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Road To Inclusion

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Title: Road To Inclusion


1
Teaching Exceptionally Able and Dual Exceptional
Pupils Inclusively An Introduction for Primary
Schools
2
SESS
  • Aims
  • To enhance the quality of teaching and learning
    with particular reference to the education of
    children with special needs
  • To design and deliver a range of professional
    development initiatives and supports for school
    personnel
  • To consolidate and co-ordinate existing
    professional development and support.

3
SESS Work Models of Support
  • Dialogue with Teachers
  • Supports Scheme (Funding)
  • Supports Scheme (Support)
  • School-Based Seminar Delivery
  • School Visits
  • SESS-Designed Courses
  • SESS Conferences
  • Initiatives and Projects
  • Production of Resource Materials
  • Website Development
  • On-line CPD Courses
  • eLearning Options
  • Teacher Exchanges / Visits
  • Use of External Providers

4
SESS Resources

5
Content
  • Topic 1. What do we mean by Exceptionally Able
    and Dual Exceptional?
  • What are we talking about?
  • Topic 2. Assessment, Identification and Needs
  • How do we find out who they are?
  • Topic 3. Teaching Exceptionally Able and Dual
    Exceptional Pupils Inclusively
  • How do we teach them

6
  • Topic 1
  • Exceptionally Able
  • What are we talking about?

7
(No Transcript)
8
Perspective 1 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Qualitative Descriptions gt 130 very superior
120-130 superior 110-120 high
average 90-110 average 85-90 low average
(Intelligenz-Quotient, William Stern, 1912)
9
Perspective 2 Multiple Intelligences
Gardner, H. (1995). Reflections on multiple
intelligences.
10
Perspective 3 Renzullis link between Ability
and Achievement
(Renzulli, 1998)
11
 
Perspective 4 Higher Order Thinking (HOT)
cognition operates on ascending levels of
complexity
Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understandi
ng Remembering
Higher Order Thinking
(Blooms Revised Taxonomy Anderson
Krathwohl, 2001)
12
Perspective 5 Stretch Zone Zone of
Challenge
Panic Zone
Stretch Zone (learning zone)
Comfort Zone
Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development
13
Definition NCCA (2007)
students who require opportunities for
enrichment and extension that go beyond those
provided for the general cohort of students. It
should be noted that good practice for
exceptionally able students is also good practice
for all students
14
Definition NCCA
  • Approximately 5-10 of the school population may
    be exceptionally able
  • A minority will be profoundly exceptionally able,
    possibly 0.5...
  • No single that defines exceptional intelligence
    levels but the following can be used
  • Able IQ 120-129
  • Exceptionally Able IQ 130-169
  • Profoundly Able IQ 170

15
Why Special?
students who require opportunities for
enrichment and extension that go beyond those
provided for the general cohort of students
(NCCA, 2007)
  • Dispel the myths
  • Realise potential
  • Avoid under-identification
  • Avoid under-achievement
  • Entitlement to an appropriate education (e.g.
    Education Act 1998 and EPSEN Act 2004))
  • Unique social and emotional needs

16
Dual Exceptionality (Dual Exceptionality,
Double Labelled Twice Exceptional 2X 2e Dual
or Multiple Exceptional - DME)
  • High ability, with disability that affects some
    aspects of learning.
  • e.g. Dyslexia Dyspraxia ADD Asperger's
    Syndrome Hearing and Visual Impairment
  • Disability may mask Ability
  • - e.g. Dyslexia masking reasoning
  • Ability may mask Disability
  • - e.g. Aspergers Syndrome

17
Dual Exceptionality Strengths and Challenges
Some Strengths
  • easily frustrated
  • stubborn
  • manipulative
  • opinionated
  • argumentative
  • written expression
  • highly sensitive to criticism
  • inconsistent academic performance
  • lack of organization and study skills
  • difficulty with peer social interactions
  • may prefer adult company
  • superior vocabulary
  • highly creative
  • resourceful
  • curious
  • imaginative
  • questioning
  • problem-solving ability
  • sophisticated sense of humor
  • wide range of interests
  • advanced ideas and opinions
  • consuming interest

(Gifted Students with Disabilities. An
Introductory Resource Book. Colorado Department
of Education.)
18
  • Topic 2
  • Assessment
  • Who are they are, and what are their needs?
  • Seek to know the child, not the label.

