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'Images of warrior-priests and nobles sometime appeared with cocoa ... Grolier Inc. 1984 Chocolate and cocoa & Cortes In The Book of Knowledge. Pp. 274-275, 508. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cocoa

  • By Michaela Frank

Cocoas Place Through History
  • Images of warrior-priests and nobles sometime
    appeared with cocoa trees on stelea or boulders
    in Mayan territories from the Classic (A.D.
    200-900) to Postclassic periods (A.D. 900-1200)
  • Ritual feedings to the Rain Gods offered human
    sacrifice of their strongest warriors and bags of
    cocoa beans

Cortes Treasure
  • Cortes Spanish Conquest in the 16th century led
    him to Central America where he discovered the
    potential of the cocoa bean
  • He took his secret back to Spain where the recipe
    for chocolatl stayed for 100 years.
  • Over time, the drink became popular among elite
    English, and spread to Chocolate Houses in France

Delicious Milk Chocolate
  • By the 19th century Van Houten of the Netherlands
    revolutionized the chocolate industry by
    inventing a cocoa press.
  • There was a Monopoly in Switzerland until Cadbury
    Chocolates were introduced in 1904.

Decimation of a Nation
  • Along with their invasion of Central America, the
    Spaniards brought with them plagues exhausting
    the Indian population in 17th century.
  • Cocoa cultivation requires
  • a lot of skilled workers
  • The Spanish cultivation was also devastating to
    the cocoa trees and land

Cocoas weakness
  • The cocoa tree is extremely fragile and can not
    tolerate changes in climate or handle pests.
  • cocoa of today is really a human-bred
    amalgamation of many types and species, with no
    true counterpart existing in the wild.

Cultivation of Todays Cocoa
  • Cocoa production is mostly done by small farms
    with only 20 by large corporations.
  • West Africa makes up 70 of the Worlds cocoa
    bean production
  • With production so high on small farms and
    poverty of the communities, they rely on child

Child Labor
  • On these farms, about 284,000 children were said
    to be working in hazardous cocoa harvesting
    conditions such as clearing ground weeding
    maintaining cocoa trees applying pesticides
    spreading fertilizer harvesting
    piling/gathering up pod breaking fermenting
    transporting drying and other activities
  • Only 1/3 of children 6-17 years old in these
    regions go to school, the rest farm.
  • Even with the entire family working, farmers only
    receive 30-205 annual income.
  • http//

Congress Role
  • Tariff Act of 1930 was revised for a ban on
    importing child labor products.
  • U.S. Government gave 250,000 in a grant to the
    FDA for a Protocol for the Growing and
    Processing of Cocoa Beans and their Derivative
    Products in a Manner that Complies with ILO
    Convention 182 Concerning the Prohibition and
    Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst
    Forms of Child Labor

  • Tariff Act of 1930 today has failed to implement
    their rules.
  • The Protocol also was said to be a failure due to
    not addressing the main problem behind child
    slavery in the cocoa production process- poverty.
  • According to an industry spokesperson, given the
    size of the sector there are 1.5 million cocoa
    farms in the two countries it will not be
    possible to certify that all cocoa beans have
    been produced and harvested without child labor.

TNCs and Fair Trade
  • There are only about five major chocolate
    producers Cadbury, Schweppes, Mars Incorporated,
    Nestlé, and The Hershey Company
  • Cadbury was one that supports Fair Trade
  • Today about over 42,000 farmers and their
    families have joined Fair Trade Co-ops in Ghana,
    Cameroon, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua,
    Dominican Republic, and Ecuador.

Mars Inc.
  • Mars Inc. claims to support cocoa sustainability
    by understanding that cocoa production is
  • They also claim to support research programs.

Mars Inc. and Sustainability
  • Mars Inc. says they are a supporter of the
  • Their ideas to solve the poverty problem includes
    integrated pest management techniques to support
    cocoa production
  • Mars Inc. claims to be promoting sustainability
    for future cocoa producers

  • USAID has established sustainability programs in
    Vietnam and Indonesia.
  • USAID made a partnership with the farmers called
    the AMARTA (Agribusiness Market and Support
  • Sustainable Cocoa Extension Services for
    Smallholders Alliance (SUCCESS) an alliance with
    Vietnam and USAID

A Sustainable Cocoa Future
  • A sustainable system worked for Pre-Columbian
    Central America
  • The large mono-crop cocoa plantations of today
    are not sustainable
  • The main problem that leads to non-sustainable
    agriculture and child labor is poverty.

References Food First Books 2006 Cocoa Fair
Trade. Fairtrade Labelling Organizations
International. http//
accessed 04-08-09. Fair Trade
Certified Backgrounder Fair Trade Certified
Cocoa. http//
der_cocoa.pdf accessed 04-08-09. Kim, Jenny et
al. 2001 The Chocolate Industry Harvesting
Cocoa. Duke Univeristy http//
hocolate/index.html accessed 04-08-09. Knapp,
Arthur W. 1920 Cocoa and Chocolate Their
History from Plantation to Consumer. London
Chapman and Hall, LTD. Mars Inc. and its
Affiliates 2007 Cocoa Sustainability Working
for a better future for cocoa farmers around the
globe. Mars Inc. Sustainable Local
Examples. Pilcher, Jeffrey M. 1998 Que vivan
los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican
Identity. Albuquerque, NM University of New
Mexico Press.

References cont Shiva, Vandana. 2000 Stolen
Harvest The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply.
Cambridge, Ma South End Press. Tiaji Salaam-
Blyther et al. 2005 Child Labor in West Africa
Cocoa Production Issues and Policy. CRS Report
for Congress. USAID 2009 Frontlines
Indonesian Cocoa Farmers Benefit from Training,
Telling Our Story Cocoa Brings New Markets,
Confidence. http//
/fl_mar09/p16_cocoa.html accessed
04-16-09 http//
n_cocoa.html accessed 04-16-09. Grolier
Inc. 1984 Chocolate and cocoa Cortes In The
Book of Knowledge. Pp. 274-275, 508. Yahoo
Image Search. http//
h/images 04-28-09 Young, Allen M 1994 The
Chocolate Tree. Washington and London
Smithsonian Institution Press. Wikipedia 2009
Cocoa. http//,
accessed 04-08-09.