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Corporate Overview

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Title: Corporate Overview


1
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Mechanical Hard Rock and Soft Ground Tunnelling
Technologies Short Course In conjunction with
Rapid Excavation and Tunnelling Conferences and
North American Tunnelling Conferences Presented
by Brian Fulcher, P.Eng. Project Director Heavy
Construction Division J.F. Shea Co., Inc.
2
Tunnel Utilities and Linear PlantProgram Outline
  • Overview of Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
  • Systems and general arrangements
  • Practical examples in tunnelling
  • Major Tunnelling Utility Systems
  • Breakdown and system components
  • Discussions and Questions

3
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
  • Overview of Tunnel Systems

4
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Utility Systems
  • Example Deer Island Outfall Tunnel in Boston
    26 dia. TBM bore, 49,000 LF in hard rock from
    one shaft

5
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Utility Systems
  • Example Deer Island Outfall Tunnel in Boston

6
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Utility Systems
  • Example English Channel Tunnel
  • Ventilation challenges
  • Tunnel finishing
  • Tunnel outfitting
  • Track installed on ballast
  • Numerous utility lines
  • Concurrent operations

7
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Utility Systems
  • Example Yucca Mountain ESF Tunnel 25
    diameter, 25,000 LF in moderately hard rock
    (volcanic tuff)
  • No water found in ground
  • No tunnel water drainage required
  • Redundant power supply systems
  • Temporary and permanent tunnel utility system
    design concurrently

8
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Utility Systems
  • Example Yucca Mountain ESF Tunnel 25 diameter

9
Overview of Tunnel SystemsEarly Tunnel Utility
Systems
  • The Past Labor Intensive and Less Efficient

10
Overview of Tunnel SystemsPresent Day TBM Tunnel
Utility Reqts
  • Todays Large Diameter, High-Powered TBMs

Queens Water Tunnel, NYC 24 dia and 4,200 HP on
cutterhead
Chattahoochee CSO Tunnel Atlanta, GA 18 dia and
2,950 HP on cutterhead
11
Overview of Tunnel SystemsPresent Day TBM Tunnel
Utility Reqts
  • Todays Large Diameter, High-Powered TBMs

Soft ground EPB TBM for overseas metro tunnel
with 1,200 HP on cutterhead
Mixed-face slurry TBM for overseas rail tunnel
with 4,700 HP on cutterhead
12
Overview of Tunnel SystemsPresent Day TBM Tunnel
Utility Reqts
  • Todays Large Diameter, High-Powered TBMs

Slurry shield and mixed face EPB TBMs for
overseas tunnel projects
Storebaelt EPB TBM with 2,700 HP
13
Overview of Tunnel SystemsPresent Day TBM Tunnel
Utility Reqts
  • Todays Large Diameter, High-Powered TBMs

Earth-Pressure Balanced TBMs
15 m diameter
Slurry Pressure Face TBMs
From Herrenknecht
14
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
  • Major Tunnelling Utility Systems

15
Overview of SystemsTunnel Utility Systems -
Summary
  1. Mechanical
  2. Electrical
  3. Ventilation
  4. Communication
  5. Lighting
  6. Rail Transport
  7. Tunnel Survey
  8. Special Tunnel Systems

16
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Mechanical Systems

17
System Break-Down and ComponentsMechanical
Systems
  • Drainage Systems
  • Primary waste water collection and pumping
  • Flood conditions
  • Waste waste treatment facilities
  • Pumping Systems
  • Utility water supply
  • Coolant water supply return
  • Compressed Air Systems
  • Tunnel piping
  • Compressors manifolding

18
Mechanical SystemsTunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Collection and Pumping to Surface

19
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Collection Pumps and Pump Curves

20
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Collection and Pumping Systems

21
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Flood Conditions Underground Older Tunnels

Steady flows at say 800 gpm
Flush flows at say 1,500 gpm
22
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Prevent Flood Conditions Pre-Excavation Grouting
  • Probe drilling cycles
  • Multiple drills and arrays
  • Water flow measurements
  • Pre-excavation grouting
  • Water capture at face
  • Measured quantities
  • 0 to 500 gpm nominal flows

Probe drills
23
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Treatment Facilities Planned into
    Site

