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Improving Animal Performance, Feed Efficiency and Health Status in Aquaculture Species

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Title: Improving Animal Performance, Feed Efficiency and Health Status in Aquaculture Species


1
Improving Animal Performance, Feed Efficiency
and Health Status in Aquaculture Species
John Sweetman
2
Core Competencies
Alltech Alexandria
  • Fermentation
  • World class facility
  • Top-notch engineers
  • Worlds largest facility (means gt consistency)
  • Fully-automated

Alltech Parana
  • Yeast
  • Company founded on yeast (Dr. Lyons Ph.D. in 76)
  • Proprietary yeast technologies
  • Peptide Technology
  • Full range of organic trace minerals
  • 8600 sq. m.
  • Food grade facility
  • Solid State Fermentation Enzymes
  • Worlds largest SSF plant
  • Greater product consistency
  • Novel approach to enzyme production

Alltech Serdan
3
Alltechs Global Production FacilityVale do
Ivai, Brazil
  • 25 years of research and development
  • Strain selection for biological activity and
    nutritional profiles
  • Stable guaranteed product quality
  • 110,000 tons / yr of sustainable yeast production
  • Providing functional nutrition and prophylactic
    strategies for the aquaculture industry


4
Yeast Biomass Composition
  • 45 Protein 45.0
  • 8.4 Glycogen
  • 0.8 Trehalose
  • 13.1 Mannan
  • 18.4 Other carbohydrates
  • Free amino acids 1.1
  • Lipid 2.9
  • Ash 5.0

5
Functional Nutrients From Yeast
Inner (polymer)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1026
Inner and Outer Cell Wall
Whole yeast
Outer (manno-proteins)
Extract
6
Producer goals optimal performance, juvenile
quality, disease prevention and control
Requires detailed understanding
Fish condition
  • Species biology
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Technologies
  • Nutrition
  • Bio-security
  • Husbandry
  • Genetic stock
  • Prophylactic health strategy

Balance
Environment
Pathogen
7
Husbandry and system stability affect stress
response and health
  • Direct link between stress parameters and
    survival and health status (Varsmos et. al. 2005)
  • Variable water temperature can trigger dramatic
    changes in immune status and susceptibility to
    virus.
  • Tank cleaning caused short term acute stress and
    increased plasma osmolality, decreased IgM levels
  • Short periods of sub-clinical disease challenge
    affect life-long productivity
  • Early control of sub-clinical disease challenges
    is therefore extremely important

8
New tools for improving production
Stress management Microbiological control water
quality, environment and live feed Prebiotics
probiotics in live feed and dry diets Nutrition -
mineral dependant enzyme pathways, ARA etc
So what are you thinking of trying on me today ?
9
Functional nutrients from yeast
  • 50 Crude protein highly digestible and
    consistent protein source
  • 5 nucleotide content improves immunity gut
    health
  • Rich source of glutamate and free amino acids
    improved palatability
  • Source of Inositol improves cell growth,
    development and repair
  • Source of vitamins (B) minerals

10
Good Essential Amino Acid Balance
  • Nupro has a good balance of essential amino
    acids for several aqua species
  • NuPro can be used to replace other protein
    sources at high levels in practical diets
  • NuPro has been successfully used as sole protein
    source for several shrimp and fish species
  • NuPro is a sustainable source of high quality
    protein

11
Evaluation of Nupro as a growth enhancer in
dietsfed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry
Significant improvements in weight, weight gain
SGR with NuPro at 6 kg/t The NuPro group had
a lower coefficient of variation (15.12) than
the control group (22.17), NuPro more
homogenous Improved feed conversion ratios
Final biomass of fish in the NuPro-fed group
significantly greater than the control
Gaticia 2006
12
Immune response of salmonDetermined relationship
between mortality and concentration of
nucleotide-enriched NuProMortality following Y.
ruckeri challenge
Yersinia ruckeri administered by immersion at
LD50 dose ( 107 CFU/ml )
Gaticia et al., 2006
13
NuPro trials with Shrimp
Body weight
  • Shrimp fed NuPro for 15 weeks had greater
    increase in body weight
  • Feed Conversion much lower in shrimp fed NuPro at
    1 top coated

