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Cellular Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 3

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This is the Nucleus and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum... Terms to Know ... Others: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi, Vesicles (vacuoles)... CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY: Overview ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cellular Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 3


1
Cellular Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3
2
The Cellular Basis of Life
  • The cell is the basic structural and functional
    unit of life
  • The function of an organism (humans) is dependent
    upon the collective functions of the cells
  • Continuity of life depends on cells

3
Cells The Bodys Chemistry Labs
  • BIO - CHEMISTRY life - chemistry
  • Cell Function organizing and integrating
    chemicals

4
Cellular Anatomy Overview
5
Generalized Cell
  • Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes
  • We study a generalized cell
  • This is the Nucleus and Rough Endoplasmic
    Reticulum

6
Terms to Know
  • Plasma Membrane Compartmentalizes H2O, Regulates
    molecular movement in and out of cell
  • CytoplasmIntracellular region
  • cytosol cytoskeleton organelles

7
Some Key Organelles..
  • Nucleus Contains DNA and Controls synthetic
    activity of the cell
  • Mitochondria Responsible for oxidative
    metabolism in generating ATP
  • Ribosomes Sites of protein synthesis
  • Others Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi, Vesicles
    (vacuoles)

8
CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Overview
  • Key Life Functions
  • Of the Cell

9
Membrane Control of Cellular Homeostasis
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Mediated Transport
  • Endocytosis Exocytosis

10
Cellular Homeostasis Intracelluar vs.
Extracellular
  • Proteins
  • Glycogen
  • K
  • Na
  • Ca
  • Cl-

Selective Permeability Some Things are selected
for in, others For out Depends on Channels
Membrane Channels that is
11
It DependsNot on Channels but on Gradients
  • O2
  • CO2
  • Glucose
  • Urea
  • Amino Acids
  • More on this when we look closely at molecular
    movement across membranes

12
Cell Functions Life Functions
  • Reproduce
  • Grow
  • Adapt
  • Transform Energy
  • Metabolism
  • Respiration
  • Excretion
  • Contribute to the function of the whole

13
Growth, Reproduction and Adaptation Protein
Synthesis
  • Transcription
  • Translation
  • Post-Translational Modifications
  • Mitosis and Meiosis

14
Transforming Energy ATP Homeostasis
  • Anaerobic Metabolism
  • Converting fuels to ATP in the Cytosol without
    oxygen
  • Aerobic Metabolism
  • Converting fuel by-products to ATP in the
    Mitochondria using oxygen

15
Take 2 Review and Draw Cell Organelles
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Ribosomes
  • Cytoskeleton microtubules, filaments,
    intermediary filament

16
Plasma Membranes Selectively Permeable Barriers
17
Plasma Membranes
  • Selective barrier regulating intracellular
    homeostasis
  • Interface for intercelluar interaction

18
Membrane Specializations
  • Microvilli Little shaggy hairs
  • Fingerlike projections to increase the surface
    area of the membrane
  • Part of the membrane
  • Cilia eyelashes
  • NOT part of the membrane, but protein fibers
    extending from the cell
  • tail wagging to propel substances across the
    cell surface

19
Membrane Composition
  • Phospholipids
  • Imbedded Proteins Channels,
    Carriers, Signal Receptors, Enzymes, Support
  • Cholesterol, Sugar Residues

20
Phospholipids
  • Glycerol, 2 fatty acid tails, Phosphate head
  • Dual Nature Both Polar and Non-Polar
  • Non-Polar Ends group away from water

21
Phospolipids Have a Polar Head and a Non-Polar
Tail
  • Polar HeadsHydrophilic water loving
  • The heads face the watery inside and outside of
    the cell
  • Non-Polar Tails Hydrophobic water hating
  • The tails hide from the water

22
Phospholipid Bi-Layer
Outside of Cell
-
Heads
Tails
Heads
Inside of Cell
23
Selective Permeability
  • Large molecules, and many ions cannot cross the
    lipid barrier
  • Other ions/ small lipid soluble molecules are
    allowed to cross
  • Water molecules generally move with ions or
    larger molecules

24
Concentration Gradients Potential Energy
  • A difference in molecule concentration (high vs
    low) across the membrane concentration gradient

25
Concentration Gradients
  • Create a Potential energy source
  • Molecules will always move from high
    concentrations to low concentrations

26
Question How does the concentration of scent
molecules in a room change with time?
27
Equilibrium
  • Balance
  • Equal concentration of molecules on both sides of
    the membrane
  • Equal movement in and out of cell

28
Terms The stuff that moves
  • Solvent predominant material (H2O)
  • Solute molecule dissolved in the solvent
  • Concentration Gradient of solutes in a solvent

29
Terms The way stuff moves
  • Diffusion Solute molecules move across membrane
  • Facilitated Diffusion By carriers
  • Osmosis Solvent (H2O) moves
  • Active Transport ATP Energy

30
Passive Diffusion
  • Solutes move downhill along or with a
    concentration gradient
  • Requires no ATP energy
  • Small Molecules freely permeable O2, CO2, urea
    etc

And Now A Diffusion Demonstration!
31
Osmosis
  • Solvent (H2O) moves down a (H2O) concentration
    gradient
  • Only Water Moves !
  • Water moves to disperse crowded solute
    molecules, when they are trapped

32
Osmotic Terms Solute Concentrations (Outside
cell)
  • Isotonic Solute concentration equal on both
    sides of membrane
  • Hypotonic Solute concentration less than inside
    cell
  • HypertonicSolute concetration more than inside
    cell

33
Cells and Solutions When the bathing solution
isnt isotonic
34
Memory AidsDistilled Water is Hypotonic
  • Gee Doc, thats a SWELL HYPOdermic!
  • Cells Swell in Hypotonic solutions Lyse

35
AndThe Dead Sea is hypertonic
  • I get HYPER when my jeans SHRINK!
  • Cells Shrink in Hypertonic solutions Crenation
  • Isotonic solutions keep everyone happy

36
Challenge! Cystic Fibrosis is an Osmosis Problem
  • Check out this web site on the cell
  • http//www.usd.edu/bgoodman/cell-ebration.html
  • What single membrane protein is dysfunctional in
    people with Cystic Fibrosis?
  • Why can we say that CF is an OSMOSIS problem?

37
Facilitated Diffusion
  • Carrier Mediated Temporary binding
  • Moves downhill with concentration gradient
  • Glucose is carrier mediated
  • NO ATP required

38
Active Transport
  • Requires metabolic energy (ATP)
  • Moves molecules uphill against a concentration
    gradient
  • Na/K Pumps

39
Assignment Create a table describing the
movement of molecules across plasma membranes
Like so.
40
Up/Down Gradient?
What Moves?
Energy
Carrier ?
Mech.
41
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