24
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Treatment Facilities Extensive
    Costly

25
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Drainage Systems
  • Waste Water Pumping and Processing All Areas
  • Plastic pipe systems
  • Light wall steel pipe
  • Continuous treatment
  • Legal disposal
  • Measured quantities

26
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Pumping Systems
  • Utility Water Supplies Steel Pipe and Fittings

27
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Pumping Systems
  • Utility Water Supplies Plastic Pipe and
    Fittings

28
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Pumping Systems
  • Coolant Water Supply and Return for Waste Heat

29
Mechanical Systems Tunnel Pumping Systems
  • Coolant Water Cooling Towers for Waste Heat

30
Mechanical Systems Compressed Air Systems
  • Tunnel Compressor House with Multiple Units
  • Manifolding multiple units
  • Steel pipe system for distribution

31
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Electrical Systems

32
System Break-Down and ComponentsElectrical
Systems
  • Primary Power Systems
  • Transformers
  • Substations
  • Breakers and Disconnects
  • High voltage cables
  • Single Line Diagrams (SLD)
  • Secondary Power Systems
  • Back-up power supply
  • Control power systems

33
Electrical SystemsPrimary Power Supply Systems
  • Job Site Transformers High-Powered TBM Tunnels

34
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • Job Site Switchgear High-Powered TBM Tunnels

35
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • High Voltage Electrical Gear Interior Components

36
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • High Voltage (15 kV) Cables Power Transmission

37
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • High Voltage (15 kV) Cables Power Transmission

38
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • High Voltage (15 kV) Power Transmission Tunnel

39
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • Site Distribution Diagram TBM Tunnel SLD

40
Electrical Systems Secondary Power Supply Systems
  • Job Site Generators and Electric Power
    Distribution

41
Electrical Systems Primary and Secondary Supply
Systems
  • Job Site Switchgear Line Power Generator
    Back-Up

42
Electrical Systems Primary Power Supply Systems
  • High Capacity Soft Ground TBMs 2,000 HP (and
    more)
  • 13.2 kV primary power
  • 480-volt secondary power
  • Explosion-proof systems
  • Rugged and reliable
  • Electric over hydraulic drive systems for TBM
  • Emergency power provided to essential systems

43
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Ventilation Systems

44
System Break-Down and ComponentsVentilation
Systems
  • Primary Tunnel Systems
  • Fans and silencers
  • Ducting materials
  • Dampers and controls
  • Power supplies and controls
  • Secondary Tunnel Systems
  • Fans and silencers
  • Ducting materials
  • Power supplies and controls

45
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Schemes
  • Bag line ducting
  • Cassette loading and continuous play-out
  • Reversible systems
  • Excess air per OSHA and MSHA requirements

46
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Schemes

47
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Tunnel Equipment

Fresh air drawn into tunnel through vent line
Intake System
Fresh air blown out of tunnel through vent line
Exhaust System
48
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Schemes

49
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Equipment

50
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Equipment
  • Uncoated helical-wound ducting
  • Non-combustible materials
  • Explosion-proof axial vane fans with variable
    frequency drives
  • Reversible and variable speed

51
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers New Ventilation
    Ducting

52
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Flexible Ducting Pressure and Suction Bagline

53
Ventilation Systems Primary Tunnel Ventilation
System
  • Fans, Ducts and Silencers General Arrangements
  • Tunnel Installation, fans and silencers
  • Surface Installation, fans and silencers

54
Ventilation Systems Secondary Tunnel
Ventilation System
  • Fans, Ducts Silencers Scavenger Fan System
    for TBMs
  • Blows intake air to face to dilute potential gas
    pockets at heading
  • Operates continuously
  • Does not recirculate fouled air from heading

55
Ventilation Systems Ventilation Systems and
Equipment
  • III. Cooling and Heating Systems Equipment
  • Air handlers
  • Heat exchangers / cooling towers
  • Dust Control Systems and Equipment
  • Dust collectors dry and wet systems
  • Filters for local areas

56
Ventilation Systems Cooling and Heating Systems
  • Heating Systems for Tunnel Ventilation Air -
    Intake
  • Dual 48 diameter heated air forced ventilation
    system
  • Designed for two headings and to maintain
    temperatures above freezing for wet dust
    suppression and excavation
  • 4,000,000 BTU/hour direct flow electric heaters
    at system intake above portal
  • Provides for year-round underground operations in
    sub-freezing temperatures

