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Web-Based Information Systems: Design and Maintenance

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Title: Web-Based Information Systems: Design and Maintenance


1
Web-Based Information SystemsDesign and
Maintenance
CAiSE 98 Pisa, June 11, 1998
Paolo Atzeni and Paolo Merialdo
Università di Roma Tre
joint work with Giansalvatore Mecca
  • http//poincare.dia.uniroma3.it8080

2
Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

3
Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

4
Database and information systems technology
present and future
  • the technology of relational databases is now
    mature and reliable a de-facto standard for
    business applications (accounting, banking,
    reservations, personnel, inventory, ...)
  • the current challenges integration and
    cross-fertilization

5
The need for cross-fertilization
  • database technology was developed within the
    domain of business applications other domains
    have other requirements (also very different one
    from each other)
  • database technology and X technology can be
    complementary, with potential mutual benefit
  • basic problems have been solved specific areas
    may have specific problems, for which the general
    solutions need not be satisfactory

6
Is the database problem solved?
  • a lot has still to be done for business
    applications (performance, user-friendliness,
    interoperability, support in development and
    maintainability)
  • business applications can handle only a fraction
    of the data that can be of interest
  • new applications have requirements not satisfied
    by relational systems
  • only a small fraction of data (lt 10?) stored in
    an electronic way is handled by database systems

7
New applications
  • multimedia information systems
  • document information systems
  • scientific data management
  • biological databases
  • decision support applications
  • knowledge-based applications
  • integrated heterogeneous (autonomous) systems

8
A topical issue
  • a request from our users
  • computing facilities should become similar to
    standard utilities (gas, phone, power, etc.)
  • our usual reply
  • computing services have application specific
    features for which standard services would only
    be a limited solutions (as it is the case for the
    other utilities)
  • however
  • what would a standard offer of services be?

9
The great opportunity
  • Internet (and Intranets and Extranets) and the
    World-Wide-Web offer a great opportunity
  • a simplified stack of layers
  • cooperation (of applications)
  • interoperability (ftp, telnet, mail, http, ...)
  • connectivity
  • standardization climbs stacks (functionalities
    get standardized and go down think to database
    systems!)

10
The Web a great opportunity
  • the diffusion of the Web is one of the most
    interesting phenomena of the last few years in
    all areas of computing and communication
    technologies
  • the Web (with its browsers) is becoming a
    standard interface for the final user
  • the protocol is very simple and public
  • the interface is uniform
  • the content is extremely rich (both in breadth
    and in depth)
  • it is becoming a standard interface for accessing
    many services, specifically information systems
    and databases of every type

11
The Web a great opportunity
  • in the Internet/Intranet/Web world the
    architectural solutions for software show
    interesting new features
  • increased portability Java
  • increased distribution and ease of implementation
    of actual client/server solutions
  • distribution and exchange of programs (applets)
    beside data and calls

12
The Web evolution
  • Today
  • the Web as a vehicle to deliver information and
    services
  • Tomorrow
  • the Web as a computing platform to develop
    enterprise information systems

13
Problems
  • Web and structured information systems a
    contradiction?
  • how much structure is there in the Web? different
    level of granularity and degrees of structure for
    our data
  • databases can be queried in a flexible way
    hypertexts are easy to access, but cannot be
    queried
  • Web sites are often difficult to explore, use and
    monitor
  • Web sites are difficult to design and maintain

14
Web features
  • the Web is a simple and powerful integration
    tool it allows the natural implementation of
    (data-centred) cooperative approach
  • various approaches
  • coarse integration pages of hypertextual links
  • fine-grain integration unified interfaces for
    accessing different (usually similar) information
    systems available on the Web

15
we need the best of databases and hypertexts!
16
Database approaches to Web-based information
systems issues
  • bottom-up accessing information from Web
    sources, and integrating them
  • top-down designing and maintaining Web sites
  • global integrating existing sites and offering
    the information through new ones

17
Web-based information systems a database point
of view
  • Data-Intensive Web Sites
  • large amount of data
  • significance the hypertext structure

18

Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

19
Problems with many Web-sites(design)
  • information is often poorly organized and
    difficult to access
  • it is not even clear which pieces of information
    are available
  • the access structure is casual and many dandling
    references occur
  • the style of presentation is heterogeneous

