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OSHA 29 CFR 1910.101

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Discuss the Compressed Gas Association's involvement. ... Never use as a door stop. Never underestimate the hazard. CG - 41. NWACC Business & Industry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OSHA 29 CFR 1910.101


1
COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY
CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.101
WELCOME
2
YOUR INSTRUCTOR
3
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Discuss Compressed Gas Program Requirements.
  • Discuss Safety Inspection Requirements.
  • Discuss The Types of Compressed Gases.
  • Discuss Properties of Compressed Gases.
  • Discuss Basic Skills in Hazard Recognition
    Control.
  • Discuss OSHAs Requirements for Gas Safety.
  • Discuss the Compressed Gas Associations
    involvement.
  • Discuss Use, Storage and Maintenance Requirements.

4
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE
  • Employers are Responsible for Compressed Gas
    Safety.
  • Compressed Gases Contain a Variety of Hazards.
  • Compressed Gases are Maintained Under High
    Pressure.
  • Compressed Gases are Extremely Hazardous
  • Training Greatly Lessens the Probability of
    Disaster.
  • This Training Helps Improve
  • Safety
  • Morale
  • Productivity
  • Employee well-being

5
COURSE ATTENDEES
  • Gas Users
  • Safety Committees
  • Purchasing Agents
  • Department Managers
  • First Line Supervisors
  • Maintenance Managers
  • Shipping and Receiving Employees
  • Accident Investigation Team Members

6
FORWARD
REGARDING COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY - Know the gas
you are using, or dont use it! Never let your
name, and the word dead be used in the same
sentence. Billy N.
Ring, Fire Captain
Dayton Regional HAZMAT Coordinator
27 Years Experience
7
REGULATORY STANDARD
THE GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE
FEDERAL - 29 CFR 1903.1
EMPLOYERS MUST Furnish a place of employment
free of recognized hazards that are causing or
are likely to cause death or serious physical
harm to employees. Employers must comply with
occupational safety and health standards
promulgated under the Williams-Steiger
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
OSHA ACT OF 1970
8
APPLICABLE REGULATIONS
29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS
1910 - INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
101 - COMPRESSED GASES (GENERAL)
9
CONSENSUS STANDARDS
COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION
CGA P-1 - SAFE HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES
- Over 100 Other CGA
Safety Manuals
10

OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
BEFORE MARCH 1, 1991 VIOLATION NARRATIVE TEN
(10) EMPLOYEES WERE NOTED NOT WEARING EYE
PROTECTION IN AREAS WHERE A REASONABLE
PROBABILITY OF EYE INJURY COULD OCCUR. PENALTY
500
11
OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
(Continued)
AS OF MARCH 1, 1991 CHANGES IN PENALTY
COMPUTATION 1. PENALTIES BROKEN OUT
INDIVIDUALLY. 2. PENALTIES INCREASED SEVEN
FOLD.
12
OSHA CIVIL PENALTIES POLICY
(Continued)
  • AS OF MARCH 1, 1991
  • VIOLATION NARRATIVE TEN (10) EMPLOYEES WERE
  • NOTED NOT WEARING EYE PROTECTION IN AREAS
  • WHERE A REASONABLE PROBABILITY OF EYE
  • INJURY COULD OCCUR.
  • 10 VIOLATIONS TIMES 500 5000
  • 5000 TIMES SEVEN 35,000
  • PENALTY 35000 BEFORE MARCH,
    1991 500

  • AS OF MARCH, 1991 35,000

13
GENERAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
ALL EMPLOYERS MUST
  • Assign Responsibility
  • Establish a Written Program
  • Conduct Gas Safety Training
  • Develop Safe-Use Procedures
  • Conduct Work Area Inspections
  • Maintain a Safe Work Environment
  • Conduct Regular Program Evaluations
  • Ensure Proper Storage and Maintenance

14

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
THE EMPLOYER MUST PROVIDE TRAINING
  • Properties of the Gases Being Handled.
  • Explain Why a Particular Gas is Required.
  • Conduct Training Prior to Job Assignment.
  • Precautions to be Taken in Using Cylinders.
  • Precautions to be Taken in Storing Cylinders.
  • Precautions to be Taken in Moving Cylinders.
  • Explain Proper Maintenance and Storage of
    Gases.
  • Explain the Potential Hazards Associated with
    Gases.
  • Explain The Nature, Extent and Effects of Gas
    Hazards.