57
Ventilation Systems Cooling and Heating Systems
  • Heating Systems for Tunnel Ventilation Air -
    Intake
  • Dual 39 two-stage fans configured with an air
    heater into a single 60 bagline to heading
  • 5,000,000 BTU/hour direct flow gas fired heaters
    at portal
  • Provides for continuous operations in
    sub-freezing temperatures

58
Ventilation Systems Dust Control and Collection
Systems
  • Dust Filters Local Area Dry Filters for Dust
    Collection

59
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Communications Systems

60
System Break-Down and ComponentsCommunications
Systems
  • Telephone Systems
  • Telephones
  • Wiring
  • Back-up equipment
  • Radio Systems
  • Leaky feeder antennas
  • III. Data Acquisition and Transmission
  • TBM systems and diagnostics
  • Tunnel conveyor controls and diagnostics
  • Tunnel pumps and linear plant controls

61
Communications Systems Telephone Systems
  • Telephone Underground Party-Line Communication
  • Battery or sound-powered telephones
  • Permissible
  • Weatherproof
  • Simple / reliable operation

62
Communications Systems Tunnel Radio Systems
  • Leaky Feeder Cable Voice and Data Transmission

63
Communications SystemsTelephone Systems
  • Telephone Data Lines Voice Data
    Transmission
  • TBM real time running data
  • Hydraulic/electrical data
  • Conveyor systems data
  • Maintenance data / messages
  • Archival records as needed

64
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Tunnel Lighting Systems

65
System Break-Down and ComponentsTunnel Lighting
Systems
  • Spot Lighting
  • Flood lamps light plants
  • Wiring materials
  • Continuously Lighted
  • Light stringers
  • Fluorescent lamps
  • High-pressure sodium
  • Emergency Lighting
  • Generators
  • Switching and controls
  • Back-up equipment

66
Lighting Systems Spot Lighting Systems
  • Portable Light Plants Essential for
    Safety/Production
  • Placed in production work areas
  • Diesel or electric powered
  • Wide area coverage
  • Portable and quickly set-up

67
Lighting SystemsContinuous Lighting Systems
  • Light Stringer Cable with Molded Sockets
  • Weatherproof / rugged
  • Simple / reliable operation
  • Various voltages available
  • Sufficient lumens per SF

68
Lighting Systems Continuous Lighting Systems
  • Tunnel Light Fixtures Essential for
    Safety/Production
  • Weatherproof fixtures
  • Simple / reliable operation
  • Various voltages available
  • Output to meet OSHA specs
  • Installed with advance
  • Re-usable hardware
  • Linked to emergency power supply systems

69
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Rail Transport Systems

70
System Break-Down and ComponentsRail Transport
Systems
  • Ties and Rail Supports
  • Steel products
  • Wood materials
  • Precast concrete inverts
  • Rail and Turn-outs
  • New and used rail
  • Modularized track panels
  • California Platforms, Switches Special Items
  • California Platforms
  • Prefabricated California Switches
  • Heavy load rail installations

71
Rail Transport SystemsLocomotives for Muck
Haulage
  • Rail Equipment Conventional and Proven Systems

72
Rail Transport Systems Track and Ties - Steel
  • Steel Rail Ties for Track Gauge and Support

73
Rail Transport Systems Track and Ties - Wood
  • Modularized Rail and Ties for Rapid Installation

74
Rail Transport Systems Track and Ties - Wood
  • Modularized Rail and Ties Prefabrication
    Advantages
  • Fabrication template
  • Factory-style production
  • Final product pre-assembled for tunnel
  • New and used materials made to conform to
    standard dimensions
  • Reduced tunnel labor and heading time

75
Rail Transport Systems Track and Ties - Precast
Concrete Inverts
  • Installed as TBM Advances Provides Track
    Platform

76
Rail Transport Systems Track Ties - Precast
Segment Support
  • Installed as TBM Advances Provides Track
    Platform
  • Direct rail fixation hardware
  • Easy to maintain
  • Simple for final clean-up
  • Relies on correct tunnel segment installation
  • Reduces track hardware
  • Investment strategy for tunnel systems

