ITRS-2001 Design ITWG July 18, 2001 Europe: W. Weber Japan: Y. Furui, T. Kadowaki, H. Taguchi, K. Uchiyama USA: A. Kahng, K. Kolwicz - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ITRS-2001 Design ITWG July 18, 2001 Europe: W. Weber Japan: Y. Furui, T. Kadowaki, H. Taguchi, K. Uchiyama USA: A. Kahng, K. Kolwicz


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Title: ITRS-2001 Design ITWG July 18, 2001 Europe: W. Weber Japan: Y. Furui, T. Kadowaki, H. Taguchi, K. Uchiyama USA: A. Kahng, K. Kolwicz

ITRS-2001 Design ITWG July 18, 2001 Europe W.
Weber Japan Y. Furui, T. Kadowaki, H. Taguchi,
K. Uchiyama USA A. Kahng, K. Kolwicz
System Drivers Chapter
  • Define IC products that drive mfg, design
  • Replace the 1999 SOC Chapter
  • ORTCs SDs consistent framework for tech
  • Four system drivers
  • (HVC) MPU traditional processor core
  • SOC (focus on ASIC-LP, high-pins,
    high-signaling network driver)
  • AM/S four basic circuits and FOMs
  • (HVC) DRAM
  • Each driver section
  • Nature, evolution, formal definition of this
  • What market forces apply to this driver ?
  • What technology elements (process, device,
    design) does this drive?
  • Key figures of merit, and roadmap
  • Working text material (handout) (MPU) , (SOC) ,
  • Inputs from Test, AP, Litho/PIDS/FEP,

MPU Driver
  • Old MPU model 3 flavors
  • New MPU model - 2 flavors
  • Cost-performance at production (CP)
  • 140 mm2 die, desktop
  • High-performance at production (HP)
  • 310 mm2 die, server
  • Both have multiple cores (helper engines),
    on-board L3 cache,
  • Multi-cores more dedicated, less
    general-purpose logic driven by power and reuse
    considerations reflect convergence of MPU and
  • Doubling of transistor counts is each per each
    node, NOT per each 18 months
  • Clock frequencies stop doubling with each node

Example Supporting Analyses (MPU)
  • Diminishing returns
  • Pollacks Rule In a given process technology,
    new microarchitecture takes 2-3x area of previous
    generation one, and provides only 50 more
  • Corroboration SPECint/MHz, SPECfp/MHz,
    SPECint/Watt all decreasing
  • Power knob running out
  • Speed Power
  • Large switching currents, large power surges on
    wakeup, IR drop control issues all limited by AP
    roadmap (e.g., improvement in bump pitch, package
  • Power management 2500 improvement needed by
  • Speed knob running out (new clock frequency
  • Historically, 2x clock frequency every node
  • 1.4x/node from device scaling but running into
    tox, other limits (PIDS)
  • 1.4x/node from fewer logic stages (from 40-100
    down to around 14 FO4 INV delays)
  • Clocks cannot be generated with period lt 6-8 FO4
    INV delays
  • Pipelining overhead (1-1.5 FO4 INV delay for
    pulse-mode latch, 2-3 for FF)
  • Around16 FO4 INV delays is limit for clock period
    in core (L1 access, 64b add)
  • Cannot continue 2x frequency per node trend in

Example Supporting Analyses (MPU)
  • Logic Density Average size of 4t gate 32MP2
  • MP lower-level contacted metal pitch
  • F min feature size (technology node)
  • 32 8 tracks standard-cell height times 4 tracks
    width (average NAND2)
  • Additional whitespace factor 2x (i.e., 100
  • Custom layout density 1.25x semi-custom layout
  • SRAM Density (used in MPU)
  • bitcell area (units of F2) near flat 223.19F
    (um) 97.748
  • peripheral overhead 60
  • memory content is increasing (driver power) and
    increasingly fragmented
  • will see paradigm shifts in architecture/stacking
    eDRAM, 1-T SRAM, 3D integ
  • Significant SRAM density increase, slight Logic
    density decrease, compared to 1999 ITRS
  • 130nm node old ASIC logic density 13M tx/cm2,
    new 11.6M tx/cm2
  • 130nm node old SRAM density 70M tx/cm2, new
    140M tx/cm2
  • Chief impact power densities, logic-memory
    balance on chip

SOC-LP Driver (STRJ)
  • Power gap
  • Must reduce dynamic and static power to avoid
    zero logic content limit
  • Hits low-power SOC before hits MPU
  • SOC degree of freedom low-power (not high-perf)
  • SOC-LP model drives ASIC-LP (PIDS) device model
  • Lgate lags high-performance devices by 2 years
  • Accompanying device parameter changes
  • Vth higher (up to .5 x Vdd limit)
  • Ig, Ioff starts at 100pA/um (L(Operating)P),
    1pA/um (L(STandby)P)
  • Tox higher
  • Slower devices (higher CV/I)
  • Four LP device flavors Design still faces
    40-1000/node static power management challenge,
    and must address multi (Vt,tox,Vdd)
  • SOC-LP driver low-power PDA
  • Composition CPU cores, embedded cores,
  • Roadmap for IO bandwidth, processing power,
    GOPS/mW efficiency
  • Die size grows at 20 per node

SOC-LP Driver Model
  • Required performance trend of SOC-LP PDA driver
  • Drives PIDS/FEP LP device roadmap, Design power
    management challenges

Mixed-Signal Driver (Europe)
  • Ralf Brederlow, Stephane Donnay, Joseph
    Sauerer, Maarten Vertregt, Piet Wambacq, and
    Werner Weber
  • Infineon Technologies, IMEC, Fraunhofer-Instuti
    tut for Integrated Circuits , Philips

