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Charles Darwin

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Title: Charles Darwin


1
Darwin Unit
Dr. Meg Cronin, English The reaction to
evolution in the context of Victorian religious
views
Dr. Jay Pitocchelli, Biology - Who was Charles
Darwin and the development of the theory of
evolution
Dr. Joe Spoerl, Philosophy - Colonialism, clash
of cultures and Social Darwinism
Dr. Peter Larson, Biology - Evolution Today The
theory today, developments since Darwin and the
continued controversy
2
Charles Darwin Lecture
Outline Why was Darwin important Who was Charles
Darwin Voyage of the Beagle Discovery of the
theory of evolution
3
Why was Charles Darwin Important?
Galileo
If there was a science Hall of Fame..
Einstein
Watson and Crick
Curie
Mendel
Newton
4
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Productive
Scholar - Summary
19 books 2 volumes of collected papers 9
contributions to other texts 32 volumes of 15,000
correspondences Can you imagine Darwin with
e-mail? Darwins complete works
online http//darwin-online.org.uk
5
Why was Charles Darwin Important?Productive
Scholar - Examples
  • 1839 Journal of Researches into the Natural
    History
  • 1842 The Structure and Distribution of Coral
    Reefs
  • 1844 Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands
  • 1846 Geological Observations on South America
  • 1851 A Monograph of the Sub-class Cirripedia
  • 1851 A Monograph of the Fossil Pedunculated
    Cirripeds of Great Britain
  • 1854 A Monograph of the Sessile Cirripeds
  • 1854 A Monograph of the Fossil Sessile Cirripeds
  • 1859 On the Origin of Species
  • 1862 On the Various Contrivances by which British
    Foreign Orchids are Fertilized by Insects
  • 1868 The Variation of Animals and Plants Under
    Domestication
  • 1871 The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation
    to Sex
  • 1872 The Expression of the Emotions in Man and
    Animals

6
Why was Charles Darwin Important?Productive
Scholar - Examples
  • 1875 Insectivorous Plants
  • 1875 The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants
  • 1876 The Effects of Cross- and Self-Fertilization
    in the Vegetable Kingdom
  • 1877 The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of
    the Same Species
  • 1880 The Power of Movement in Plants
  • 1881 The Formation of Vegetable Mold through the
    Action of Worms