20
Problems with many Web-sites(maintenance)
  • difficulties in updating the content
  • difficulties in changing the initially defined
    structure
  • difficulties in changing the presentation details

21
Web-based information systems
  • What we have
  • DBMSs for the management of data
  • various tools for the generation of Web pages
  • What we advocate
  • a systematic approach to Web site design models,
    steps, guidelines
  • tools to support the development process

22
Design Proposals
  • HDM Garzotto et al., 1993
  • OOHDM Schwabe and Rossi, 1995
  • RMM Isakowitz et al., 1995
  • AutoWeb Fraternali and Paolini, 1998
  • (Strudel Fernandez et al., 1998)
  • Araneus Atzeni et al., 1998

23
Hypertext data-independence
  • Data what information is offered through the
    site and what are the conceptual details and the
    logical organization
  • Hypertext how data is arranged in pages and what
    navigation links correlate them
  • Presentation the appearance of each piece of
    information in pages

24
Hypertext data-independence
25
Hypertext data-independence
26
Hypertext data-independence
27
Design Issues
  • Data
  • choosing the content
  • Hypertext
  • choosing navigation paths
  • Presentation
  • defining layout and graphics

28
Maintenance Issues
  • Data
  • changing
  • the content
  • Hypertext
  • changing navigation paths
  • Presentation
  • changing layout and graphics

29
Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

30
Components and Models
  • data ER and Relational
  • hypertext
  • presentation HTML

What is missing is a model for hypertexts!
31
Models for hypertexts
  • in data-intensive Web sites (and often in
    general) there are (many) pages with a similar
    (or even the same) structure
  • thirty or forty years ago people realized that in
    an application it is often the case that there
    are records with the same structure files with a
    rather fixed structure were invented with this
    purpose
  • the notion of scheme of the database was later
    introduced as an overall description of the
    content of a database

32
A Web page
33
A page-scheme ProfessorPage
ProfessorPage
Name
Position
Address
EMail
ResearchList
Area
ToResP
34
ADM (Araneus Data Model) a logical model for Web
hypertexts
  • page-schemes
  • unique pages
  • simple attributes
  • text, images, ...
  • link (anchor, URL)
  • complex attributes lists (possibly nested)
  • heterogeneous union
  • form (as virtual list over form fields and link
    to the result)

35
A Web page (containing a list of links)
36
A unique page-scheme ProfessorListPage
ProfessorListPage
ProfessorList
Name
ToProfP
37
An ADM Scheme
ProfessorListPage
ProfessorPage
ProfessorList
Name
Name
ToProfP
Position
Address
EMail
ResearchList
Area
ToResP
38
Heterogeneous Union and Forms
39
Heterogeneous Union and Forms in ADM
SearchProfPage
ProfessorListPage
ProfessorPage
40
Data Models
Database Conceptual Scheme (entities -
relationships)
ER
ADM
Hypertext Logical Scheme (page-schemes, links)
There is a lot of distance between the two!
41
A simple ER scheme
42
An ADM scheme
43
Data Models
ER
Database Conceptual Scheme (entities -
relationships)
NCM
Hypertext Conceptual Scheme (macroentities, direct
ed relationships, aggregations)
ADM
Hypertext Logical Scheme (page-schemes, links)
NCM fills the gap between the two
44
NCM
Hypertext Conceptual Scheme (macroentities, direct
ed relationships, aggregations)
45
Navigation Conceptual Model (NCM)
  • Hypertext Conceptual Features
  • Which concepts should be the hypertext nodes
  • Which should be the navigation paths between
    nodes
  • How nodes should be aggregated to build the
    hierarchical access structure
  • NCM Constructs
  • Macroentity
  • Directed Relationship
  • Aggregation

46
NCM Macroentities and directed relationships
Name
Name
11
Professor
Student
Tutorship
Room
...
Email
1N
Teacher
11
Day
Name
N
Lesson
Hour
Course
Description
Room
47
NCM aggregation nodes
Department
People
Activities
1N
11
11
48
An NCM scheme
49
Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

