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Animals

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Vertebrates: AMPHIBIANS - Double life Frogs, tadpoles, salamanders Vertebrates: REPTILES Snakes, aligators, turtles Vertebrates: Aves (BIRDS: feathered reptiles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animals


1
Animals
2
What Is an Animal?
  • Multicellular heterotrophs
  • No cell wall
  • Motile during some stage in life
  • Able to respond rapidly to external stimuli
  • Able to reproduce sexually

3
Evolutionary History
  • Fossil record sparse
  • When did the different phyla arise?
  • Animal systematists look to
  • anatomy, embryological development, DNA
    sequences for clues to evolutionary history
  • Certain feature mark major branchpoints

4
Evolutionary tree of major animal phyla
Chordata(lancelets,vertebrates)
Cnidaria(jellyfish,corals,anemones)
Porifera(sponges)
Ctenophora(comb jellies)
Arthropoda(insects,arachnids,crustaceans)
Annelida(segmentedworms)
Echinodermata(sea stars,sea urchins)
Mollusca(clams,snails,octopods)
Platyhelminthes(flatworms)
Nematoda(roundworms)
cuticle molted
protostome development
deuterostome development
bilateral symmetry
radial symmetry
no tissues
tissues
5
Tissues -Present or Absent
  • Tissues Groups of similar cells integrated into
    a functional unit, such as a muscle.
  • Sponges Lack tissues
  • Individual cells have specialized functions, but
    act independently
  • The body of the sponge is really just providing
    refuge for its inhabitants

6
Body plans
  • With tissues comes body symmetry
  • Symmetry an animal is symmetrical if it can be
    bisected along at least one plane such that the
    resulting halves are mirror images of each other.

7
Body plans
  • Two types
  • Radial symmetry plane through the central axis
    divides the animal into equal halves
  • Bilateral symmetry one plane through central
    axis divides the animal into mirror images of
    each other

8
Body Symmetry
Central Axis
Sagittal Plane
(a) RadialSymmetry
A Radial Plane
Anterior
Posterior
(b) BilateralSymmetry
Another Radial Plane
9
Evolutionary Tree of Animal Phyla
10
Germ layers and symmetry
  • Distinction in body plans
  • Number of tissue layers (germ layers) in
    embryonic development
  • Radial - two
  • Inner endoderm (lines most hollow organs)
  • Outer ectoderm (covers body, lines inner
    cavities)
  • Bilateral - three
  • Inner endoderm (lines most hollow organs)
  • Between endo and ectoderm mesoderm (forms muscle
    and circulatory and skeletal systems)
  • Outer ectoderm (covers body, lines inner cavities)

11
Invertebrates
12
Evolutionary Tree of Animal Phyla
13
Echinoderms
  • They have three germ layers, and other
    characteristics of bilateral symmetric animals.
  • Ancestors were bilaterally symmetric and evolved
    radial symmetry.

14
Bilateral Animal Characteristics
  • Heads!
  • Cephalization concentration of sensory organs
    and brain in head
  • Anterior (sensory, ingest)
  • Posterior (extrude)

15
THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
  • As we go through the phyla, consider
  • SMALL, inactive animals do not need a circulatory
    or a respiratory system, why?
  • Large active animals do
  • As evolution produced larger, active animals,
    special structures were evolve to meet the needs
    of the animals
  • Digestion, respiration, circulation, nervous
    system

16
Sponges
  • Porifera SPONGES
  • No tissues
  • One digestive opening
  • Sessile as an adult

17
Sponges
EpithelialCell
Osculum
Spicules
Pore
AmoeboidCells
Water Flow
PoreCell
CollarCell
18
Cnidaria- Well armed Predators
  • Cnidaria hydra, anemones, jellyfish
  • tissues
  • Two distinct body plans
  • Polyp attached sessile
  • Medusa free swimming
  • One digestive opening

19
Cnidarian Body The Medusa
BodyWall
Mesoglea
GastrovascularCavity
Tentacle
GastrovascularLining
Mouth
20
Cnidarian Weaponry The Cnidocyte
Trigger
Filament
Nuclei
Water
ArmedCnidocyte
BodyWall
SpentCnidocyte
21
Platyhelminthes (Flat Worms)
  • Bilateral symmetry!
  • Lack respiratory and circulatory systems
  • Ganglia clusters of neurons
  • Organs begin to evolve
  • Many are free livingplanarians
  • Some are parasitictapeworm and fluke

22
Flatworm Organ Systems
Pharynx
(a) Digestive System
GastrovascularCavity
Excretory Canal
Excretory Pore
(b1) Excretory System
(b2) Nervous System
Nerve Cord
Brain
23
Nematodes (Round Worms)
  • Also bilateral symmetry
  • long gut tube
  • - decomposers
  • - most are harmless
  • some parasitic hookworm, Trichinella, worms in
    dogs and cats

24
Mollusks
  • Moist muscular body, no skeleton
  • - Aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats
  • - Body protected by shell or obnoxious taste
  • - Ganglionic brain squid, octupi can be very
    smart!
  • - Open circulatory system (except cephalopods)
  • Classes
  • Gastropodasnails
  • Pelecypoda scallops, oysters, mussels, clams
  • Cephalopodaoctopuses, squid, nautiluses

25
A Generalized Mollusk
Tentacle
Gonad
Digestive Tract
Heart
Ganglia(brain)
Shell
Eye
Anus
Gill
Radula
Mouth
Foot
Nerve Cords
26
Annelids (Segmented Worms)
  • -Segmentation!
  • -Aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats
  • -Closed circulatory system
  • -Rudimentary organ systems