Feed Conversion Rate
Sritunyalucksana et al., 2005
14
NuPro trials with Shrimp
Blood cell counts
  • Shrimp showed
  • significantly higher blood cell counts
  • significantly more granular hemocytes
  • Granular hemocytes fight pathogens through the
    release of phenoloxidase, the first line of
    defence

granular hemocytes
Sritunyalucksana et al., 2005
15
Vibrio harveyi challenge
  • Shrimp fed with NuPro cleared bacteria from the
    blood faster and longer than the control

Sritunyalucksana et al., 2005
16
Bio-Mos Mode of Action
  • Modification of intestinal microorganisms
  • Pathogen binding direct elimination from the
    gut
  • Improved intestinal morphology structure
  • Improved nutrient availability growth
    performance
  • Improved immune response
  • Improved disease resistance

17
The 6 Key criteria of Bio-Mos activity
  • 1. Surface Agglutination
  • Molecular mannan structure and large surface area
    differentiates MOS products.
  • Bio-Mos can agglutinate over 1.5 Billion
    CFU/gram.
  • 2. Strength of Agglutination
  • Use of the Mannose Inhibition Reaction (MIR) by
    Alltech to demonstrate the strength of
    agglutination.
  • 3. Speed of Agglutination
  • Agglutination Rate Coefficient (ARC) demonstrates
    the speed of agglutination and is Alltech QC for
    Bio-Mos.
  • 4. Immune Modulation
  • Alltech research demonstrates that Bio-Mos like
    structures derived from different yeast strains.
  • Variations in environmental fermentation
    conditions will produce different levels of IgA
    at intestinal level.
  • 5. Antibiotic resistance Curing
  • Patented research with Bio-Mos at Univ. Kentucky.
  • 6. Growth-Performance
  • Performance is the most critical parameter in the
    choice of a new ingredient.

18
Mode of infection and spread of Vibrio anguillarum
  • Route of larval infection is through the
    intestinal epithelium where bacterium are
    released into the lamina propria and transported
    via the blood to the internal organs of the
    larvae.

Artemia with V. anguillarium
Brush border
Villi
Mode of infection and spread of Vibrio
anguillarum in turbot Scopthalmus maximus larvae
through oral challenge through live feed Grisez
et al 1996
19
Enterocyte integrity and interactions at brush
border level Ultrastructure showing surface
chemistry interaction
20
Agglutination to bacterial species affecting
aquaculture
Strains Agglutinate to Bio-Mos Aeromonas veronii
Positive A. hydrophila Positive Aeromonas
caviae Positive Edwardsiella tarda
Negative Edwardsiella ictaluri Positive Vibri
o fluvialis Positive Vibrio
parahemolyticus Positive Vibrio vulnificus
Negative Vibrio anguillarum Positive Pasteure
lla damselae ssp. Piscicida Positive
21
Bio-Mos Aquaculture Trials
  • European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)
  • Live Feed Production (Artemia)
  • White Sea Bream (Diplodus sargus)
  • Senegal Sole (Solea senegalensis)
  • European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
  • Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
  • African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
  • European catfish (Silirus glanis)
  • Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
  • Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

22
Delivery of pre-biotic supplementation through
incorporation in live feed (Mannan
oligosaccharide - Bio-Mos )
Bio-Mos bound with a fluorescent marker (1mg/ml
Concanavalin A FITC labelled)
Tracking using laser scanning confocal microscopy
(LSM)
Artemia studied at certain stages of enrichment
0h, 5h, 16h, 20h, 24h.
Carly Daniels, National Lobster Hatchery, UK, 2006
23
Bacterial conditions
  • Bio-Mos lowers the number of Vibrio colonies
    present, 24hours after enrichment
  • The addition of Bio-Mos at 20ppt to Selco
    enrichment of Artemia increases the total of
    lobster larvae to successfully reach stage IV.

4000ppt
24
Improved gut conditionWhite sea bream (Diplodus
sargus)
Standard enrichment
Irregular and broken micro villi
  • Bio-Mos in Artemia enrichment resulted in
  • Improved development (length increase),
  • Improved gut health (microvilli more uniform, no
    gaps or broken parts)
  • Improved larval quality (better resistance to
    handling and salinity stress).

