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Reinforcement Theory

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Title: Reinforcement Theory


1
Reinforcement Theory
  • Or
  • Changing and Keeping
  • Desired Behaviors

By Nita Hoelscher
2
In a perfect world, our students could
  • Be on time to class
  • Be prepared for class and know how to study
  • Know how to behave
  • Respect everyone in class with themincluding
    the teacher

3
So, what is the alternative?
  • We must provide some type of reinforcement for
    the behavior.
  • Choices
  • (1) Positive Reinforcement
  • (2) Punishment
  • (3) Negative Reinforcement
  • (4) Extinction

4
Our objectives in this power point are to
  • (1) Define and give examples of the types of
    reinforcement.
  • and
  • (2) To be able to apply the concept of positive
    reinforcement.
  • (We will explore the other options later.)

5
Types of Reinforcement
  • Concrete-A tangible item given to the student or
    students after they have displayed a positive
    behavior.
  • Social-Attention given to the student by peers,
    significant adults in the students lives, or
    heroes who support the students positive
    behavior.

6
First, lets look at concrete reinforcers.
  • Types candy (only types specified by the state),
    stickers, homework passes, movie passes, ice
    cream coupons, passes to an amusement park. Can
    you think of others?
  • Important to remember
  • (1) Social reinforcers are 90 more effective
    than concrete ones.
  • (2) These are used to jump start the
    students. Continued use may create a what am I
    going to get mentality. However, they are
    effective to start the kids working.
    Reference the movie, Dangerous Minds
    (Michelle Pheiffer)

7
Dennis says it all..
  • So, Dad, what will you give me if I leave Mr.
    Wilson alone?

8
Think about.
  • The types of concrete reinforcers you are using
    in your classroom.
  • Are they effective?
  • Are you using varying types?
  • Are you moving away from concrete reinforcers?

9
Type II Social Reinfocers
  • Important to remember
  • 90 more effective than concrete reinforcers
  • Used after you have established a relationship
    with the student or after you have identified a
    significant adult the student respects and
    desires time with.

10
Scenario .
  • A kindergarten student has problems completing
    difficult tasks, although the teacher knows he is
    very capable of doing the work. He LOVES the male
    first grade teacher. Everytime he stays on task,
    he is allowed time at recess with the first grade
    teacher. A prime example of social
    reinforcement

11
What can we conclude?
  • The students positive behavior is reinforced by
    being able to be around a respected adult figure.

12
Youre probably thinking.That kid is not in my
classbut do these look familiar?
13
Those were the kids the teacher in Dangerous
Minds had to deal with.
14
Characteristics of those students?
15
The movie is a prime example of reinforcement
progression..
  • When the teacher began the semester, the students
    would not participate.
  • She began with a concrete reinforcer-candy.
  • She then moved to a trip to the amusement
    park-together (combo-concrete and social)
  • Next, the reward for a class contest was a trip
    to the nicest restaurant-with her (combo)

16
And for you skeptics.
  • At the end of the movie, when a student
    asked.What will we get if we do this unit?
  • Her reply was, The enjoyment of being able to
    read and enjoy poetry on your ownbecause now you
    can!

17
Key Learning.
  • When the students refuse to work, you have to
    start somewhere to move them toward the
    learning..

18
What would you do to get Dennis to eat more
carrots?
  • Promise of dessert?
  • Promise a trip to Mr. Wilsons?
  • Promise he can stay up late?
  • Promise him a trip to his room if her doesnt?
  • How well do you know Dennis the Menace? Would
    punishment help?

19
As mentioned in the objectives, there are
choices
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Punishment
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Extinction

20
Most effective with Dennis?
  • Keep in mind
  • (1) He loves his parents
  • (2) He is very bright
  • (3) He loves Mr. Wilson
  • (4) He has agreed to eat two carrots
  • on his own
  • Obvious social reinforcers

21
Closure on types of reinforcement.
  • What are three types of concrete reinforcers?
    Under what conditions should they be used?
  • What are two types of social reinforcers? When
    should they be used?
  • What would be the best handling of the Dennis
    situation?

22
What is positive reinforcement?
  • Scenario Johnny is always late for class because
    his gorgeous girl friends class is at the other
    end of the hall and he has to see her. You
    mention to him that it is important to get to
    class on time. The next day he is on time to
    class. When he does this, you..

23
  • Say to yourself, Finally, and do not
    acknowledge him because he is finally doing what
    everyone else does.
  • Give him a pat on the back and say, Its good to
    see you here on time!
  • Embarrass him by saying, Well, finally! Look
    whos here!

24
If you use positive reinforcement, you would.
  • Choose b. Pat him on the back and tell him you
    are glad to see him.
  • Reasoning You are asking him to give up
    something that is important to himtime with the
    girlfriend. If that positive encounter is not
    replaced by another, he will return to his
    previous behavior.

25
What are the chances he will continue being on
time?
  • It all depends on how good a positive reinforcer
    you are. However, if you only tell him once that
    you appreciate his presence, you can bet hell be
    tardy again.

26
Key Learning
  • To change a behavior permanently,
  • the positive reinforcement must
    continue until the behavior becomes natural.
  • This is why we often fail to help a student
    change a behavior..we dont reinforce the
    behavior long enough.

27
Scenario .
  • John is a blurter. Every time you
  • ask a question, he yells out the
  • answer. Dirty looks do not help.
  • Finally, you keep him after class
  • and discuss his immature behavior
  • with him. The next day he frantically
    raises his hand when you ask a question. You

28
Scenario continued..
  • (1) Ignore him because he is finally doing the
    right thing and others are finally getting to
    answer.
  • (2) Call on him at the end of class.
  • (3) Call on him immediately and tell him
    privately how much you appreciate his improved
    behavior.

29
Think about this studentwhat does he crave?
  • Could it be attention?

30
Key learning on positive reinforcement
  • Most students will change a behavior, but the
    reinforcement must be there.
  • Always remember you are asking them to give up
    something satisfying to conform to the rules.
  • They will only do this if a substitute
    reinforcer is given.until the behavior is
    changed.
  • REMEMBER A one time reinforcer will not change
    the behaviorreinforcement must be consistent!

31
Closure on positive reinforcement
  • It may seem simplistic to use
  • when considering children
  • whose behaviors need modifying
  • in your class. However, think about
  • what they have in common?
  • Need for attention
  • Bright
  • Tendencies to test adults

32
Well talk later about students who need
punishment, negative reinforcers, of
extinction..but for now
  • Which students would benefit from the use of
    positive reinforcers..
  • REMEMBER all students are different.our job is
    to choose the right reinforcer for the right
    student.
  • CAN YOU THINK OF A STUDENT YOU TEACH WHO WOULD
    BENEFIT FROM POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT? AFTER THIS
    POWERPOINT, WILL YOU CHANGE YOUR METHODS OF
    POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT?

33
So, as you reflect upon this information,
remember Dennis
  • Knowing him, what is the best way to handle him?

34
Closure on positive reinforment..
  • What is positive reinforcement?
  • What type of students benefit best from positive
    reinforcement?
  • Think about times you have not used positive
    reinforcement as long as you needed to

35
What is the best way to work with Dennis..???
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