50
The Araneus Methodology
Database conceptual design
Hypertext conceptual design
Hypertext Logical design
Database logical design
Presentation design
Page Generation
51
The Araneus Methodologydesign from scratch
Database conceptual design
Hypertext conceptual design
Hypertext Logical design
Database logical design
Presentation design
Page Generation
52
The Araneus Methodology design from an existing
database (with an ER scheme)
Database conceptual design
Hypertext conceptual design
Database logical design
Hypertext Logical design
Presentation design
Page Generation
53
Hypertext Conceptual DesignER scheme NCM
Scheme
Database conceptual design
ER Scheme
Hypertext conceptual design
NCM Scheme
Hypertext Logical design
Database logical design
Presentation design
Page Generation
54
Hypertext Conceptual DesignER scheme NCM
Scheme
  • step 1
  • choose and describe macroentities design views
    over the input ER scheme
  • step 2
  • choose navigation paths
  • step 3
  • shape the hypertext access structure on the basis
    of (bottom-up) conceptual aggregation

55
Hypertext Conceptual DesignER scheme NCM
Scheme
  • step 1 choose and describe macroentities design
    views over the input ER scheme
  • usually it corresponds to de-normalize the
    input ER scheme

ER
NCM
Name
Course
Name
Description
Course
1N
Description
1N
11
Day
Day
Lesson
Lesson
Hour
Hour
56
Hypertext Conceptual DesignER scheme NCM
Scheme
  • step 2 choose navigation paths
  • it may introduce redundancies

ER
NCM
1N
Professor
Professor
1N
1N
1N
11
11
Paper
Paper
1N
1N
1N
Research-Group
Research-Group
1N
57
Hypertext Conceptual DesignER scheme NCM
Scheme
  • step 3 shape the hypertext access structure
  • it is based on bottom-up conceptual aggregations

NCM
NCM
Research Activities
Professor
...
Professor
11
11
Seminar
...
1N
1N
Seminar
Research-Group
Research-Group
58
The Input ER scheme
59
The resulting NCM scheme
60
Hypertext Logical DesignNCM scheme ADM
Scheme
Database conceptual design
Hypertext conceptual design
NCM Scheme
Database logical design
Hypertext Logical design
ADM Scheme
Presentation design
Page Generation
61
Hypertext Logical DesignNCM scheme ADM
Scheme
  • step 1
  • map each macroentity into either
  • a page-scheme or
  • a list inside a page-scheme
  • step 2
  • map each directed relationship into a (list of)
    link attribute(s)
  • step 3
  • map each aggregation into a unique page-scheme
    with link attributes to the target page-schemes

62
Hypertext Logical DesignStep 1 (example)
63
Hypertext Logical DesignStep 1 (example)
64
Hypertext Logical DesignStep 2 (example)
65
Hypertext Logical DesignStep 3 (example)
66
R e s ulting ADM Scheme
67
Maintenance
  • The Schemes help designers to maintain the
    hypertext structure
  • Maintenance activities correspond to apply scheme
    transformations
  • introduce multilevel lists
  • introduce forms
  • split pages
  • ...

68
Maintenance example
69
Outline
  • Databases and information systems over the Web a
    great opportunity
  • The design of Web-based information systems
    (WBIS)
  • Models for the design of WBIS
  • Conceptual and logical design of WBIS
  • Tools and techniques

70
Tools and techniques for developing WBIS
  • Issues in implementing WBIS
  • Market solutions
  • architectures
  • languages
  • tools
  • Characterization of WBIS
  • Push and pull approaches
  • Research Proposals

71
Typical Web server architecture
i n t e r n e t
HTTP server
Web browser
DBMS
72
Implementing Page-schemes from Database tables
ProfListPage
ProfPage
ProfList
Name
Name ToProf
E-Mail
Room
73
Push and pull
  • The pull approach
  • generates pages dynamically
  • The push approach
  • materializes pages (in text files)

74
The pull approach
  • Advantages
  • pages are always up to date
  • easy maintenance
  • Disadvantages
  • increases the DBMS overload (but recent
    architectures seem to be able to overcome the
    problem)
  • portability (but Java servlets ...)
  • Main features
  • supported by most of the tools available on the
    market

