
    design
  • Demographics used as the basis for population
    figures in other chapters in the book.

39
Volume Two
Complements the first volume by providing more of
a focus on the application of many of the
principles that were identified in Volume One
40
Innovations
  • Some of the chapters in Volume Two address issues
    that have not previously been included in a text
    on orientation and mobility.
  • Analysis of techniques that provide substitute
    information
  • cortical visual impairment
  • travel in adverse weather
  • use of transportation systems
  • travel at complex intersections

41
Chapters 1-6
  • Initial chapters in Volume Two and focus on the
    improvement of the basic sensory systems
  • Often the chapters in this volume begin with the
    terms improving or teaching

42
Volume 2 Chapter 1 IMPROVING PERCEPTION FOR OM
- LaGrow
  • How the theories and principles of perception are
    applied in the fundamental techniques that have
    been the foundation of the profession
  • Explains how techniques are designed to use
    alternative forms of perception to substitute
    for vision
  • basic components of the human guide and long cane
    techniques that are taught indoors and outdoors
    are designed to enhance the perception of the
    environment

43
Volume 2 Chapter 2 IMPROVING ORIENTATION FOR
STUDENTS WITH VISION LOSS - Bozeman and McCulley
  • Information on how we teach children and adults
    to establish and maintain their orientation in
    the environment
  • strategies to assist with organization of spatial
    information
  • body awareness
  • spatial relationships
  • spatial updating
  • concept formation
  • exploration
  • reorientation
  • integrating sensory and perceptual skills
  • teaching learner-based strategies for children
    and adults

44
Chapter 2
45
Volume 2 Chapter 3 IMPROVING THE USE OF LOW
VISION FOR OM - Geruschat and Smith
  • How the professional provides instruction to
    individuals with low vision
  • clinical low vision assessment
  • functional assessment
  • training in visual motor skills
  • use of mobility techniques with low vision
  • use of optical devices

46
Chapter 3
47
Volume 2 Chapter 4 IMPROVING THE USE OF HEARING
FOR OM - Lawson and Wiener
  • Instruction on how to develop better orientation
    through the use of hearing
  • Functional hearing assessment
  • auditory training for OM in natural settings and
    with recordings
  • hearing aid usage
  • assistive listening devices and implants
  • the role of the OM specialist

48
Chapter 4
49
Volume 2 Chapter 5 IMPROVING SENSORIMOTOR
FUNCTIONING FOR OM - Rosen
  • How to facilitate sensorimotor development and
    functioning in children and adults
  • assessment of sensory functioning muscle tone,
    and integration of neurological reflexes and
    reactions
  • methods of assisting children to develop the
    necessary building blocks while providing adults
    with remediation where possible

50
Chapter 5
51
Volume 2 Chapter 6 IMPROVING PSYCHOSOCIAL
FUNCTIONING FOR OM - Welsh
  • How OM teaching strategies are used to overcome
    psychosocial barriers to mobility
  • relationship between the student and the
    instructor
  • assessment of psychosocial functioning
  • planning
  • lesson sequencing
  • involving families
  • interacting with the public

52
Chapters 7-10
  • The second group of chapters focuses on the
    special needs of general groups of students

53
Volume 2 Chapter 7 TEACHING OM FOR THE EARLY
CHILDHOOD YEARS - Skellenger and Sapp
  • Activities for effective teaching of children in
    early childhood
  • legislative support
  • early intervention
  • developmental stages
  • integration of sensory experiences
  • working with families
  • working with teams
  • assessment activities
  • lesson planning
  • curriculum content
  • use of motivating materials
  • concept development
  • ambulatory and non-ambulatory children
  • children with multiple impairments

54
Chapter 7
55
Volume 2 Chapter 8 TEACHING OM TO SCHOOL AGE
CHILDREN - Fazzi and Naimy
  • Activities for teaching children of school age
  • planning for programs of excellence
  • age appropriate curricular guidelines
  • individualized assessment and planning
  • teaching approaches and tools
  • organizing for delivery of services
  • establishing school and family partnerships

56
Chapter 8
57
Volume 2 Chapter 9 TEACHING OM TO ADULTS - Welsh
  • Information on providing instruction to adults
  • characteristics of adults with visual impairment
  • adjustment to visual loss
  • approaches to adult learning
  • assessment and program planning
  • implementing a training program
  • vocational rehabilitation
  • service delivery options for adults

58
Volume 2 Chapter 10 TEACHING OM TO OLDER ADULTS
- Griffin-Shirley and Welsh
  • Practical information on working with older
    adults
  • general conditions related to aging
  • general health status
  • demographics of aging
  • strategies for teaching older persons
  • andragogy
  • scheduling issues
  • use of memory tools
  • environmental modifications
  • avoiding falls
  • resolving disorientation
  • OM outcomes
  • programming structures
  • interacting with the aging system

59
Chapters 11-16
  • The next group of chapters focus on the use of
    specialized tools and environmental elements that
    are of use in the teaching of OM