  • Today, the digital part of circuits is most
    critical for performance and is dominating chip
  • But in many new IC-products the mixed-signal part
    becomes important for performance and cost
  • This shift in paradigms leads to the need for a
    definition of the analog boundary conditions in
    the design part of the ITRS roadmap
  • The goal is to define criteria for needs of
    future analog/RF circuit performance and compare
    it to device parameters
  • choose critical and important analog/RF circuits
  • identify circuit performance needs
  • and related device parameter needs

Concept for the Mixed-Signal-Roadmap
  • Figures of merit for four important basic analog
    building blocks are defined and estimated for
    future circuit design
  • From these figures of merit related future device
    parameter needs are estimated (PIDS-table
    partially owned by design)

Roadmap for basic analog / RF circuits
Roadmap for device parameter (needs)

Lmin 2001 2015
Low-Noise Amplifier
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
mixed-signal device parameter
Power Amplifier
Figure of Merit for LNAs
  • LNA performance
  • dynamic range
  • power consumption

G gain NF noise figure IIP3 third
order intercept point P dc supply
power f frequency
Figure of Merit for VCOs
  • VCO performance
  • timing jitter
  • power consumption

f0 carrier frequency Df frequency offset from
f0 LDf phase noise P supply power
Figure of Merit for PAs
  • PA performance
  • output power
  • power consumption

Pout output power G gain PAE power
added efficiency IIP3 third order intercept
point f frequency
Figure of Merit for ADCs
  • ADC performance
  • dynamic range
  • bandwidth
  • power consumption

ENOB0 effective number of bits fsample sampling
frequency ERBW effective resolution
bandwidth P supply power
Mixed-Signal Device Parameters
Mixed-Signal Market Drivers
System drivers for mass markets can be identified
from the FoM approach
Design Chapter Outline
  • Introduction
  • Scope of design technology
  • Complexities (silicon, system, design process)
  • How design technology is driven by System Drivers
  • Design Grand Challenges
  • Details of challenges/needs and potential
    solutions (metrics)
  • One section for each of
  • Design Process (quality/cost model )
  • Functional Verification (escapes, fault
  • System-Level (embedded software productivity,
    reuse, quality)
  • Logical/Physical/Circuit (power management,
    AM/S circuit FOMs)
  • Test (BIST, )
  • In each section
  • Overview of detailed issues and challenges
  • Near-term / long-term needs related to driver
  • Key quality metrics (tables or figures)

Design Grand Challenges gt 65nm
  • Scaling of maximum-quality design implementation
  • Overall design productivity of quality-
    (difficulty-) normalized functions on chip must
    scale at 2x / node
  • Reuse (including migration) of design,
    verification and test effort must scale at gt
  • Develop analog and mixed-signal synthesis,
    verification and test
  • Embedded software productivity
  • Power Management
  • Off-currents in low-power devices increase
    10x/node design technology must maintain
    constant static power
  • Power dissipation for HP MPU exceeds package
    limits by 25x in 15 years design technology must
    achieve power limits
  • Power optimizations must simultaneously and fully
    exploit many degrees of freedom - multi-Vt,
    multi-Tox, multi-Vdd in core - while guiding
    architecture, OS and software
  • Deeper integration of Design technology with
    other ITRS technology areas
  • Example Die-package co-optimization
  • Example Design for Manufacturability (sharing
    variability burden with Litho/PIDS/FEP and
    Interconnect, reduction of system NRE cost)
  • Example Design for Test

Design Grand Challenges lt 65nm
  • (Three Grand Challenges from gt 65nm, and)
  • Noise Management
  • Lower noise headroom especially in low-power
    devices coupled interconnects supply voltage IR
    drop and ground bounce thermal impact on device
    off-currents and interconnect resistivities
    mutual inductance substrate coupling
    single-event upset (alpha particle) increased
    use of dynamic logic families
  • Modeling, analysis and estimation at all levels
    of design
  • Error-Tolerant Design
  • Relaxing 100 correctness requirement may reduce
    manufacturing, verification, test costs
  • Both transient and permanent failures of signals,
    logic values, devices, interconnects
  • Novel techniques adaptive and self-correcting /
    self-repairing circuits, use of on-chip

Design Cost Analysis
  • Largest possible ASIC design cost model
  • engineer cost per year increases 5 per year
    (181,568 in 1990)
  • EDA tool cost per year increases 3.9 per year
    (99,301 in 1990)
  • Gates in largest ASIC/SOC design (.25M in 1990,
    250M in 2005)
  • Logic Gates constant at 70
  • Engineers / Million Logic Gates decreasing from
    250 in 1990 to 5 in 2005
  • Productivity due to 8 major Design Technology
    innovations (3.5 of which are still unavailable)
    RTL methodology In-house PR Tall-thin
    engineer Small-block reuse Large-block reuse
    IC implementation suite Intelligent testbench
    ES-level methodology
  • Small refinements (1) memory content (2) other
    design NRE (mask cost, etc.)
  • Engineers per ASIC design still rising 20x in 15
    years despite assumed 50x improvement in designer

Design Cost and Quality Requirement
  • Design cost of largest ASIC rises despite major
    DT innovations
  • Other Dataquest s confirm slight increase in
    memory content
  • Must complement with requirements for design

Design Quality Model
  • Normalized transistor quality model normalizes
  • speed, power, density in a given technology
  • analog vs. digital
  • custom vs. semi-custom vs. generated
  • first-silicon success
  • other simple / complex clocking,
    verification/test effort and coverage,
    manufacturing cost,
  • Design process quality model in development
  • Many private commercial and/or in-house analogues
  • Survey methodology being used (US, MARCO GSRC)