75
The push approach
  • Advantages
  • portability
  • reduces the dbms overload (if any)
  • Disadvantages
  • needs techniques to maintain consistency between
    database and hypertext
  • Sindoni, 1998
  • Main features
  • needs a mechanism for URL invention

76
Implementing Page-schemes by CGI-programs
(ProfListPage)
main() char ArtistName20 DECLARE
ArtistCursor CURSOR FOR SELECT Name FROM
ArtistTable OPEN ArtistCursor FETCH
ArtistCursor INTO ArtistName printf(ltHTMLgt
...ltBODY ...) printf(ltULgt) while
(sqlcode0) printf(ltLIgtltA
HREF/cgi-bin/ArtistPage
?Namesgtslt/Agt, ArtistName,ArtistNam
e) FETCH ArtCurs INTO ArtistName
CLOSE CURSOR ArtistCursor printf(lt/ULgt ...
lt/BODYgtlt/HTMLgt)
77
Implementing Page-schemes by CGI-programs
(ProfPage)
main(int argc, char argv) char Name20,
Email20, Room20 DECLARE ProfCursor CURSOR
FOR SELECT FROM ProfTable WHERE Name
argv1 OPEN ProfCursor FETCH ProfCursor INTO
Name,Email,Room printf(ltHTMLgt ...ltBODY
...) printf(ltBgtslt/Bgt,Name)
printf(ltBRgtE-mail ltIgtslt/Igt,Email)
printf(ltBRgtRoom s,Room) CLOSE CURSOR
ProfCursor printf(... lt/BODYgtlt/HTMLgt)
78
Issues in Implementing WBISs
  • Programming
  • Portability
  • Performance
  • Maintenance
  • (Security)

79
Market Solutions
  • Architectures
  • Specific DBMS-HTTP Server Interfaces
  • JDBC and Servlet
  • Languages
  • HTML Extensions
  • 4GL Extensions
  • Tools
  • Tools to support the implementation
  • Tools to support design activities

80
Typical Web server architecture
i n t e r n e t
HTTP server
Web browser
DBMS
81
Web server architecture with a specific DBMS
HTTP server Interface
i n t e r n e t
HTTP server
Web browser
Specific Interface
DBMS
DB
82
Web Server Architectures with Specific DBMS HTTP
Server Interfaces
  • Establish direct and continuous connections
    between the DBMS and the HTTP Server
  • Maintain the connections throughout the Web
    applications as well as across invocations of Web
    applications
  • Since the database connections are continuous,
    applications dont experience the overhead of a
    connect and subsequent disconnect from the
    database
  • Use specific languages for CGI programs

83
Languages
  • HTML Extensions
  • embed SQL statement in specific HTML tags
  • writing page templates becomes an implementation
    paradigm
  • 4GL Extensions
  • add specialized functions to a 4GL
  • the result of a program execution is HTML code

84
HTML Extensions
  • Microsoft Active Server Page (ASP)
  • Microsoft Internet Database Connector (IDC)
  • Allaire Inc. Cold Fusion
  • Sybase Web.SQL
  • ...

85
HTML Extensions Example (source Sybase)
ltHTMLgt ltBODY BGCOLORWHITEgt ... ltSYB
TYPESQLgt SELECT au_lname, au_fname, title,
price FROM pubs2..authors a,
pubs2..titleauthor ta, pubs2..titles
t WHERE (a.au_id ta.au_id and t.title_id
ta.title_id) lt/SYSgt ... lt/BODYgt lt/HTMLgt
86
Languages
  • HTML Extensions
  • embed SQL statement in specific HTML tags
  • writing page templates becomes an implementation
    paradigm
  • 4GL Extensions
  • add specialized functions to a 4GL
  • the result of a program execution is HTML code

87
4GL Extensions
  • IBM Net.Data
  • Oracle PL/SQL Web/Toolkit
  • Informix Web Datablade
  • ...