77
Rail Transport Systems Steel Beams - Tunnel
Track Support
  • Installed as TBM Advances Provides Twin Track
    Platform
  • Direct rail fixation hardware to support beams
  • Provides twin track platform
  • Requires considerable construction material and
    mandatory walkway for access

78
Rail Transport Systems New and Used Rail
  • 60 and 80-lb per yard Rail and Splice Plates

79
Rail Transport Systems Track Turn-Outs
  • Modularized Turn-Outs Quick Installation
  • Avoids stick-building under tunnel work
    conditions
  • Easy to salvage and relocate

80
Rail Transport Systems California Platform
  • California Platform with Equilateral Switches

81
Rail Transport Systems Prefabricated California
Platform
  • California Platform Fabrication Details

82
Rail Transport Systems Heavy Rail Transport
Systems
  • Heavy Load Rail Systems Special Applications
  • Rail cast into invert concrete
  • Precision leveling needed
  • Propel and breaking needed
  • Minimal slopes allowed
  • Heavy support needed
  • Verify clearances

83
Rail Transport Systems Heavy Rail Transport
Systems
  • Heavy Load Rail Systems Special Applications
  • Special high-capacity rail beams and supports
  • Heavy lifting equipment with strand jacks
    600-ton lift
  • Custom engineered system
  • Heavy load rail bogies
  • Reinforced track required
  • Requires considerable drawbar pull from multiple
    locomotives

84
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Tunnel Survey Systems

85
System Break-Down and ComponentsTunnel Survey
Systems
  • Optical
  • Conventional tried and true tunnel survey method
  • Provides for verification of all other methods
  • Need to assign place in tunnel for control
    points
  • Laser
  • Most popular and reliable method for real time
    TBM guidance
  • Needs dedicated space assignment in tunnel
  • Gyro Systems
  • Expensive system used to verify other systems
  • Inertial Guidance
  • Used for some soft ground TBM applications
  • Needs no space allotment in the tunnel
  • May want to consider a back-up plan for
    verification

86
Tunnel Survey SystemsTunnel Guidance Systems -
Laser
  • Tunnel Laser Guidance Most Popular for TBMs

87
Tunnel Survey SystemsTunnel Guidance Systems -
Laser
  • Tunnel Laser Guidance Most Popular for TBMs

88
Tunnel Survey SystemsTunnel Guidance Systems -
Laser
  • Tunnel Laser Guidance Most Popular for TBMs
  • Laser guidance provisions built into the TBM
    trailing gear
  • Laser clearance window maintained throughout
    trailing gear
  • TBM path predicted and recorded in As-Built
    records

89
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Special Tunnel Systems

90
System Break-Down and Components Special Tunnel
Utility Systems
  • TBM Equipment Cooling
  • Slurry Transport of Solids
  • Concrete Pumping
  • Shotcrete Supply
  • Pneumatic Conveying for powders
  • Grout Supply
  • Chemical Supply for shotcrete and grouting
  • Ground Freezing
  • Instrumentation and Measurement Data Systems
  • Safety and Emergency Systems
  • Transport catenary power systems

91
Special Tunnel SystemsTBM Equipt Cooling
Closed Loop Water
  • Soft and Hard Rock TBMs Require Cooling
  • Multiple use systems installed to minimize lines
    operation
  • Light weight materials best
  • Reliable and low maintenance
  • Multiple parallel systems for continuous
    operation
  • Temporary connections
  • Color coding needed

TBM laser target for mining curves
92
Special Tunnel SystemsSlurry Transport of Solids
Separation
  • Slurry Muck Haulage and Separation Plants
  • Surface separation plants, pumps and piping
    systems
  • Elaborate multi-stage plant operations and
    controls
  • Re-use of bentonite slurry
  • Large diameter TBMs equipped with slurry pumps
  • Suitable for variable ground conditions and high
    ground water pressures

93
Special Tunnel SystemsConcrete Shotcrete
Pumping
  • Tunnel Liner and Invert Concrete Placement
  • Drop shaft from surface for concrete delivery to
    train
  • System includes a re-mixer
  • Reliable and low maintenance
  • Slick line placed on tunnel invert between pump
    forms
  • Quick to install and remove
  • Designed for dis-assembly