27
An Annelidthe Earthworm
Nephridia
Intestine
VentralNerve Cord
ExcretoryPore
Anus
Gizzard
VentralNerve Cord
Brain
VentralVessel
Mouth
Hearts
Esophagus
Crop
Intestine
28
ARTHROPODS
  • - Many aquatic and terrestrial habitats
  • - The most numerous animals in number species
  • - Second only to the bacteria as rulers of the
    earth
  • EXOSKELETON for water conservation, support, and
    protection ? molt it when need to grow
  • Segmented
  • Jointed legs, sometimes wings
  • Sensory, nervous, open circulatory systems
  • INSECTS, ARACHNIDS, CRUSTACEANS, CHELICERATA

29
Arthropod ClassesInsects
  • Nearly a million species!
  • Metamorphosis larva ? pupa ? adult
    eliminates competition for food between
    generations, seasonal
  • Adults
  • Three pairs of legs
  • Often have wings
  • Compound eyes

30
Insect Body Plan
Head
Antennae
Thorax
Abdomen
CompoundEyes
Wing
Mouth
31
Arthropod Classes Arachnids
  • Terrestial
  • Spiders, Mites, Ticks, Scorpions
  • Eight walking legs
  • Carnivorous
  • Simple eyes with a single lens
  • 50,000 species

32
Arthropod Classes Crustaceans
  • Aquatic
  • Crabs, crayfish, lobster, shrimp, barnacles
  • Vary in number of appendages
  • Have two pairs of antennae
  • Generally compound eyes
  • Gills
  • From microscopic to 12 feet
  • 30,000 species

33
Crabs!
34
ECHINODERMS (Sea Stars, Sea Urchins)
  • Marine
  • Bilateral as a juvenile ? radial symmetry in
    adult
  • Endoskeleton of CaCO3
  • Move on tube feet
  • - sea urchin, sand dollar, sea star
  • Can regenerate lost parts

35
Echinoderm Diversity
36
It pays to know your biology
  • Mussel beds were invaded by predatory sea stars.
  • The fishermen hacked them to pieces and tossed
    the pieces back into the same part of the ocean.
  • Was this effective?

37
Biological Classifications
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

38
Evolutionary Tree of Animal Phyla
39
Chordates
  • CHORDATES
  • Notochord stiff cord attachment site for
    muscles
  • Dorsal nerve cord
  • Gills
  • Tail

40
Chordate Features in theHuman Embryo
Tail
Vertebral column and nerve cord
Gill Slit
41
Chordates
  • Invertebrateslancelets and tunicates
  • no backbone
  • Marine habitat
  • E.g., sea squirt
  • Vertebrates
  • Less than 3 of extant animals
  • Notochord is replaced by backbone
  • Backbone! Protects dorsal nerve cord.

42
Invertebrate Chordates
43
Vertebrates
44
VertebratesAgnatha Chondrichthyes
  • Agnatha jawless fishes lampreys, hagfish
  • Skeleton of cartilage, gills
  • No jaw
  • Chondrichthyes
  • Cartilaginous fishessharks, rays
  • Skeleton of cartilage, gills
  • Jaw

45
Agnatha Lampreys
46
Cartilaginous Fishes Sharks and Rays
47
VertebratesOsteichthyes (BONY FISHES)
  • Bony fishes
  • Many species, many habitats
  • Internal skeleton of bones
  • Gills
  • Fins
  • Swim bladder

48
Bony Fishes
49
The Move to LAND
  • More sunlight
  • Dry air
  • Lack of support from the water
  • New reproduction strategies

50
VertebratesAMPHIBIANS - Double life
  • Frogs, toads, and salamanders
  • Transition to land
  • Eggs, lungs
  • Some larval forms in water, then adult on land.
  • Thin skin provides additional respiratory
    functions
  • very susceptible to environmental toxins

51
Frogs, tadpoles, salamanders
52
Vertebrates REPTILES
  • Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, snakes, lizards,
    dinosaurs
  • Tough scaly skin
  • Shelled egg
  • Cold-blooded

53
Snakes, aligators, turtles
54
VertebratesAves (BIRDS feathered reptiles!)
  • Warm-blooded
  • Hollow bones, wings!
  • Feathers for protection and insulation
  • Four-chambered heart
  • Acute sensory and nervous system

55
Birds!
56
Vertebrates MAMMALS
  • Warm-blooded
  • Four-chambered heart
  • Fur for insulation and protection
  • Mammary glands to nurse live-born young
  • Complex brain
  • Mammals
  • Egg-laying monotremes
  • Marsupials (opossums, koalas, kangaroos)
  • Placental mammals (humans!)

57
Non Placental Mammals
Monotremes
Marsupials
58
Placental Mammals!
59
Animals
Chordates
Roundworms
Annelids
Echinoderms
Flatworms
Arthropods
Mollusks
Sponges
Cnidaria
segments coelom
bilateral symmetry
gut tube
tissues
insects, arachnids, crustaceans
Tunicates, lancelets, jawless, cartilaginous,
bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
60
Animals
Chordates
Roundworms
Annelids
Echinoderms
Flatworms
Arthropods
Mollusks
Sponges
Cnidaria
segments coelom
bilateral symmetry
gut tube
tissues
insects, arachnids, crustaceans
Tunicates, lancelets, jawless, cartilaginous,
bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
vertebrates
invertebrates
61
Animals
Chordates
Roundworms
Annelids
Echinoderms
Flatworms
Arthropods
Mollusks
Sponges
Cnidaria
segments coelom
bilateral symmetry
gut tube
tissues
insects, arachnids, crustaceans
Tunicates, lancelets, jawless, cartilaginous,
bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
marsupials, placental
vertebrates
invertebrates
62
Us (humans)
Kingdom animalia Phylum chordata Class
mammalia Order primates Family
hominidae Genus Homo Species
sapiens Scientific nameHomo sapiens
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