88
4GL Extensions Example (source Informix)
CREATE FUNCTION ArtistPage(text) RETURN
TEXT AS SELECT UNIQUE ltTABLE WIDTH100gtltTRgt
ltTDgtltIMG SRCWebdriver?LO logotext
Typeimage/gif ltBRgt ltSTRONGgt name
lt/STRONGgt ltPgtltBgtBirthlt/BgtltEMgtbirthlt/
EMgtltBRgt ltPgtltBgtDeathlt/BgtltEMgtdeathlt/EMgtltT
Dgt ltTD ALIGNLEFTgtltPgtbiography
lt/TDgtlt/TRgtlt/TABLEgtltPgt FROM ArtistTable WHERE
Name LIKE 1
89
4GL Extensions Example (results) (source
Informix)
ltTABLE WIDTH100gtltTRgt ltTDgtltIMG
SRCWebdriver?LO I0109766443206Typeimage/gif
ltBRgt ltSTRONGgtBotticellilt/STRONGgt
ltPgtltBgtBirthlt/BgtltEMgt1445lt/EMgtltBRgt
ltPgtltBgtDeathlt/BgtltEMgt1510lt/EMgtltTDgt ltTD
ALIGNLEFTgtltPgtAlessandro Filipepi,
called il Botticelli,
was borns in Florence... lt/TDgtlt/TRgtlt/TABLEgtltPgt

90
Java Servlet
  • Protocol and platform-independent server side
    components
  • do not require creation of a new process for each
    request
  • allows for three tier applications

91
Web server architecture with JDBC and Java Servlet
i n t e r n e t
HTTP server
Web browser
Servlet
JDBC
92
Tools
  • HTML Editors
  • WYSWYG Editors
  • Provide Database import facilities
  • Database Publishing Wizards
  • Export database tables, views, reports, forms for
    Web publishing
  • Target formats HTML code (for static pages),
    HTML or 4GL extension source code (for dynamic
    page creation)

93
Tools (2)
  • Web site managers
  • provide graphic interface on the content of a Web
    site for a tree-like presentation and
    manipulation of HTML files
  • utilities to check link consistency
  • RADs and Web form editors
  • provide support for exporting tables, views,
    reports in HTML (or Java)
  • Assist developers in the construction of
    interactive form based applications for accessing
    and updating data

94
Tools (3)
  • CASE Tools
  • provide full support in both the design and
    development activities
  • use a model driven approach

95
Web site Characterization
Hypertext Complexity
High
Low
Small
Large
Quantity of Data
Fernandez et al., SIGMOD98
96
Web site Characterizationmeasuring the
hypertext complexity
Hypertext Complexity
Number of Page-Schemes

High
Low
Small
Large
Quantity of Data
Hypertext Complexity -gt Number of Page-schemes
97
Sites with small quantities of data
High
Low
  • Small

Large
  • Features
  • Several Unique pages
  • Focus on graphic layout of pages
  • Maintenance adding, removing unique pages
    link consistency
  • Tools
  • HTML editors
  • Site managers

98
High
Sites with large quantities of dataand low
complexity
Low
Small
Large
  • Features
  • Few page-schemes with table data
  • Focus on data
  • Maintenance updating the pages contents
  • Tools
  • Site managers
  • Database publishing wizards
  • Web form editors

99
High
Sites with large quantities of dataand high
complexity
Low
Small
Large
  • Features
  • Several interconnected page-schemes
  • Focus on data and navigation
  • Maintenance updating contents and structure
  • Tools
  • RAD
  • CASE Tools

100
Focus on Navigation and Presentation
Presentation
Data
Navigation
  • HTML Editors
  • Web site managers

101
Focus on Navigation and Data
Presentation
Data
Navigation
  • CASE Tools
  • (e.g. Oracle designer 2000)

102
Focus on Data and Presentation
Presentation
Data
  • RADs and
  • Web form editors
  • Database publishing wizards

Navigation
103
Research Proposals
  • Model based approaches
  • Araneus (NCM-ADM) Atzeni et al. 97,98
  • Autoweb (HDM lite) Fraternali and Paolini 98
  • Languages and tools to manage orthogonally
    data-navigation-presentation
  • Araneus SQL - Penelope - Telemaco
  • AutoWeb SQL - VHDM - StyleSheet Editor
  • Strudel StruQL (for both data and site graph) -
    HTML TemplateLanguage Fernandez et al. 98

