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Urban Transportation Planning


Metropolitan Planning Factors I ... Leads the transportation planning process for the metropolitan area ... Vision Metropolitan Washington DC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban Transportation Planning

Urban Transportation Planning
  • Introduction to Metropolitan Transportation

Definition of Transportation Planning
  • Transportation planning provides the information,
    tools, and public involvement needed for
    improving transportation system performance
  • Transportation planning is a continuous process
    that requires monitoring of the systems
    performance and condition

Transportation Planning Affects
  • Policies
  • Choices among alternative strategies
  • Priorities
  • Funding allocations

More than Transportation
  • Land Use
  • Clean Air Act / Air Quality Standards
  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
  • Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Title VI / Environmental Justice

Types of Plans
  • Long-Range
  • Strategic
  • Project/Facility
  • Implementation
  • Improvement (program)
  • Comprehensive
  • Site (TIAs)
  • Statewide

Legislation SAFETEA-LU
  • Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient
    Transportation Equity Act A Legacy for Users
  • Plan Requirements
  • Institutional Structures
  • Funding
  • Conformity

Metropolitan Planning Factors I
  • (A) Support the economic vitality of the
    metropolitan area, especially by enabling global
    competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency
  • (B) Increase the safety of the transportation
    system for motorized and nonmotorized users
  • (C) Increase the security of the transportation
    system for motorized and nonmotorized users

Metropolitan Planning Factors II
  • (D) Increase the accessibility and mobility of
    people and for freight
  • (E) Protect and enhance the environment, promote
    energy conservation, improve the quality of life,
    and promote consistency between transportation
    improvements and State and local planned growth
    and economic development patterns

Metropolitan Planning Factors III
  • (F) Enhance the integration and connectivity of
    the transportation system, across and between
    modes, for people and freight
  • (G) Promote efficient system management and
  • (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing
    transportation system

Metropolitan Planning Organization MPO
  • Has the authority of Federal law (SAFETEA-LU)
  • Is a representative group of local stakeholders
  • Leads the transportation planning process for the
    metropolitan area
  • Is the regions policymaking organization
    responsible for prioritizing transportation
  • Carries out the urban transportation planning
    process in cooperation with the State DOT(s) and
    transit operators

MPO Structure
  • Policy Board (Planning Commission)
  • Sets regional long-term transportation policy and
    approves plans
  • Prioritizes and programs specific transportation
    initiatives for funding
  • Staff
  • Advisory Committees
  • Examples

Metropolitan Planning 3 Cs
  • Comprehensive
  • Cooperative
  • Continuing

Scope of Work for MPOs
  • A Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) or
    simplified statement of work
  • Public involvement process/plan (PIP)
  • Financial Plan

Principal Products of MPOs
  • A Long-Range Transportation Plan
  • Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
  • Special Studies

Simplified Statement of Work (Large MPOs)
  • Planning tasks and studies to be conducted
  • Any transportation-related air quality planning
  • All Federally funded studies
  • State/local planning activities conducted without
    Federal funds
  • Funding sources identified for each project
  • Schedule of activities
  • Agency responsible for each task or study

Public Involvement Process
  • Proactive
  • Early and continuing
  • Open and collaborative
  • A formal Public Involvement Plan (PIP) is
    required of Large MPOs (TMAs, Transportation
    Management Areas)

The Long-Range Transportation Plan
  • Describes vision for the region, and policies,
    operational strategies, and projects to achieve
  • Covers at least the next 20 years
  • Leads to an intermodal system
  • Reflects public involvement
  • Contains a financial plan and is fiscally
  • Is updated every 4-5 years

Urban Transportation Planning Process
Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning
  • http//www.sewrpc.org/

Holistic Approach
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
  • A staged, multi-year, intermodal program of
    prioritized transportation initiatives consistent
    with Plan
  • Shows annual activity for a 3-year period
  • Projects must be in the TIP for FHWA or FTA

Key Issues
  • Air Quality
  • Freight Movement
  • Land Use and Transportation
  • Models and Their Use
  • Performance Measures
  • Project Development and the NEPA Process
  • Public Involvement
  • System Management and Operations (MO)
  • Title V1/Environmental Justice
  • Transportation Demand Management (TDM)

Air Quality Conformity
  • Plans must demonstrate consistency with the
    emissions budgets needed to satisfy the Clean Air
  • Projects cannot move forward without conformity

Air Quality I
  • Sources
  • Stationary sources
  • Area sources
  • Mobile sources
  • Pollutants (NAAQS)
  • Ozone precursors (VOCs, NOx)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Particulates (PM-10 or PM-2.5)

Air Quality II
  • Nonattainment Areas by Pollutant
  • Extreme
  • Severe
  • Serious
  • Moderate
  • Marginal
  • Maintenance
  • Milwaukee is Severe for Ozone

Air Quality III
  • Transportation plans, TIPs, and projects cannot
  • Create new violations of the National Ambient Air
    Quality Standards (NAAQS)
  • Increase the frequency or severity of existing
    violations of the standards
  • Delay attainment of the standards.