60
Volume 2 Chapter 11 TEACHING THE USE OF
ORIENTATION AIDS FOR OM - Bentzen and Marston
  • Focuses on teaching the use of orientation aids
  • designing maps
  • selecting materials for producing maps
  • teaching map reading concepts and skills and
    exploration
  • route planning and travel using GIS and GIS/GPS
    devices

61
Chapter 11
62
Volume 2 Chapter 12 TEACHING TRAVEL AT COMPLEX
INTERSECTIONS - Barlow, Bentzen, Franck, and
Sauerburger
  • cover the essential topics of how to travel at
    complex intersections
  • street crossing tasks
  • problem issues
  • alignment techniques
  • medians
  • channelized turn lanes
  • roundabouts
  • ramp and corner configurations
  • vehicle signalization and phasing plans
  • risk assessment
  • judging traffic gaps
  • detecting curb ramps
  • understanding intersection geometry
  • using techniques for street detection
  • crossing at different types of unsignalized and
    signalized intersections

63
Chapter 12
64
Volume 2 Chapter 13 TEACHING THE USE OF
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FOR OM - Dodson-Burk,
Myers, and Park-Leach
  • Practical information for cane and dog guide
    users regarding modes of transportation
  • components of transit trips
  • system accessibility
  • urban bus travel
  • training of transit personnel
  • rail travel
  • paratransit systems
  • taxi service
  • air travel
  • over- the-road bus service

65
Chapter 13
66
Volume 2 Chapter 14 TEACHING THE USE OF
ELECTRONIC TRAVEL AND ELECTRONIC ORIENTATION
AIDS - Penrod, Haneline, Corbett, and Smith
  • Provides lesson plans for use of generic
    electronic travel aids and GPS orientation aids
  • instruction on selecting environments
  • preparation for training
  • teaching the use of the devices

67
Chapter 14
68
Volume 2 Chapter 15 TEACHING OM FOR ADVERSE
WEATHER CONDITIONS - Couturier and Ratelle
  • Guidance for travel in adverse weather conditions
  • traveling in winter conditions
  • selecting clothing, footwear and equipment
  • scheduling lessons
  • avoiding slips and falls
  • selecting canes
  • traveling in rain, strong winds, and fog
  • traveling in extreme heat and hot weather

69
Chapter 15
70
Volume 2 Chapter 16 DOG GUIDES AND THE OM
SPECIALIST - Franck, Haneline, and Brooks
  • Information on how to select and prepare an
    individual for dog guide training and how to
    solve basic problems
  • information on acceptance standards
  • assessing user potential
  • preparing the student
  • the role of the OM specialist in trouble
    shooting
  • providing orientation assistance

71
Chapter 16
72
Chapters 17-21
  • The final group of chapters in Volume Two
    examines the methods and special requirements for
    teaching students with additional disabilities

73
Volume 2 Chapter 17 TEACHING OM TO STUDENTS
WITH VISION AND HEARING LOSS - Lolli,
Sauerburger, and Bourquin
  • Application of orientation and mobility to
    working with individuals with vision and hearing
    loss
  • the deaf-blind population
  • cultural issues
  • communication methods
  • use of interpreting services
  • modification of the OM curriculum
  • street crossings
  • use of public transportation
  • use of APS
  • use of dog guides are addressed

74
Chapter 17
75
Volume 2 Chapter 18 TEACHING OM TO STUDENTS
WITH VISUAL, PHYSICAL, AND HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS
Rosen and Crawford
  • How to teach learners with physical and health
    impairments.
  • Overview of common physical and health
    impairments
  • Use of ambulatory aids and modifications of
    mobility techniques
  • wheelchairs
  • Scooters
  • Canes
  • Crutches
  • walkers

76
Chapter 18
77
Volume 2 Chapter 19 TEACHING OM TO STUDENTS
WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS AND VISION LOSS -
Rosen and Crawford
  • Information on how to teach students with
    cognitive impairments
  • Six classifications of impairment
  • Strategies for addressing ten skill areas
  • attention
  • sensory integration
  • behavior
  • memory
  • concept development
  • generalization
  • problem solving
  • social skills
  • orientation strategies
  • mobility techniques.
  • Charts that provide examples of levels of goals
    for the skill areas

78
Chapter 19
79
Volume 2 Chapter 20 TEACHING OM TO STUDENTS
WITH CORTICAL VISUAL IMPAIRMENT - Roman-Lantzy
  • information on teaching students with cortical
    visual impairment (CVI)
  • visual and behavioral characteristics of students
    with CVI
  • assessment and program planning
  • instruction strategies based upon cortical visual
    impairment ranges

80
Chapter 20
81
Volume 2 Chapter 21 TRAVEL INSTRUCTION FOR
STUDENTS WITH NONVISUAL DISABILITIES - Blasch,
Wiener, Voorhees, Minick, and Furlong
  • Future of travel instruction for persons with
    disabilities other than blindness
  • services that have been provided through schools
    and agencies and preparation of instructors
    through university programs
  • similarities and differences between orientation
    and mobility for students with visual impairment
    and travel instruction for people with other
    disabilities.
  • interventions and provides a model for provision
    of service

82
Book Availability
  • Summer of 2010
  • Purchase as set or single volume
  • Purchase of electronic chapters
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