15
RETRAINING REQUIREMENTS
  • REQUIRED WHEN THERE IS A
  • New Hazard or Gas.
  • Program Related Injury.
  • Change in Job Assignment.
  • New Hazard Control Methods.
  • Failure in the Safety Procedures.
  • Reason to Doubt Employee Proficiency.

16
TRAINING IS IMPORTANT
A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP
  • Reduce injury and illness rates.
  • Acceptance of high-turnover jobs.
  • Workers feel better about their work.
  • Reduce workers compensation costs.
  • Elevate OSHA compliance to a higher level.

17
PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY PROGRAM
REQUIRES
  • DEDICATION
  • PERSONAL INTEREST
  • MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT

NOTE UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK
FORCE IS ESSENTIAL, WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL
FAIL!
18
PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
Continued
DEVELOPMENT SEQUENCE
  • Establish responsibility.
  • Conduct employee training.
  • Periodically review the program.
  • Perform inspections and maintenance.
  • Modify policies and rules as appropriate.
  • Eliminate hazardous gases where possible.
  • Establish a corporate policy and develop rules.
  • Substitute nonhazardous gases where possible.
  • Conduct a compressed gas safety survey of the
    facility.
  • Provide protection where hazard elimination is
    not possible.

19
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
  • RECOGNITION
  • EVALUATION
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • CONTROL

20
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • RECOGNITION
  • ASSESSMENT OF GAS HAZARDS
  • Known jobs/areas having gas usage.
  • Jobs/areas with new equipment or processes.
  • New jobs having little or no statistical injury
    data.
  • Jobs/areas having had recent operational changes.

21
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • RECOGNITION
  • EVALUATION
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • CONTROL

22
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • EVALUATION
  • Facility audit data.
  • Employee surveys.
  • Accident investigations.
  • Logs of employee complaints.
  • Statistical evidence of known/potential hazards.
  • Injury and illness data of known/potential
    hazards.

23
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • RECOGNITION
  • EVALUATION
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • CONTROL

24
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • Written program.
  • Training program.
  • Employee involvement.
  • Supervisor involvement.
  • Corrective action program.
  • Job hazard analysis program.
  • Safety in purchasing (new gases, substitutes etc.)

25
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • RECOGNITION
  • EVALUATION
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • CONTROL

26
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • CONTROL
  • Periodic facility audits.
  • Written program reviews.
  • Employee feedback surveys.
  • Job hazard analysis reviews.
  • Recurrent training programs.
  • Supervisor feedback surveys.
  • Periodic statistical evaluations.
  • Corrective action follow-up measures.

27
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • CONTROL MEASURES CONSIDERATIONS
  • Capital improvement plan to eliminated hazards.
  • Costs involved in purchasing substitutes gases.
  • Length of time necessary for implementation.
  • Level of urgency in implementation.
  • Compatibility with existing processes or
    controls.
  • Anticipated problems with employee use.

28
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued
  • PRIORITIZATION CONSIDERATIONS
  • Severity of injuries as a result of hazards.
  • Consequences of an injury at the worksite.
  • Likelihood that the operation will have an
    injury.
  • The length of exposure to the hazard.
  • Long-term effects of hazardous gas use.

29
THE SUPERVISORS ROLE
  • CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING

1. KNOW THE GASES YOU USE! 2. GET INVOLVED IN
THE HAZARD ASSESSMENTS. 3. OBTAIN ASSISTANCE
(IF NEEDED) FROM YOUR SUPPLIERS. 4. OBTAIN
ASSISTANCE (IF NEEDED) FROM EXPERTS IN THE FIELD
OF GAS SAFETY, CGA (703) 412-0900. 5. COMPLETE
THE PAPERWORK (WORK ORDERS, POLICY
CHANGES, ETC.) TO MAKE CORRECTIVE ACTIONS. 6.
ATTEND THE SAME TRAINING AS YOUR WORKERS. 7.
FOLLOW-UP ON THE ACTIONS YOU TOOK.
30
COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
  • PRINCIPAL HAZARDS
  • Extremely High Pressure.
  • Toxicity.
  • Reactivity.
  • Instability.
  • Flammability.
  • Extreme Low Temperature.
  • Asphyxiation.
  • Radioactivity.