19
A Continuum of Assessment Methods
Assessment in the Primary School Curriculum NCCA
20
Assessment and the Planning Cycle for the Student
with EA / DE
21
Risk of Under-identification
  • Where there are specific learning disabilities
  • Where there are sensory or physical impairments
  • From disadvantaged and marginalised background
  • Where English is not the first language
  • Where pupils do not fit stereotypical profiles of
    exceptionally able

22
What does Assessment Tell Us?
  • Assessment provides essential information in
    relation to
  • a students development
  • sharing information with parents / relevant
    personnel
  • matching the students learning to the curriculum
  • the effectiveness of the teaching programme
  • progress / achievement

23
Testing

What do I already know?
What do I need to find out?
Interpreting Scores
  • Standardised Norm Referenced Tests
  • Criterion-Referenced Assessment
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • See Glossary of Terms used in Assessment
    www.sess.ie

Reading Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Total Reading Total Reading Total Reading
RS SS PR RS SS PR RS SS PR
45 130 98 25 70 2 35 100 50
24
Formal Testing - Attainment
  • Examples of tests generally used in-school
  • Wide Range Achievement Test 4th Edition (WRAT-4)
  • Cognitive Abilities Test - 3rd ed., 2003 (CAT3)
  • Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT)
  • New Non-Reading Intelligence Test (NNRIT)
  • Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning (GL Assessment)
  • Example of test used by psychologists
  • WIAT-IIUK
  • - Co-normed with the WISCIVUK
  • See more information on www.sess.ie

25
Teacher Observation - Indicators
  • Shows superior reasoning powers
  • Persistent intellectual curiosity
  • In-depth interests
  • Markedly superior in written and/or spoken
    vocabulary
  • Reads avidly
  • Learns quickly and retains easily
  • Shows insight into arithmetical problems
  • Shows creativity or imaginative expression
  • Demonstrates responsibility and independence
  • Sets high standards
  • Initiative and originality in intellectual work
  • Has social poise
  • Appear easily bored, arrogant or socially inept

26
Teacher Observation - Perceptions and Profiles
Profiles of Gifted and Talented Students Betts
and Neiharts six profiles of gifted and talented
students are Not intended to describe any one
child completely Personality is the result of
life experiences and genetic makeup. All gifted
children are not affected by their special
abilities in the same way (Betts and Neihart
1988)
27
Perceptions and Profiles
  • The Successfuls
  • Have learned the system - no behaviour problems
  • Are identified
  • Attainment limited to system expectations - may
    underachieve in college and life
  • 2. The Challengings
  • Highly creative and divergently gifted rich
    inner-life
  • Frustrated, obstinate, tactless, sarcastic, low
    self-esteem
  • Often unidentified - at risk
  • 3. The Undergrounds
  • Mostly girls in puberty
  • Have lost their interests and passions want to
    conform
  • Were pushed in school and home feel insecure

28
Perceptions and Profiles
  • 4. The Dropouts
  • Have not been identified, interests not met
  • Angry and dropout
  • Divert to out of school interests
  • 5. The Double Labelled
  • Disability masks ability
  • Often not identified
  • Schools often focus on weaknesses rather than
    strengths
  • 6. The Autonomous Learner
  • Have learned the system independent and self
    directed
  • Use it for new opportunities rather than
    conformity
  • Accomplished, recognised, affirmed

29
Other Indicators
  • Parent Referral
  • Student self-referral
  • Checklists
  • Work Samples / Portfolios
  • Case History