Air Quality IV
  • State Implementation Plan (SIP)
  • Conformity
  • CMAQ
  • Transit improvements, shared-ride services,
    traffic flow improvements, pedestrian and bicycle
    programs, construction of high-occupancy vehicle
    (HOV) lanes, I/M programs, and transportation
    demand management strategies

Freight I Process
  • Define system elements that are critical for
    efficient movement of freight
  • Identify ways to measure system performance in
    terms of freight movement
  • Develop freight-oriented data collection and
  • Creating a freight movement advisory committee

Freight II Policies and Projects
  • Truck Restrictions
  • Peak period bans, freeway section bans, route
  • Road Design and Construction
  • Improved entry/exit ramps and merges, exclusive
    truck facilities
  • Road Pricing
  • Peak period permits and tolls, freeway permits
  • Fleet Management
  • Voluntary off-peak operations, automatic vehicle
  • Traffic Engineering
  • Wider lanes, Speed restrictions, Variable message
  • Shipper/Receiver Actions
  • Voluntary off-peak operations, mandatory off-peak
  • Incident Management
  • Automated detection, site and area
  • Inspection/Enforcement
  • Automated surveillance
  • Information Management
  • Highway advisory radio, traffic information

Land Use I Federal Regs
  • Transportation planning process should consider
    "the likely effect of transportation policy
    decisions on land use and development and the
    consistency of transportation plans and programs
    with the provisions of all applicable short- and
    long-term land use and development plans...."

Land Use II
  • Transportation/Land Use Interaction
  • Land use creates trips
  • Transportation facilities create land use
  • Smart Growth and Economic Development
  • Models

Travel Forecasting Models
  • A travel forecasting model is the major analysis
    tool for evaluating urban transportation plans
    and conducting conformity analysis

Travel Models Four Steps?
  • (Activity Allocation)
  • Trip Generation
  • Trip Distribution
  • Mode Split
  • Traffic Assignment
  • (Measures of Effectiveness)
  • (Impact Models)

Performance Measures I
  • Accessibility
  • Percent population within "x" minutes of "y"
    percent of employment sites
  • Access by elderly
  • Quality of ADA compliance
  • Mobility
  • Average travel time
  • Change in average travel time
  • Average trip length
  • Percentage of trips per mode
  • Time lost to congestion
  • Percent on-time transit performance

Performance Measures II
  • Economic development
  • Jobs created
  • New housing starts
  • Percent of region's unemployed who cite lack of
    transportation as principal barrier
  • Economic cost of congestion
  • Environmental quality of life
  • Environmental and resource consumption
  • Tons of pollution generated
  • Fuel consumption

Performance Measures III
  • Sprawl
  • Change in difference between urban and suburban
    household densities decrease in wetlands
    changes in air quality, land use, or mobility.
  • Safety
  • Number of crash incidents or economic costs of

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
  • It is the policy of the US government to protect
    the environment
  • Environmental Impact Statements
  • Environmental Assessments (FONSI)
  • Categorical Exclusions
  • Council on Environmental Quality

Environmental Impact Assessment Process
Public Involvement
  • Early and continuous involvement
  • Reasonable public availability of technical and
    other information
  • Collaborative input on alternatives, evaluation
    criteria, and mitigation needs
  • Open public meetings where matters related to
    transportation policies, programs, and projects
    are being considered
  • Open access to the decision making process prior
    to closure

Transportation System Management
  • Metropolitan traffic management centers
  • Traffic signal coordination
  • Incident management programs
  • Preferential treatment for transit/rideshares
  • Special event traffic management
  • Emergency management strategies
  • Pricing of transportation services
  • ITS applications for transit
  • Traveler Information