31
COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
Continued
  • WHEN THINGS GO WRONG
  • Have Flown Over a Half Mile.
  • Penetrated Brick Walls.
  • Can Displace Oxygen in Extremely Large Areas.
  • Can Oxygen-Enrich Extremely Large Areas.
  • Can Spin and Ricochet Completely Out of Control.
  • Can Immediately Freeze Exposed Skin.
  • Can Explode With Tremendous Force.
  • Can be Virtually Unstoppable.

32
COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
Continued
  • THE TYPICAL COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDER
  • 175 Pounds.
  • 2,000 to 2,640 psig (some to 6,000 psig).
  • Wall Thickness of About 1/4 Inch.
  • 57 Inches Tall.
  • 9 Inches In Diameter.
  • Easily Toppled.
  • Easily Corroded.
  • Devastatingly Hazardous.

33
BASIC SAFETY RULES
ILL GET THE RUST OFF OF THIS THING ONE WAY OR
ANOTHER!
KIDS DONT TRY THIS AT HOME!
34
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • THE BIG THREE
  • Oxidizers Must not be used in contact with
    oils, greases or other hydrocarbons.
  • Flammables Must not be exposed to flames,
    sparks or arcs including static electricity, hot
    surfaces or oxidizers.
  • NonFlammables Must not be allowed to displace
    air in confined work spaces so that there is
    insufficient oxygen for breathing.

35
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • FILLING OF CYLINDERS
  • Cylinders may not be filled except by the
    supplier of the cylinder or with the suppliers
    consent.
  • Where filling is authorized it must be
    accomplished in strict accordance with DOT, OSHA
    and CGA regulations.

36
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • CONTENT IDENTIFICATION
  • Never assume you know what it is!
  • Assuming (with gases) gets you dead!
  • Labels must be legible at all times.
  • Labels may not be altered or removed.
  • Labels may not be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise
    defeated.
  • Labels must be understood by all.
  • Nonlegible/missing labels must be reported.

37
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • CONTENT IDENTIFICATION

Continued
  • Labels and their means of attachment must
    withstand their normal operating environment.
  • Labels may evoke a false sense of security, and
    their meaning needs to be understood.
  • Labels must be securely attached to cylinders so
    that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally
    detached during use.
  • Each container must bear the proper label for the
    gas contained.

38
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • PAINTING CONTAINERS
  • Containers may not be painted.
  • Painting may cover cylinder defects.
  • Containers showing signs of corrosion must be
    removed from service and returned to the
    supplier.
  • Never rely solely on the cylinder color for
    identification.

39
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • LEAKING AND DEFECTIVE CYLINDERS
  • Never underestimate the hazard!
  • Notify co-workers of the hazard.
  • Consider evacuation of the area.
  • Evacuate to open air, up-wind or side-wind.
  • Report the contents, location, situation.
  • Begin role call to account for co-workers.
  • Do not return to work until all-clear is given.

40
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • CYLINDER USAGE REQUIREMENTS
  • Verify contents before transporting or using.
  • Keep cylinder caps on until ready to connect.
  • Keep valve caps on until ready to use.
  • Never use as a door stop.
  • Never underestimate the hazard.

41
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • MOVEMENT OF COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
  • Never handle roughly.
  • Never use magnetic lifting devices.
  • Never lift by valves or cylinder caps.
  • Never roll, drag, or slide the cylinder.
  • Always use a hand-truck, fork truck etc.
  • Cradles, ropes, chains, or slings are prohibited
    from use unless lugs or lifting attachments are
    provided by the manufacturer.

42
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • STORAGE REQUIREMENTS (GENERAL)
  • No Smoking signs must be posted.
  • The name of the gas must be posted.
  • Specific hazards must be posted.
  • Containers must be stored up right.
  • Gases must be stored with like gases.
  • Do not intermingle full and empty containers.
  • The oldest material must be used first.
  • Stored only on stable surfaces.
  • Some gases must always be shaded from sun.