30
Social and Emotional Needs
SESS Primary Schools Seminar Examples of issues
provided by teachers Challenging behaviour in
class. Seems bored all the time. Constantly
interrupts other in their work while hers will be
finished long before Problems arising include
boredom, unwillingness to complete activities
which they consider boring, problem of teachers
trying to motivate them Need to develop social
skills, and discipline issues Excellent reader,
intelligent answers and input. Often looks bored
despite other children looking very
engaged Pupil can become disruptive when
finished the work earlier than others. Has little
respect for children considered less able
31
Social and Emotional Needs
Asynchronous Development
  • Emotional or social development will not be
    commensurate with
  • Academic development or cognitive ability
  • Physical growth
  • Skills may not develop evenly

32
Social and Emotional Needs Self-Criticism /
Perfectionism
  • Problem Perfectionism (dysfunctional
    perfectionism) two main types
  • 2) Self-orientated
  • Early academic experiences
  • Parental perfectionism
  • Authoritative/supportive parents
  • High self-standards
  • Social prescribed
  • Parental perfectionism
  • Authoritarian parenting
  • Stringent expectations
  • Identity/self-worth tied to achievement or
    pleasing of others
  • Fear of disappointing others.

33
Self-Criticism/Concept and Dual Exceptionality
  • What students cannot do (due to disability) may
    be more emphasised than abilities.

Lack of self-efficacy/self-esteem Loss of
self-confidence
Self-Concept
Ideal Self
34
Self Criticism/Concept EA Pupils with
ASD/Aspergers
  • Students may have problems that are specific to
    the syndrome/spectrum
  • Likely to have greater difficulty with peer
    relations because they lack theory of mind-
    they have to be taught to see others viewpoints
  • Interests tend to be very narrow and may be
    slightly (sometimes very) obsessive
  • May be inflexible in their thinking which
    inhibits them both in learning and socially

35
Social and Emotional Needs Emotional Intensity
  • Five areas in which children who are
    exceptionally able may be supersensitive
  • Intellectual
  • Psychomotor
  • Sensual
  • Imaginational
  • Emotional

36
Supporting the Social and Emotional Needs of the
Exceptionally Able Student
  • Support in becoming creative and adventurous
    learners
  • Teach them to embrace risk and see failure as a
    learning event
  • Assist in developing autonomy
  • Develop and support social interactions with
    peers - use co-operative grouping and learning
  • Teach metacognitive skills
  • Use Assessment for Learning strategies
  • Develop resilience and happiness by applying the
    principles of positive psychology
  • Teach appropriately using differentiation

37
Ken Robinson Commentary
(www.ted.com - Ken Robinson says schools kill
creativity)
38
  • Topic 3
  • Teaching Exceptionally Able Pupils Inclusively
  • How do we teach them?

39
National Policy Framework

40
School Inclusion Policy
  • WSE Inspection Report Extract 2009
  • A Special Educational Needs Department
    Plan/Policy was presented during the evaluation.
    This document is in need of further development
    and review.the school should consider expanding
    the scope of the policy to a whole school policy
    on inclusion. This would cater for all students
    with additional educational needs, including
    newcomer students and the exceptionally able.

41
Inclusive System in Practice
NEPS Continuum of Support
Staged Approach SpEd 02/05
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
42
Classroom Support Differentiation
  • Adapting
  • Content
  • - what we teach
  • Process
  • - how we teach
  • Outcomes
  • - how pupils demonstrate learning
  • to take into account the range of interests,
  • needs and experience of individual
  • students.

43
What Pupils Say
  • Too much repetition
  • Waiting around for others to finish
  • Not enough new and interesting material
  • Not enough time for questions
  • Teacher is not interested in my ideas
  • Being given a reward of extra work for
    finishing early
  • My opinions not valued
  • Teacher doesnt know enough about the topic
  • (Centre of Talented Youth in Ireland)

44
Differentiation Key Concepts and Terminology
Differentiation / Challenge Through
  • Extension
  • Breadth / Complexity
  • Depth
  • Acceleration / Compaction
  • Enrichment
  • Relevant to Curriculum
  • Relevant to Continuum of Support
  • Higher Order Thinking
  • Analysing
  • Evaluating
  • Creating

Classroom Strategies Differentiation by Task
Outcome Resource Support Pace Dialogue etc
45
Higher Order Thinking (HOT)
  • transformation of information and ideas -
  • students combine facts and ideas and
    synthesise, generalise, explain, hypothesise or
    arrive at some conclusion or interpretation.