94
Special Tunnel SystemsPneumatic Conveying
Systems Pipelines
  • Cement and Powdered Materials
  • Drop shaft from surface for cement delivery or
    dry shotcrete mix
  • Proven technology for dry material transfer
  • Delivery pipes for cement, fly ash and bentonite
    to silos
  • Silo-to-silo dry transfer

95
Special Tunnel SystemsGrout Supply Systems
Pipelines
  • Mixed Grout from Continuous Mixing Batch Plants
  • Supply and return grout lines to the heading from
    the shaft
  • Additional (redundant) lines needed for back-up
  • Continuous grout batching, mixing and storage
    plants
  • Programmable chemical dosing capability
  • Semi-automatic operation controlled from the
    heading

96
Special Tunnel SystemsChemical Supply Systems
Pipelines
  • Liquid Chemicals for Mining and Grouting
    Operations
  • Small diameter steel plastic pipelines for
    chemical admixtures
  • Additional lines for back-up systems

97
Special Tunnel SystemsGround Freezing Systems
Pipelines
  • Insulated Pipelines, Refrigeration Plants and
    Power
  • Shaft freezing water-bearing soils as a method
    for ground support but expensive
  • Refrigeration plant and insulated piping systems
  • Freezing for ground support for cross passages
  • Refrigeration plant and extensive insulated
    piping systems needed

98
Special Tunnel SystemsInstrumentation and
Measurement Systems
  • Continuous Monitoring and Data Collection Systems
  • Ring build geometry, optimization corrections
  • TBM steering analysis
  • Data recording and archival plots - records
    management

99
Special Tunnel SystemsSafety and Emergency
Systems
  • Fire-Life Safety Systems Temporary and Permanent
  • Fire detection and suppression
  • Gas detection and ventilation controls
  • Breathable air redundant supply systems
  • Temperature and vibration sensors
  • Emergency lighting and communications
  • Rail traffic control and monitoring in long
    tunnels
  • Vehicle positioning and deployment systems
  • Video monitoring of key equipment and operations
  • Security systems personnel, equipment and
    materials
  • Access monitoring and control gate keeper
    controls

100
Tunnel Utilities and Linear Plant
Major Systems Break-Down and Components
  • Questions and Discussion

101
Overview of SystemsMechanical Systems
  1. Drainage Systems
  2. Pumping Systems
  3. Compressed Air Systems

102
Overview of SystemsElectrical Systems
  1. Primary Power Systems
  2. Secondary Power Systems
  3. Electrical Safety Systems

103
Overview of SystemsVentilation Systems
  1. Primary Tunnel Ventilation Systems
  2. Secondary Tunnel Ventilation Systems
  3. Tunnel Cooling Systems
  4. Dust Control Programs
  5. Gas Monitoring and Exhaust

104
Overview of SystemsCommunications Systems
  1. Telephone
  2. Radio
  3. Data Acquisition and Transmission
  4. Fire Detection
  5. Video

105
Overview of SystemsLighting Systems
  • Spot Lighting
  • Continuous
  • Emergency

106
Overview of SystemsRail Transport Systems
  • Ties and Support
  • Rail and Turn-outs
  • California Switches and Platforms

107
Overview of SystemsTunnel Surveying Systems
  1. Optical
  2. Laser
  3. Gyro Positioning
  4. Inertial Guidance

108
Overview of SystemsSpecial Tunnel Utility Systems
  • TBM Equipment Cooling
  • Slurry Transport of Solids
  • Concrete Pumping
  • Shotcrete Pumping
  • Pneumatic Conveying
  • Grout Supply
  • Chemical Supply
  • Ground Freezing
  • Instrumentation and Measurement
  • Safety and Emergency Systems

109
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Tunnel Utility Systems
  • Example Yucca Mountain ECRB Tunnel 16-4
    diameter TBM bore, 8,400 LF in moderately hard
    rock (vol. tuff)

110
Overview of Tunnel SystemsGeneral Arrangement of
Tunnel Utility Systems
  • Example Deer Island North System Tunnels -
    Boston 15-6 diameter TBM bore, 4,500 LF in
    soft ground
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