7
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Asks questions
about origins of life
Where did we (humans) come from? Where did all
life come from? Why bother asking?
8
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Anglican churchs and ruling elites stranglehold
on power Origin of life was already known Gradual
erosion of Biblical interpretation
9
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Origin of life was already known Biblical
interpretation Genesis and Bishop
Usher Creation began in late October, 4004 B.C.
10
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Paley
Creationist Natural Theology A View of the
Evidence of Christianity Metaphor for
Design Watch and the watchmaker
11
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Cuvier
Comparative anatomist Paleontologist Creationist
Each species assigned its special place in
nature (fixity of species) Extinction Catastroph
ism
12
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Cuvier
Fossil beds near Paris
Describing mammoths near Paris
Fossil rhinoceros
Ichthyosaur
Three-toed horse
Other fossil species found near Paris
13
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Lamarck
Early evolutionist Organisms change over
time Pass the changes on to next generation
14
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Lamarckism - Giraffe Example
Individuals change and pass changes to next
generation
15
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Lyell
Geologist Principles of Geology Explained
Huttons uniformitarianism Outlined principles
of Stratification Friend and Colleague of Darwin
16
Why was Charles Darwin Important? Answers would
be extremely controversial
Context and Zeitgeist of the early 1800s
Lyells Principles of Stratification
17
Who was Charles Darwin?
Wealthy Family Grandparents - Darwins and
Wedgwoods Parents - Dr. Robert and Susanna
Darwin Born 1809, 2nd youngest in the
family Siblings - Erasmus, Marianne, Caroline,
Susan, Catherine
Grandfather Erasmus
Father Robert
Brother Erasmus
18
Who was Charles Darwin?
Marries cousin, Emma Wedgwood Offspring - 10
children but only 7 survive to adulthood
19
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education
Early schooling Shrewsbury Medical schooling
Edinburgh University Religious schooling -
Christs College, Cambridge
20
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury small private school, strong Erasmus
- brother, mentor, support group Darwin underachie
ver Interests turn to natural history, collecting
and hunting
21
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Shrewsbury
Dr. Robert Darwin is upset Doesnt want an
embarrassment to the family name Pulls
Charles out of school and puts him to work as a
medical assistant Sends him off to medical
school for an honorable occupation
What the h?l is a deficiency?
22
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education
Medical schooling Edinburgh University
23
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Edinburgh University
Grant
Background Physician and Zoologist Marine
Invertebrate specialist Political activist -
free-thinker Influence on Darwin
24
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education
Religious schooling - Christs College, Cambridge
25
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Christs College
Religious schooling - Christs College,
Cambridge Plan - 4 year plan for obtaining his
degree Atmosphere Fellow Students - affluent,
religious Daily routine - chapel, tutorials,
lectures
26
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Christs College
Darwins focus is on natural history, not on
religion Becomes member of the Glutton
club Meets/associates with two important
mentors Sedgwick Henslow
27
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Christs College
Sedgwick
Rev. Adam Sedgwick the scholar Part of Heroic Age
of Geology in early 1800s Described fossils from
the Cambrian Worked in Wales and
Scotland Vice-pres. of Geological Society of
London
28
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Christs College
Henslow
Rev. John Henslow Professor of Botany Hosts
Friday night natural history dinners Becomes an
early model for Darwins future plans Another
important introduction to botany that Darwin will
use as he travels around the world later in life
29
Who was Charles Darwin?
Education - Christs College
Completes education Darwin earns B.A.
degree Reads Paleys works Natural Theology,
Evidence of Christianity Thinks about the future
(what happens after graduation?)
30
Voyage of the Beagle
Good News/Bad News Rollercoaster Bad News Close
friend dies, partner in travel around the
world Good News Henlsow tells him of his
selection to accompany Capt. Fitzroy on the HMS
Beagle Bad News Henslow did not know that the
position was already filled, no trip for
Darwin Good News Darwin is going after all,
frontrunner turned down the position
31
Voyage of the Beagle
Mission of the HMS Beagle - 2 year voyage Map and
take soundings of the major ports of call
Darwins mission Gentleman companion to Captain
FitzRoy Naturalist, collecting specimens
32
Voyage of the Beagle
H. M. S. Beagle
33
Voyage of the Beagle
34
Voyage of the Beagle
First landing - St. Jago in the Cape Verde
Islands Notices marine fossils approximately 15m
above sea level Observes evidence of Lyells
Principles of Geology
35
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America Biodiversity -
Life from the present Geology - more evidence of
Lyells theories Biodiversity - Life from the
past - fossil mammals
36
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America Biodiversity -
Life from the present Birds, mammals, beetles,
plants
37
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America More evidence of
Lyells theories Earthquake near Concepcion,
Chile Uplifting of the Andes Mtns.
38
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America More evidence of
Lyells theories Life from the past - more fossil
marine invertebrates in the mountains
39
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America Biodiversity -
fossil mammals from the past Extinct organisms
similar to modern species Fossil Glyptodonts
Modern Armadillos
40
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from South America Biodiversity -
fossil mammals from the past Extinct organisms
completely unlike modern species (Toxodon - giant
herbivore)
41
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from the Galapagos Islands Trip
appears uneventful at first
42
Voyage of the Beagle
Galapagos Islands
Collections from the Galapagos Islands Small
archipelago Stop for supplies
43
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from the Galapagos Islands Inhospitabl
e volcanic islands
44
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from the Galapagos Islands Darwin
fascinated by the Mockingbirds
Galapagos Mockingbird
Long-tailed Mockingbird
Hood Mockingbird
Charles Mockingbird
Chatham Mockingbird
45
Voyage of the Beagle
Distribution of Galapagos Mockingbirds
San Cristobal (Chatham) Mockingbird
Galapagos Mockingbird (8 subspecies)
Espanola (Hood) Mockingbird
Floreana (Charles) Mockingbird
46
Voyage of the Beagle
Collections from the Galapagos Islands Unimpressed
by the finches, tortoises
47
Voyage of the Beagle
Galapagos Finches
Galapagos Tortoises
48
Voyage of the Beagle
Remainder of the voyage Polynesia (coral reefs
and missionaries) New Zealand (Maori and
missionaries) Australia (white settler, convicts,
aborigines) Tasmania (more white exploitation of
aborigines) Indian Ocean (coral reefs) Africa
(meets Herschel in South Africa)
49
Voyage of the Beagle
Remainder of the voyage Polynesia (coral reefs
and missionaries) Indian Ocean (coral reefs)
Coral reefs throughout the tropics Subsidence of
volcanoes Evidence of geological events taking
place over long periods of time
50
Voyage of the Beagle
Remainder of the voyage Africa Meets Herschel in
South Africa Greatest of all mysteries Natural
explanation of the Origin of Life
51
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwin synthesizes his ideas and discovers
evolution Occurs after several important
events Darwin divides his collections among
specialists Darwin conducts research
52
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Henslow - plants
Collections are described by specialists
Owen - mammals
Gould - birds
Hooker - plants
Bell - Tortoise
53
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Specialists
Owens Interpretation of Fossil Mammals Extinct
Sloth similar to modern species But - unique and
extinct species
Extinct Giant Ground Sloth
Modern Sloths
54
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Specialists
Owens Interpretation of Fossil Mammals Extinct
Glyptodonts very similar to modern Armadillos
55
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Specialists
Darwins Interpretation of Fossil Mammals
Different world existed a long time ago Fossil
species are extinct Similarities suggest
link Pattern of ancestor-descendant
relationships Transmutation (slow, gradual)
evolution
56
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Bells Interpretation of Galapagos Tortoise Bell
describes Galapagos Tortoise New species to
science
57
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Darwins Interpretation of Galapagos Tortoise
Ancestral species emigrated to the
islands Current species arose through isolation
and transmutation Island varieties arose through
isolation and transmutation
Unknown ancestor (Indonesia?)
Dome - lush vegetation Intermediate Saddle
(arid, sparse and high vegetation)
58
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Goulds Interpretation of Galapagos Mockingbirds
Gould describes new species of mockingbirds
59
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Darwins Interpretation of Galapagos Mockingbirds
Believed that an ancestral species emigrated to
the islands from South America Varieties and
species arose through transmutation
Unknown South American ancestor
San Cristobal (Chatham) Mockingbird
Galapagos Mockingbird (8 subspecies)
Espanola (Hood) Mockingbird
Floreana (Charles) Mockingbird
60
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Goulds Interpretation of Galapagos Finches
Described 12 species of finches
61
Discovery of the theory of evolution Back in
England - Specialists
Darwins Interpretation of Galapagos Finches
Transmutation evolution
Ancestral finches exploited new habitats New
ecological niches
Unknown South American ancestor
62
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwin Discovers Evolution Transmutation
evolution Varieties within a species can give
rise to a new species Evidence from recent
species on the Galapagos Galapagos Tortoises
Galapagos Mockingirds Galapagos Finches Evidence
from fossil record Sloths Armadillos
63
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwin Discovers Evolution Transmutation
Evolution Problem - what is the mechanism? Needs
to conduct more research Literature search -
voracious appetite for reading Makes observations
- studies domesticated animals
64
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Literature search
Darwin reads Malthus Malthus quotes Ben
Franklin Human populations and population
growth Compelling results of statistical
analysis Famines, growing populations and finite
resources Competition - fittest
survive Conflicts with Paleys Natural
Theology Happy nature is really a ruthless
struggle
65
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwin realizes potential of this idea Struggle
in nature - competition for resources Fittest
individuals survive Fittest individuals are best
adapted to their environment Natural Selection -
sees the evidence in Galapagos Finches
66
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Makes observations
Darwin conducts further research Darwin searches
for evidence of selection Finds compelling
evidence in domesticated animals Artificial
Selection
67
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England - Makes observations
Studies domestication Consults Yarrel on
domestication of dogs Makes his own studies of
Pigeons
68
Discovery of the theory of evolutionMaking
observations
  • Artificial Selection - Cheating Nature
  • Where did the ancestors of domestic chickens come
    from?
  • Darwin Red Jungle Fowl