manipulating information and ideas through these
processes -
students solve problems, gain understanding and
discover new meaning
the teachers main instructional task is to
create activities or environments that allow them
opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking.
(Queensland Government, Dept. of Education and
Training )
46
Creating Putting elements together to generate
new or alternative ideas, products, or ways of
viewing or doing things
Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of
action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing,
experimenting, judging
Analysing Breaking information into parts to
explore understandings and relationships Comparing
, organising, deconstructing, interrogating,
finding
Applying Using information in another familiar
situation Implementing, carrying out, using,
executing
Understanding Explaining ideas or
concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing,
classifying, explaining
Remembering Recalling information Recognising,
listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
47
Higher Order Thinking and Learning Culture
Positive Teaching for Exceptionally Able Students
  • challenges, and promotes risk-taking and
    exploration
  • asks open-ended questions and tasks, not limited
    to the right answer
  • promotes critical thinking and problem solving
  • gives specific praise
  • celebrates the excitement of creative thinking
    and intellectual curiosity

48
Higher Order Thinking and Learning Culture
Positive Teaching for Exceptionally Able Students
  • focuses on achievement, not just attainment
  • seek patterns, connections and interpretations
  • sets personalised learning tasks and
    opportunities
  • generalises issues to different contexts and
    beyond the classroom
  • alert for underachievement
  • recognises some students rich inner life

49
Higher Order Thinking and Learning Culture
Positive Teaching for Exceptionally Able Students
the Teacher as a Model
  • Communication aims clearly
  • Show learning is a cycle
  • Present yourself as a learner
  • Model excitement in confronting a challenge
  • Encourage self-evaluation and reflection on work

50
Higher Order Thinking and Learning Culture
Positive Teaching for Exceptionally Able
Students tries to Avoid
  • giving more of the same to students who finish
    assignments quickly they see it as punishment
  • marking 10/10 most of the time encourage
    intellectual adventure, exploration and
    uncertainty
  • being defensive when being challenged about your
    facts or knowledge
  • putting the precocious and challenging child in
    his/her place

51
Differentiation -HOT English Curriculum
Language Hansel and Gretel
Create Imagine Design Adapt
Evaluate Justify Choices Decide Prove
Analyse Classify Investigate Compare
Apply Use data Operate Model Construct a story map of one journey in to the woods Paint a scene from the story
Understand Explain Recall Describe Explain why the witch lived in a gingerbread house Outline Gretels oven plan.
Remember Find out Observe Gather data List some reasons Hansel and Gretel were left in the woods Name all the characters in the story
  • In this and other fairy stories, good triumphs
    over evil. In real life its not so simple. Write
    your own fairy story with this in mind.
  • Evaluate the fathers actions. Was he a good
    father?
  • Examine the witchs thoughts as she fed Hansel
    and Gretel and present them to the class
  • Compare the witch with another witch you have
    read about
  • Recall all the stepmothers you have read about.
    Rank them in order from the most kind to the most
    cruel.

52
Differentiation HOT Project Work / Thematic
Learning - Birds
Create Scientists want to inhabit the moon with birds. You have the job of genetically engineering a new bird for this environment. Describe this new species that you will create.
Evaluate Are birds that are preyed on better off in captivity or in the wild? If global warming continues, how might migratory patterns change?
Analyse Make a bird chart and choose a way to classify birds Environment / Shapes of beaks / Size of bird / Nesting habits / Kinds of Food / Migrating and non-migrating. etc
Apply Validate information gathered by building a bird feeder and draw a picture of what you see. Observe birds at the feeder - What birds come? - How do they behave?
Understand How can you tell what the bird likes to eat by the shape of its beak?
Remember Make a file of bird facts and vocabulary words.
53
Differentiation HOT Maths Curriculum - Money
Create A super-virus has entered the global electronic currency system and everything is destroyed. The world has lost confidence in currency. Design a community that can exist on a bartering system.
Evaluate Money makes the world go around. Discuss.
Analyse Plastic and electronic currency is being used more and more. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this.
Apply You have 20. Buy 3 items out of a catalogue that will leave you with at least 5 cents change.
Understand What notes and coins could I use to show 6.30
Remember What different notes and coins are there? Draw what they look like.
54
Differentiation / Extension by Breadth and Depth
  • Breadth
  • helping the pupils to study the topic in breadth
    and complexity while applying higher-order
    activates - making connections, identifying
    relationships, etc.
  • Depth
  • encourages the pupil to explore a topic deeper,
    and with greater detail - moving from
  • Concrete to abstract
  • Known to unknown
  • Literal to synthesised