Environmental Justice
  • Avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating
    disproportionately high and adverse human health
    and environmental, social or economic effects on
    minority and low-income populations
  • Ensuring the full and fair participation in the
    transportation decision making process by all
    potentially affected communities
  • Preventing the denial of, reduction in, or
    significant delay in the receipt of benefits by
    minority and low-income populations

Discussion Milwaukee Environmental Justice
  • Are these strategies environmentally just?
  • Locating Miller Park at old County Stadium site
  • Widening all Milwaukee freeways by 1 lane
  • Eliminating the park-n-ride lot a Bayshore Mall

Transportation Demand Management
  • Offering commuters alternative transportation
    modes and/or services
  • Providing incentives to travel on these modes or
    at non-congested hours
  • Providing opportunities to link or "chain" trips
  • Incorporating growth management or traffic impact
    policies into local development decisions
  • See www.vtpi.org

Transportation Decision Making
  • Vision
  • What do you want your transportation system to be
    in 20 years?
  • Coordinate with land use vision
  • Identify current strengths and weaknesses
  • Identify opportunities and threats

Vision Metropolitan Washington DC
  • In the 21st Century, the Washington metropolitan
    region remains a vibrant world capital, with a
    transportation system that provides efficient
    movement of people and goods. This system
    promotes the region's economy and environmental
    quality, and operates in an attractive and safe
    setting--it is a system that serves everyone. The
    system is fiscally sustainable, promotes areas of
    concentrated growth, manages both demand and
    capacity, employs the best technology, and joins
    rail, roadway, bus, air, water, pedestrian and
    bicycle facilities into a fully interconnected

Goals and Objectives
  • Goals
  • Broad
  • General
  • Intangible
  • Abstract
  • Few
  • Improve transportation safety
  • Objectives
  • Narrow
  • Precise
  • Tangible
  • Concrete
  • Many
  • Reduce the number of traffic conflict points

Criteria and Standards
  • Criteria
  • Specific numerical expression of an objective
  • Number of conflict points
  • Standards
  • Desired level of achievement through plan
  • 10 reduction in conflict points

Operational Strategies
  • The how
  • Linked to objectives
  • Identify intersections with poor crash
    experience introduce channelization, better
    signalization and coordination.

The one thing we need to do to solve our
transportation problems is to stop thinking that
there is one thing we can do to solve our
transportation problems. -Robert Liberty,
Executive Director, 1000 Friends of Oregon
Example Ann Arbor Goals
  • 1. Provide appropriate access and mobility, with
    minimal negative impacts, for all people and
  • 2. Protect and enhance the natural environment
    and the human, residential and built environment.
  • 3. Promote a safe and secure transportation
  • 4. Invest in transportation infrastructure in a
    manner consistent with other goals.

Example Ann Arbor Objectives I
  • First Goal Provide appropriate access and
    mobility, with minimal negative impacts, for all
    people and goods.
  • Objective A Minimize vehicle miles and vehicle
    hours spent traveling.
  • Objective B Increase the occupancy rate for
    motorized modes.
  • Objective C Reduce barriers to the use of the
    transportation system, especially its
    non-motorized components by facilitating
    pedestrian and bicycle access on public
  • Objective D Improve bicycle access on public

Example Ann Arbor Objectives II
  • Objective E Increase the number of bus centers
    and commuter lots and improve their distribution
    and efficiency throughout the SEMCOG region.
  • Objective F Increase the contiguity among public
    transportation services and non-motorized
    transportation modes.
  • Objective G Implement travel demand management
    plans to reduce commuter traffic and congestion.
  • Objective H Increase mode choices and their
    coordination for the movement of goods and
  • Objective I Encourage the development of
    commuter rail services, particularly the
    Detroit/Ann Arbor/Lansing proposal, on the
    Norfolk Southern and Ann Arbor Railroads.

Inventory and Data
  • Role of GIS
  • See Course Reader for an long list of items for
    an inventory

  • Alternative
  • A unified set of projects, policies and
    operational strategies that will meet the
    community's goals and achieve the vision
  • Scenario
  • A future state of the urban area, independent of
    any alternatives
  • Futures forecasting/Delphi

  • In what year will the following happen?
  • Gasoline prices reach 5 per gallon
  • Nuclear fusion becomes commercially viable for
    electric power generation
  • First mag lev system in the US in commercial

Additional Reading
  • Edward Weiner, Urban Transportation Planning In
    the United States An Historical Overview Fifth
    Edition, 1997, http//tmip.fhwa.dot.gov/clearingh
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