43
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL)
  • Must be dry.
  • Must not exceed 125 F.
  • Must be well ventilated.
  • Should be protected from tampering.
  • Local fire inspectors should evaluate.
  • NFPA guidelines should be reviewed.
  • Subsurface storage should be avoided.
  • Should be of fire-resistive construction.

44
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL)
  • Cylinders
  • - Must not impede emergency egress.
  • - Cannot be located near exits.
  • - Cannot be located near stairs.
  • Must be secured to prevent toppling.

45
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • OUTDOOR STORAGE (GENERAL)
  • Bottoms must be protected from corrosion.
  • Must be secured to prevent toppling.
  • Must be shaded in extreme temperatures.
  • Some gases must always be shaded from sun.
  • Should be of fire-resistive construction.
  • Should be protected from tampering.
  • Local fire inspectors should evaluate.
  • NFPA guidelines should be reviewed.

46
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • NAME
  • PRECAUTIONS
  • RESTRAINED ABOVE
  • MIDPOINT
  • EMERGENCY USE
  • PROCEDURES
  • AWAY FROM
  • COMBUSTIBLES

47
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • GENERAL INSPECTION CRITERIA

INSPECT FOR POSSIBLE RESULT Dents Weakenin
g of cylinder wall Crevice Corrosion Weakening
of cylinder wall Bulges Weakening of cylinder
wall ARC/ Torch Burns Weakening of cylinder
wall Cuts, Gouges or Digs Decrease in wall
thickness Corrosion Decrease in wall
thickness Pitting Decrease in wall
thickness Neck Defects Leak or cylinder
explosion Valve Ease-Of-Movement Corrosion
leading to leak Valve Thread Serviceability Leak
during operation
48
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • PRE-OPERATION SAFETY RULES
  • If youre not trained dont touch it!
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet before use.
  • Ensure an In Use label is present.
  • Ensure all labels/warnings are readable.
  • Place upright on stable dry surface.
  • Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint.
  • Keep heat, flame, electrical sources from gas.
  • Use in accordance with established procedures.

49
BASIC SAFETY RULES
Continued
  • POST-OPERATION SAFETY RULES
  • If youre not trained dont touch it!
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet.
  • Ensure an Empty label is present.
  • Close valve completely and cap cylinder.
  • Remove from operation (established procedures).
  • Transport cylinder using a handtruck.
  • Place in Empty Container storage area.
  • Ensure Empty label is readable.

50
STORAGE RULES
51
STORAGE RULES
Continued
52
STORAGE RULES
Continued
  • FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES
  • If youre not trained dont touch it!
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Mark cylinder with date of storage.
  • Rotate oldest product to front.
  • Rotate oldest product to front and use first.
  • Inspect cylinder for damage before storage.
  • Store with like kind of gas.

53
STORAGE RULES
Continued
  • FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES

Continued
  • Ensure all labels are readable.
  • Ensure valve assembly is tightly capped.
  • Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint.
  • Store upright on stable dry surface.
  • Keep electrical devices away from gas.
  • Keep combustible materials away from gas.
  • Keep heat, flame and ignition sources from gas.
  • Never underestimate the hazard.

54
STORAGE RULES
Continued
  • EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES
  • If youre not trained dont touch it!
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Ensure the cylinder is empty.
  • Ensure valve assembly is closed tightly.
  • Ensure valve assembly is capped tightly.
  • Inspect cylinder for damage before storage.
  • Store with like kind of gas cylinders.

55
STORAGE RULES
Continued
  • EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES

Continued
  • Ensure all labels are readable.
  • Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint.
  • Store upright on a stable dry surface.
  • Keep electrical devices away from gas.
  • Keep combustible materials away from gas.
  • Keep heat and flame away from gas.
  • Never underestimate the hazard.

56
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
57
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • OXYGEN (INCLUDING OXIDIZING GASES)
  • Oxygen and oxidizers can be deadly.
  • Cleanliness is absolutely essential!!!
  • Explosion results upon contact with hydrocarbons.
  • Keep oil, grease, and other hydrocarbons away!
  • Ensure process or system is compatible with
    oxygen.
  • Assess compatibility of equipment and materials.
  • Separate from combustible materials.
  • Oxygen can fuel enrich permeable materials.
  • Oxygen enriched materials burn tremendously.