55
Differentiation / Extension by Acceleration
  • Progress at a faster than usual rate and/or
    younger than typical age
  • Learning at a level appropriate to ability level
  • To avoid lack of challenge and, boredom promote
    good higher-order study skills
  • To mix more successfully
  • To capitalise interests and abilities

(A report for the Council of Curriculum,
Examinations and Assessment CCEA, 2006)
56
The Many Ways of Differentiating
  • By Task
  • By Outcome
  • By Resource
  • By Support
  • By Dialogue
  • By Pace
  • By Choice

57
Differentiation / Extension by Dialogue
  • How many questions are asked in a 40-minute
    period?
  • On average 50.6 (pupils ask 1.8)
  • Which level of Blooms Taxonomy would you say
    most questions come from?
  • The majority come from the Remember level
  • How long do teachers wait for an answer from a
    pupil?
  • Many teachers wait less than 1 second
  • How long does it take for Higher Order Thinking?
  • ??

58
Wait Time 1 and Wait Time 2
Differentiation by Dialogue Wait Time
  • Two key places where pauses greatly increase
    quality of responses
  • WT1 immediately after you ask a question
  • WT2 immediately after pupil responds
  • When used, pupils
  • Give longer and more complex answers
  • Support answers with evidence
  • Ask more questions
  • Talk more to other pupils

59
Differentiation by Dialogue Asking Questions ?
making meaning
  • Pupils devise their own questions for the class
    based on Higher Order Thinking
  • Pair-problem solving
  • Differentiating for able learners learners with
    SEN
  • "We learn more by looking for the answer to a
    question and not finding it than we do from
    learning the answer itself.


  • Lloyd
    Alexander

60
Differentiation by Dialogue Asking Questions ?
making meaning Question Disk
What do you suppose?
What do you think?
How might?
What if?
What could?
What question would you ask?
How will?
What will?
61
Differentiation by Dialogue Asking Questions ?
making meaning A Question Board
Topic .. Topic .. Topic ..
1 How many ways..? 2 How do you suppose..? 3 What if..?
4 Can you suggest..? 5 What do you think..? 6 Knowing what you know, how would..?
62
Differentiation by Outcome Outcome how
students express their learning
  • Choice e.g. homework - give choices
  • Cartoon
  • Story-boarding
  • Concept maps Po
  • PowerPoint
  • Dramatisation
  • Videos, tapes, etc
  • Models making, art and design
  • Writing
  • Project work

63
Enrichment Activities Beyond the Classroom /
School
  • Science / Writing club
  • History Trail / Field Trip
  • Visit to factory / business
  • Museum / Art Gallery
  • Mini courses
  • Invited speakers
  • Summer Schools
  • Theatre

64
Differentiation in a Nutshell
  • Developing the higher order skills - analysis,
    synthesis and evaluation
  • Open-ended and research-based tasks
  • Group work
  • Homework
  • Enrichment activities - curriculum-related and
    structured
  • Cross-curricular links
  • Including the pupils special interests

65
Metacognition - A Brief Introduction
  • Schools should be communities where
  • students learn to learn
  • (Brown et al, 1993)
  • (
  • Metacognition in the Classroom and Beyond
  • SESS 2009
  • See www.sess.ie

66
What is metacognition?
  1. Knowing about your thinking and learning
  2. Knowing how to managing your thinking and learning

Knowing about Metacognition
Doing Metacognition
67
Metacognition and Exceptionally Able / Dually
Exceptional Pupils
  • Better metacognitive knowledge but not better at
    self-regulation
  • Good working memory means that they may bypass
    good planning techniques
  • Failure can be stressful learning to evaluate
    performance is valuable LEARNING CYCLE
  • A chance to help dual exceptional pupils achieve
    their full potential?