Enrichment with Bio-Mos
Uniform micro villi
Dimitroglou and Davies, 2004
25
Improved gut conditionSole (Solea senegalensis)
Control diet
  • Bio- Mos improved gut morphology
  • Increased gut absorptive area (more complex
    villi structure more dense microvilli
    distribution)
  • Better gut health (less damaged areas
    healthier microvilli structure)

Bio-Mos
Dimitroglou, Janssens and Davies, 2005
26
Effect of Bio-Mos on European sea bass
(Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles
  • Growth increased by 10 with Bio-Mos
  • Feed intake increased but FCR remained the same.
  • Bio-Mos stimulated feeding activity and promoted
    growth.

 Torrecillas et al. 2006
27
Phagocytic activity pathogen challenge
Plt0,05
ppt- parts per thousand
  • Bio-Mos enhanced phagocytic activity
  • - 33 vs 22 in the control
  • Following cohabitation challenge 33 of the
    control fish were infected vs 8.3 and 0 for 2
    and 4 g/Kg Bio-Mos?
  • 48 hrs after inoculative challenge the control
    fish had double the infection rate

28
Increased macrophage activity
  • The number of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
    positive cells observed in the head kidney after
    36 days was significantly greater on the fish
    fed Bio-Mos (4g/Kg)

(Plt0.05)
29
Biochemistry and histology (05-E-1083)
2g/Kg Bio-Mos
Control
4g/Kg Bio-Mos
  • Histology of the liver showed improved structure
    (cell alignment reduced fat content).
  • Biochemistry showed reduced fat content (-5),
    less humidity (-3) and higher protein content
    (2) in the Bio-Mos treatments.

30
Effect of Salmon Pak on performance parameters
of Atlantic salmon
  • Salmon Pak Bio-Mos, Zinc and Selenium
  • Total Growth Coefficient - Control 2.1 Salmon Pak
    2.3 (p0.11)
  • Specific Growth Rate Control 0.59 Salmon Pak
    0.63 (p0.07)
  • Improved Gut structure and microvilli density and
    height
  • Cataracts - Control 5 Salmon Pak 0
  • Filet gaping - October Control 56 Salmon Pak
    11
  • - December - Control 17
    Salmon Pak 7
  • Selenium content in flesh - Control 0.19 mg/kg
    Salmon Pak 0.22 mg/kg (P0.02)

31
Selenium Dependent Enzyme Activity Hepatic
Thioredoxin Reductase
TR Control vs. Sel-Plex p0.0341 No significant
difference between control and selenite
Sebastien Rider 2006 reported for the first time
in fish the effect of Sel-Plex on TR
32
Sel-Plex dramatically alters gene expression
33
SEM and TEM - microvilli structures
Microvilli density 2.10
Microvilli density 9.75
Control
Bio-Mos
Microvilli height 1.55
Microvilli height 1.28
Bio-Mos
Control
34
Effect of Bio-Mos on the performance on Trout
Staykov et al., 2005
ab Values with different superscripts are
different (Plt0.05) Bio-Mos supplemented at
2kg/MT (0.2) in extruded trout feed
35
Trout gut light and electron microscopy show
improved morphology
Control
  • Bio- Mos improved gut morphology
  • Increased gut absorptive area (more complex
    villi structure more dense microvilli
    distribution)
  • Better gut health (less damaged areas
    healthier microvilli structure)
  • Dimitroglou 2006

Bio-Mos
36
Effect of Bio-Mos on immune response in carp and
Trout
37
Conclusions
  • The practical application of functional feed and
    prophylactic strategies clearly demonstrate the
    advantages associated with improved growth and
    performance, gut health, immune status and
    disease resistance in a variety of marine and
    freshwater fish and crustacean species
  • Research and field trials support the mode of
    action and effect of NuPro and Bio-Mos .
    Continuing RD focuses on more detailed
    understanding of these mechanisms
  • Production capability, sustainability and
    consistent quality offers feed producers and
    farmers cost effective and practical solutions.

38
Thank you
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