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Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

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Differences between quantitative and qualitative in the process of research. Design procedures within your approach. Use of quantitative or qualitative approach ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches


1
Chapter 2
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

2
Key Ideas
  • Definition of quantitative and qualitative
    Research
  • Development of quantitative research
  • Development of qualitative research
  • Differences between quantitative and qualitative
    in the process of research
  • Design procedures within your approach
  • Use of quantitative or qualitative approach

3
Definitions of Qualitative and Quantitative
Research
  • Quantitative Research
  • A type of educational research in which
    the researcher decides what to study, asks
    specific, narrow questions, collects numeric
    (numbered) data from participants, analyzes these
    numbers using statistics, and conducts the
    inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner.
  • Qualitative Research
  • A type of educational research in which
    the researcher relies on the views of
    participants, asks broad, general questions,
    collects data consisting largely of words (or
    text) from participants, describes and analyzes
    these words for themes, and conducts the inquiry
    in a subjective, biased manner.

4
The Development of Quantitative Research
Historical Trends
  • Statistical Procedures
  • Test and Measurement Practices
  • Research Designs

5
Historical Trends Quantitative Statistical
Procedures
  • Correlational procedures
  • Comparing groups
  • Cause/Effect relationships

6
Historical Trends Quantitative Testing and
Measurement
  • Testing mental abilities (late 19th century)
  • Measuring achievement (e.g. SAT)
  • Predicting achievement from standardized
    measurements

7
Historical Trends Quantitative Research Designs
  • Educational Surveys (late 19th century)
  • Simple Experiments (early 20th century)
  • Multiple groups and tests (by 1935)
  • Longitudinal designs
  • Books on research design (e.g. Kerlinger 1964)

8
The Development of Qualitative Research Major
Themes
  • Philosophical Ideas
  • Procedural Developments
  • Advocacy Practices

9
Historical Trends Qualitative Philosophical Ideas
  • Naturalistic Inquiry or Constructivism
  • consider the participants point of view
  • describe participants view within a setting or
    context
  • This is an alternative perspective to traditional
    research

10
Historical Trends Qualitative Procedural
Developments
  • Central Phenomenon rather than research question
    or hypothesis
  • Methods such as interviews, observations and
    interviews
  • Designs such as case studies, grounded theory and
    narrative

11
Historical Trends Qualitative Advocacy Practices
  • The qualitative researcher is not objective,
    politically neutral observer
  • The qualitative researcher is an observer of the
    human condition
  • The meaning of the research is plural, political
    and open
  • The project is collaborative and participatory

12
Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative
Research in the Process of Research
Steps in the Research Process
Quantitative Characteristics
Qualitative Characteristics
  • Exploratory/
  • Understanding
  • a Central Phenomena
  • Descriptive/Explanatory
  • Major Role
  • Justify Problem
  • Minor Role
  • Justify Problem
  • Specific and Narrow
  • Measurable/Observable
  • General and Broad
  • Participants Experience
  • Pre-determined
  • Instruments
  • Numeric Data
  • Large numbers
  • General, emerging form
  • Text or image data
  • Small Number
  • Text Analysis
  • Description and Themes
  • Larger Meanings of Findings
  • Statistical
  • Description of Trends
  • Comparisons/Predictions
  • Flexible and Emerging
  • Reflexive and Biased
  • Standard and Fixed
  • Objective and Unbiased

13
Ways in Which Quantitative and Qualitative
Research are Similar
  • They both follow the steps in the process of
    research
  • Format for reporting the research problem is the
    same
  • Both have data collection steps

14
How Procedures or Research Designs Relate to
Quantitative and Qualitative Research and Steps
in the Process of Research
Two Approaches
Steps in the Research Process
Research Designs
Quantitative Qualitative
Quantitative Qualitative
  • Experimental
  • Correlational
  • Survey

Quantitative Qualitative
Quantitative Qualitative
  • Mixed
  • Action

Quantitative Qualitative
  • Ethnography
  • Grounded Theory
  • Narrative

Quantitative Qualitative
15
Quantitative Designs and Uses
16
Qualitative Designs and Uses
17
Combined Designs and Uses
18
How Do You Choose Whether to Use the Quantitative
or Qualitative Approach?
  • Match the approach to the problem
  • Fit the approach to your audience
  • Relate the approach to your experiences
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