58
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
59
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
60
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • ACID ALKALINE GASES
  • Avoid contact with all bodily routes of entry.
  • Wear goggles and suitable skin protection.
  • Consider effects on the respiratory tract.
  • Long sleeves and trousers are mandatory.
  • Open toed shoes or sneakers are prohibited.
  • Gas masks/SCBA must be immediately available.
  • SCBA must be used when the concentration could
    exceed the rating of the gas mask canister or if
    the gas could displace oxygen to below 19 percent.

61
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • ACID ALKALINE GASES

Continued
  • Emergency showers/eyewashes must be available.
  • Quantities on-site must be limited.
  • Ventilation must be adequate in the work area.
  • Common corrosive and toxic gases include

- Boron Trichloride - Bromine Trifluoride -
Chlorine Trifluoride - Hydrogen Fluoride -
Iodine Pentafluoride - Silicon Tetrafluoride -
Sulfur Tetrafluoride - Tungsten Hexafluoride
62
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • BHOPAL, INDIA
  • Over 2000 people died.
  • Methyl isocyanate released.
  • Occurred in December 1984.
  • SARA Title III initially proposed as a result.
  • The Union Carbide Facility was not unique.
  • The accident could have occurred anywhere.
  • Most were inhabitants in the area of the plant.

63
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • HIGHLY TOXIC GASES
  • Remember Bhopal India!
  • Training is critical.
  • The specific hazards must be understood.
  • Threshold Limit Values must be determined.
  • Storage is critical and must be assessed.
  • Ventilation is critical and must be assessed.
  • Gas discharges must be scrubbed.
  • Discharges must be neutralized.
  • On-site quantities must be limited.

64
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • HIGHLY TOXIC GASES

Continued
  • Medical services should be pre-planned.
  • Suppliers/manufacturers should be consulted.
  • Emergency responders should consulted.
  • Common highly toxic gases include

- Arsine - Boron
Trichloride - Bromine Trifluoride - Bromine
Pentafluoride - Chlorine -
Fluorine - Germane - Hydrogen
Cyanide - Hydrogen Selenide - Hydrogen
Sulfide - Nitric Oxide - Phosgene
65
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES
  • In liquid form at relatively low pressures.
  • Extremely low temperatures.
  • Usually below - 238F (- 150C).
  • Handled in heavily insulated containers.
  • Insulated containers minimize evaporation.
  • Proper operation of venting systems is essential.
  • High expansion rate on vaporization.
  • Can cause extreme bodily damage on contact.
  • Full body protection must be utilized.

66
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES

Continued
Oxygen Rate of Expansion
3
875 ft
3
65F
1ft
- 238F
67
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES

Continued
  • Use only hardware designed for cryogenics.
  • Pain is not immediate.
  • Tissue solidifies over time.
  • Blood circulation is arrested.
  • Serious skin burns may result.
  • Blood clots are highly probable.
  • Skin highly vulnerable to infection.
  • Flush with tepid water.

68
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • INERT GASES
  • Can displace oxygen leading to asphyxiation.
  • SCBA or airline systems must be used.
  • Oxygen content below 19 percent is dangerous.
  • Common highly inert gases include

- Argon - Carbon
Dioxide - Helium - Neon -
Nitrogen - Xenon
69
SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued
  • GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
  • Dont be afraid to ask people to wait!
  • Limit conversation while using gases.
  • Know that you could be seriously injured.
  • Know that no one ever expected to get injured.
  • Know that none of us is immune to injury.
  • Know the safe procedures before starting work.
  • Know the location of first aid kits.
  • Avoid horseplay - dont tolerate it from
    others.
  • Think about going home in the same shape.
  • Know your gas!

70
INSPECTION AND CARE OF GASES
  • INSPECTION CONSIDERATIONS
  • Develop a detailed inspection policy.
  • Document each inspection.
  • Inspect all gases before issue or use.
  • Tag as unusable, damaged cylinders.
  • Inspect cylinders before each use (without
    exception).
  • Separate damaged cylinders from serviceable
    cylinders.
  • Consider the effects on gases stored for long
    periods.
  • Remove damaged cylinders from service
    immediately.
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