104
Bibliography
  • P. Atzeni, G. Mecca, P. Merialdo, To Weave the
    Web, Proc. 23rd Conf. on Very Large Databases,
    Athens, Greece, Aug. 1997.
  • Available from http//poincare.dia.uniroma3.it8
    080/araneus
  • P. Atzeni, G. Mecca, P. Merialdo, Data-Intensive
    Web Sites Design and Maintenance, Int. Conf.
    EDBT'98, Valencia, Spain, April 1998.
  • Available from http//poincare.dia.uniroma3.it8
    080/araneus
  • A. Díaz, T. Isakowitz, V. Maiorana, G. Gilabert,
    RMC A Tool to Design WWW Applications, Fourth
    Int. World Wide Web Conf., Boston, Massachusetts,
    USA, Dec. 1995.
  • http//www.w3.org/pub/Confernces/WWW4/Papers2/187
  • G.Falquet, J. Guyot, L.Nerima Language and Tools
    to specify Hypertext Views on Databases, Int.
    Workshop on the Web and Databases (WebDB'98), in
    conjunction with EDBT'98, Valencia, Spain, April
    1998.
  • Available from http//poincare.dia.uniroma3.it8
    080/webdb98

105
Bibliography
  • M.Fernandez, D.Florescu, J.Kang, A.Levy, D.Suciu,
    Catching the boad with Strudel Experiences with
    a Web-site Management System, ACM SIGMOD'98,
    Seattle, June 1998.
  • M.Fernandez, D.Florescu, J.Kang, A.Levy, D.Suciu,
    Strudel a Web-site Management System, ACM
    SIGMOD'97, System Demonstration, Tucson Arizona,
    May 1997.
  • P.Fraternali Web Development Tools a Survey,
    Seventh Int. Word Wide Web Conf. (WWW7),
    Brisbane, Australia, April 1998.
  • Available from http//www.elet.polimi.it/\frater
    na/www7/webtools.html
  • P.Fraternali, P.Paolini, A Conceptual Model and a
    Tool Environment for Developing More Scalable,
    Dynamic, and Customizable Web Applications, Int.
    Conf. EDBT'98, Valencia, Spain, April 1998.
  • Available from http//www.ing.unico.it/autoweb
  • F.Garzotto, L. Mainetti, P. Paolini, Hypermedia
    Design, Analysis, and Evaluation Issues
    Communications of the ACM, Vol. 38, N. 8,
    pp.74-86, 1995.

106
Bibliography
  • H. Gellersen, R. Wicke, M. Gaedke,
    WebComposition An Object-Oriented Support System
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    California USA, April 1997.
  • Available from http//www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/
    get/PAPER232.html
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  • Available from http//www.w3.org/pub/Conferences/
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107
Software Products References
  • Access97, Microsoft,
  • http//www.microsoft.com/access
  • Active Server Pages, Microsoft
  • http//www.microsoft.com/iis/LearnAboutIIS/ActiveS
    erver
  • Designer 2000, Oracle
  • http//www.oracle.com/products/tools/des2k/collate
    ral/wwwgen.pdf
  • Developer 2000, Oracle
  • http//www.oracle.com/products/tools/dev2k
  • FrontPage98, Microsoft
  • http//www.microsoft.com/frontpage
  • Internet Database Connector, Microsoft,
  • http//www.microsoft.com/msoffice/developer
  • PL/SQL Web Development Toolkit, Oracle,
  • http//www.oracle.com

108
Software Products References
  • Informix WebDatablade
  • http//www.informix.com
  • IBM Net.Data
  • http//www.software.ibm.com/data/net.data
  • Java Servlet
  • http//java.sun.com/marketing/collateral/servlets.
    html
  • Microsoft FrontPage, Visual InterDev, Site
    Server, Active Server Page
  • http//www.microsoft.com
  • Oracle. Oracle Designer/2000. WebServer Generator
  • http//www.oracle.com/products/tools
  • Speedware Corporation Speedware Autobahn
  • http//www.speedware.com/products/autobahn

109
Software Products References
  • Sybase Internet Products
  • http//www.sybase.com/products/internet
  • Visual InterDev, Microsoft
  • http//www.microsoft.com/vinterdev
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