68
Strategies for Promoting Metacognition in the
Classroom
  1. Specific Strategies
  2. General Strategies
  • 1. Examples of Specific Strategies
  • Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOT)
  • K-W-L Charts
  • PMI Plus, Minus, Interesting

69
Strategy 1 Higher Order Thinking (Simplified
Taxonomy to Use with Pupils)
Corresponds to Blooms Taxonomy Levels
Create ? Evaluate

Use ? Understand
? Apply
? Analyse


Recall ? Remember
69
70
Strategy 2 - KWL Grids
K (What I know already) W (What I want to know) L (what I have learned)




71
KWL Grids
  • The Vikings

K (What I know already) W (What I want to know) L (what I have learned)
They had longboats Why were they such good ships? They were shallow and could go up rivers
They settled in Dublin Why pick Dublin? It was on a river and sea trade route
They came from Scandinavia Why did they leave? There wasnt enough land for the population
They brought coins to Ireland So what? That currency helped improve trade
H - (How can I learn more)
There were a lot of reasons why the Vikings were successful and important but it was hard to connect them all together. Drawing them on a mind-map helped me to see how it all fitted together. It also helps me to remember by remembering the picture of the mind-map in my head.
72
KWL Grids Example (7 yrs. 11 months)
(From Self Assessment and Learning Folders, by
Joan Keating and Siobhan Cahillane-McGovern,
Outside the Boxes Resources)
73
Strategy 3 - Plus Minus Interesting (PMI)
  • Task
  • Take three minutes to think about this
    question
  • 1 min for positives,
  • 1 min negatives and
  • 1 min for anything interesting that strikes you
  • What if aeroplanes on short flights had no
    seats?

74
PMI
Ideas Advantages Disadvantages Costs Other Issues


What if aeroplanes on short flights had no seats?
PLUS MINUS INTERESTING
More people would fit on the plane Taking off and landing would be more dangerous Would this mean there would be fewer planes in the sky?
It would be quicker to load each plane There would be chaos if there was an emergency on board Planes might have to have extra doors for easy entry and exit
75
Strategies for Promoting Metacognition in the
Classroom
  • 2. General Strategies
  1. Tell pupils about metacognition and model the
    processes in your own work
  2. Teach pupils about metacogntion (metacognitive
    knowledge)
  3. Help pupils to learn to regulate their thinking
    as they work on a task strategies
    (self-regulation)
  4. Show that you value metacognition in your
    classroom/mentoring relationship.

(Dr. Sarah McElwee, 2009. Metacogintion in the
Classroom and Beyond presentation, SESS)
76
Some Other Teaching Strategies
  • Tony Ryan Thinkers Keys
  • Michael Phol Complex and Higher Order
    Thinking
  • Edward de Bono Six Thinking Hats
  • Scamper
  • Challenge Toolkit- 50 ideas
  • Must, Should Could
  • Promoting a Higher Order learning and teaching
    culture in the classroom

77
Some Other Teaching Strategies Thinkers Keys








The Reverse
The What If
The Disadvantages
The Combination
The Alphabet
The Variations
The Different Uses
The Bar
The Picture
The Prediction
The Brainstorming
The Commonality
The Ridiculous
The Inventions
The Question
The Construction
The Interpretation
The Forced Relationship
The Alternatives
The Brick Wall
http//www.tonyryan.com.au/blog/wp-content/uploads
/Thinkers_Keys_Version1.pdf
(Tony Ryan, 1990. Thinkers Keys for Kids
78
Some Other Teaching Strategies Must, Should,
Could
Higher Order Thinking
79
Learning Environment - Recap
80
Last Word ..
  • The joy of learning is as indispensable in study
    as breathing is to running.
  • Simone Weil, Waiting for God
  • Learning should be a joy and full of excitement.
    It is life's greatest adventure
  • Taylor Caldwell

81
Thank You
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