69
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
Deerfield - Making observations
Artificial Selection - Cheating Nature Breeds of
the Domestic Chicken(photos of chickens from the
Deerfield Fair 2005)
70
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Artificial selection Breeders cheat Nature What
happens in the real world? Natural selection -
survival of the fittest Finally - a mechanism for
evolution
71
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwins Evolution
  • Basic Tenets of Evolutionary Theory
  • Individual organisms do not change (as in
    Lamarckism)
  • Populations are variable
  • Some individuals are better adapted to the
    environment
  • Individuals that are better adapted to the
    environment will
  • Outlive competition
  • Reproduce at a higher rate
  • Leave behind larger numbers of more fit offspring
    in future generations
  • Populations change over time (Darwinism)

72
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Giraffe Example
Lamarckism
Darwinism
Selected for
Selected against
73
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Darwin reluctant to publish his discovery of
evolution Darwin keeps his ideas and theory
hidden in secret notebooks Darwin publishes
various other works
Emma Darwin
Riots and Social Unrest
Grant vilified for advocating Lamarckism
74
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Change of Plans in 1858 Letter from Alfred R.
Wallace Would Charles mind looking over his
manuscript? Darwin is alarmed and caught off guard
75
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred R. Wallace Studies archipelagos in
Indonesia Independent discovery of evolution
76
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Change of Plans 1858 Joint presentation of
Darwins and Wallaces papers 1859 Publication
of The Origin of the Species
77
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Controversy follows publication
78
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Awarded Copley Medal Highest award from the Royal
Society Based on his contributions to
science Specifically NOT for evolutionary theory
79
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Controversy follows publication Old friends are
critical Sedgwick - felt betrayed Owen - could
not disagree more with evolution
80
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Controversy follows publication Darwin retires to
Down House in Kent Very ill from the 30 year
ordeal Colleagues take up the defense Lyell
(geologist) Hooker (botanist) Huxley (anatomist)
81
Discovery of the theory of evolutionBack in
England
Huxley Champions the theory of evolution Becomes
Darwins bulldog Confronts Archbishop Wilberforce
with Hooker at the British Association for the
Advancement of Science in 1860
Huxley
Wilberforce
82
Aftermath
Profound impact on Biology Profound impact on
Western Culture
83
Aftermath
Darwin dies in 1882 Lobbying from old friends for
burial in Westminster Abbey Old friends -
Scientists Huxley, Galton, Hooker Old Friend,
Neighbor and Politician Lubbock
84
Aftermath
The nations grandest temple of religion opened
its gates and lifted up its everlasting doors and
bade the king of science come in.
Unitarian Preacher, John Chadwick 26 April, 1882
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