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Fish oil

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Title: Fish oil


1
Fish oil
  • Lana Garrett
  • Nutrition 4320
  • March 2007

2
Why Fish oil???
  • Personal Interest
  • Ganglion cist and because I dont get enough!
  • Family
  • Public Interest
  • Scientific Research is exploding
  • Health Benefits are intriguing

3
Overview of Presentation
  • Description and History
  • Nutrient Composition
  • Health Claims
  • Roles in the Body
  • Science Supporting the claims
  • Recommendations
  • Conclusion

4
What is Fish oil?
  • Omega-3 long chain PUFA
  • Essential because it is not synthesized in the
    body.
  • Contains Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
  • Produced by ALA in the body.
  • EPA and DHA are considered to be the most
    important FA for brain function.
  • Fish get their high omega-3 content from eating
    algae.

5
History of Fish oil
  • Omega-3 FA have been a part of the Human Diet for
    millennia.
  • Homo Sapiens evolved in an omega-3 rich
    environment.
  • Omega-3 consumption has declined over the past
    century.
  • 1994 the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food
    Policy (COMA) published findings of the benefits
    on cardiovascular health.
  • Since 1994, more extensive research has been
    conducted.

6
Nutrient Composition
  • Rich sources of omega-3 FA, particularly
    eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic
    acid (DHA).
  • Some supplements contain Vitamin E.
  • 180 mg of EPA and 120 mg of DHA

7
Food Sources and Preparation Considerations
  • Diet sources are preferred, but for larger doses
    supplementation may be necessary.
  • Supplements comparable to fish consumption.
  • Cold water, fatty fish such as salmon, swordfish,
    shark, sardines, mackerel, and herring are
    richest sources.
  • To prevent aftertaste try freezing the capsules.
  • To reduce exposure to contaminants remove the
    skin and fat from fish before cooking them.
  • Although skinning and trimming doesnt reduce
    mercury content.

8
Health Claims
  • Brain Development
  • Inflammation
  • Mental Disorders
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Cancer
  • Kidney Disease
  • Menopause
  • Crohns Disease
  • Type II Diabetes
  • Asthma
  • Dyslexia
  • Migraine Headaches
  • Lupus
  • Suicide
  • Respiratory Diseases
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder
  • Blindness

9
Brain Development
  • DHA and EPA are main components in neurological
    function and play a key role in brain
    development.
  • DHA deficiency in brain.
  • uses other PUFA, thus changing brain function.
  • Increased maternal consumption increasing fetal
    omega-3 levels in the brain, thus potentially
    benefiting the fetus.
  • Breast milk has high levels of DHA.
  • Infants whose mothers received fish oil
    supplementation were followed up at 4 years of
    age and tested higher in mental processing than
    the control group.
  • The omega 63 ratio has increased from 11 to
    171 (101, 20-301)
  • Due to increase of vegetable oils and margarine
    and low fish intake.
  • Can benefit visual acuity and cognitive
    development.
  • Strong human evidence is lacking.

10
Inflammation
  • Growing evidence from animal and human studies
    suggesting therapeutic properties in treating
    inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid
    arthritis.
  • Studies show a significant reduction in the
    number of tender joints and morning stiffness
    after 3 months of therapy consuming 3 g of fish
    oil per day.
  • Comparable to NSAIDs.
  • More severe inflammation in consumers of omega-6
    FA than omega-3.

11
Mental Disorders
  • Perhaps one of the most intriguing area for
    potential benefits.
  • High fish oil consumption is linked to lower
    rates of depression.
  • Therapeutic properties for depression, bipolar
    disorders and schizophrenia.
  • Depression rates as high as 21 percent of the
    general U.S. population.
  • Linked with the increase of omega-6 and decrease
    of omega-3.
  • Useful in the treatment of depression at dosages
    of 0.2 g-9.6 g EPADHA.
  • Very large studies are needed.

12
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Widely accepted that it reduces the risk of
    cardiovascular disease.
  • One or two fish meals a week will significantly
    reduce the risk for CHD.
  • Although, some reports have not confirmed these
    conclusions.
  • Possibly because the mercury content counteracts
    the benefits of omega-3 FA by increasing free
    radical production or by inactivating antioxidant
    mechanisms.

13
Risks and Benefits
  • Risks/side effects
  • Fishy aftertaste and belching
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances
  • Nausea
  • Mercury content
  • Pregnant women and lactating women advised not to
    consume large amount of fish due to mercury
    content
  • Benefits
  • Similar effects to LDL-cholesterol lowering
    therapy, lifestyle change, and vigorous exercise.
  • No documented cases of abnormal bleeding
    resulting in fish oil supplements.
  • Well-tolerated.
  • No significant drug interactions.

14
Roles in the Body
  • Major structural component of phospholipids in
    neuronal cell membranes.
  • Predominant structural fatty acids in the grey
    matter of the brain.
  • EPA is a substrate for the initial enzymes in
    prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis.
  • The breakdown of omega-3 and 6 share the same
    enzyme.
  • Preference for omega 3, but can switch to omega-6
    due to an excess of omega 6 consumption.

15
Science supporting the claims
  • Strong evidence supporting claims and is proven
    to improve health, but more research is needed.
  • More work needs to be done to update
    recommendations.
  • Results are often times inconsistent and
    different dosage amounts need to be tested.

16
How to use it
  • Dosage
  • Evidence suggests 1-2 g/day are required, but
    cannot be attained by diet alone.
  • Capsules usually contain 180mg of EPA and 120 mg
    DHA
  • Liquid concentrate 1 tsp contains approx 1-3 g
    of EPA plus DHA
  • Frequency
  • AHA Dietary Guidelines recommends consuming at
    least 2 servings of fish per week for general
    population and 2 portions for pregnant or
    lactating women.
  • Quality
  • Diet sources are best, but supplements offer a
    safe alternative.
  • Cost
  • 0.13 to 0.42 per capsule depending on brand.
  • 0.95 to 9.77 per oz of liquid form depending on
    brand.

17
Does it really work???
  • Safety
  • Be aware of the risks and benefits for the
    different stages of life (ie pregnant or
    lactating, mental disorders, CHD, etc).
  • FDA ruled that intakes of up to 3 g/day of
    omega-3 FA are recognized as safe.
  • Supplements are mercury free.
  • Efficacy
  • Reduces risk for sudden death
  • Reduces all-cause mortality
  • Additional studies are needed to confirm the
    benefits for cardiovascular primary and secondary
    prevention.

18
Ethics in Marketing

19
What you should know
  • Components of fish oil and how it is produced in
    the body
  • Good food sources
  • What key role does DHA and EPA play in the brain?
  • What are the AHA Dietary Guidelines for weekly
    fish consumption for the general population?
  • Four health claims focused on
  • What has changed the Western Diet to increase the
    ratio of omega-63 PUFA?
  • What the FDA regulated as a safe daily intake of
    omega-3 PUFA

20
The End
  • Any Questions?
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