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Microbial World and You

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Agricultural Microbiology: impact of microorganisms on agriculture; combat plant diseases that attack important food crops. Food and Dairy Microbiology: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbial World and You


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MicrobiologyProf. IHAB MOUSSAProf. Of Medical
Microbiology
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What is Microbiology?
  • Micro - too small to be seen with the naked eye
  • Bio - life
  • ology - study of

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Organisms included in the study of Microbiology
  • 1. Bacteria
  • 2. Protozoans
  • 3. Algae
  • 4. Parasites
  • 5. Yeasts and Molds
  • Fungi
  • 6. Viruses
  • Bacteriology
  • Protozoology
  • Phycology
  • Parasitology
  • Mycology
  • Virology

Microorganisms - Microbes - Germs
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  • Bacteriology
  • It is science to deal with the study of the
    bacteria.
  • Virology
  • It is science to deal with the study of the
    virus.
  • Mycology
  • It is science to deal with the study of fungi.
  • Immunology
  • It is the science to deal with the resistance of
    the body to any foreign substance.
  • Parasitology
  • It is the science to deal with Parasites.

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  • The importance of microorganisms
  • Microorganisms are the oldest forms of life.
  • Microorganisms have the greatest biomass.
  • Microorganisms have killed more people than have
    ever been killed in wars.
  • Without certain microorganism life could not
    exist produce O2 and N2 .
  • Microorganisms are decomposers.

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  • BRANCHES OF STUDY WITHIN MICROBIOLOGY
  • Immunology
  • Public health microbiology epidemiology
  • Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology
  • Biotechnology
  • Genetic engineering recombinant DNA technology

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MICROBES ARE INVOLVED IN
  • Nutrient production energy flow
  • Decomposition (bioremediation)
  • Production of foods
  • Production of drugs vaccines
  • Genetic engineering
  • Causing disease

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History of the Study of Microorganisms
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  • 1665 Robert Hooke
  • little boxes - cells
  • Cell Theory - all living things are made up of
    cells
  • 1590 First compound light microscope
    Zacharias Janssen
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674 who was the first
    person to actually see living microorganisms

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  • Anton Von Leeuwenhoek 1676 first observation
    of bacteria animalcules
  • As a tailor, used lenses to examine cloth. It
    was probably this that led to his interest in
    lens making.
  • He assembled nearly 250 microscopes, some of
    which magnified objects 270 times.

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  • As he looked at things with his microscopes, he
    discovered presence of micro organisms -
    organisms so tiny that they were invisible to the
    naked eye.
  • He called these tiny living organisms
    animalcules. He first described bacteria and
    the protozoans.

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  • Edward Jenne 1796 First vaccine
    (smallpox)
  • 1857 Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur
  • Rudolph Virchow 1858 the owner of the Theory
    of Biogenesis, that said Cells can only arise
    from preexisting cells

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  • 1884 Disease transmission Robart koch Kochs
    Postulates who established the relationship
    between Bacillus anthracis and anthrax also
    isolated the bacillus that causes tuberculosis
  • 1885 - Vaccine against Rabies Louis pasteur
  • - Developed vaccines for Chickenpox, anthrax,
    rabies

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  • Demonstrated that all fermentations were due to
    the activities of specific yeasts and bacteria.
  • Alexander Fleming 1929 Discovery of
    Penicillin (first antibiotic)
  • British bacteriologist observed bacterial
    staphylococci colonies disappearing on plates
    contaminated with mold.
  • Fleming extracted the compound from the mold
    responsible for destruction of the bacterial
    colonies.

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  • The product of the mold was named penicillin,
    after the Penicillium mold from which it was
    derived
  • 1938 First Electron Microscope
  • The electron microscope is capable of magnifying
    biological specimens up to one million times.
    These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2.
    herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified,
    respectively, 150,000 and 90,000 times.
  • Watson Crick 1953 Structure of DNA
    Revealed
  • Jonas Salk 1954 Polio Vaccine

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  • Golden Age of Microbiology 1857 - 1914
  • Pasteur
  • Pasteurization
  • Fermentation
  • Joseph Lister
  • Phenol to treat surgical wounds 1st attempt to
    control infections caused by microoganisms

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  • Robert Koch
  • Kochs Postulates
  • Edward Jenner
  • Vaccination
  • Paul Erlich
  • 1st synthetic drug used to treat infections
  • Salvarsan - arsenic based chemical to treat
    Syphilis

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Recent history
  • Genetic engineering
  • Cloning
  • Human Genome Project
  • Biotechnology
  • Who knows what is next?

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Sizes of Microbes
  • Virus - 10 ?1000 nanometers
  • Bacteria - 0.1 ? 5 micrometers
  • (Human eye ) can see .1 mm (1 x 10 -3 m)
  • One billionth or 1 x 10 -9 m
  • One millionth or 1 x 10 -6 m

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Microbes - what comes to mind?
  • Diseases
  • Infections
  • Epidemics
  • Food Spoilage
  • Only 1 of all known bacteria cause human
    diseases
  • About 4 of all known bacteria cause plant
    diseases
  • 95 of known bacteria are non-pathogens

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Microbes Benefit Humans
  •  1. Bacteria are primary decomposers - recycle
    nutrients back into the environment
  • 2. Microbes produce various food products
  • cheese, pickles, green olives
  • yogurt, soy sauce, vinegar, bread
  • Beer, Wine, Alcohol
  • 3. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics
  • Mold Penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming

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  • 4. Microbial Antagonism
  • Our normal microbial flora prevents potential
    pathogens from gaining access to our body

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  • Microbes do benefit us, but they are also capable
    of causing many diseases
  • Pneumonia, Whooping Cough, Botulism, Typhoid
    Fever, Measles Cholera

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Tools of Microbiology
  • Compound light Microscope
  • - live specimens
  • - 1,000 mag. or less
  • 2. Electron Microscope
  • - non-living specimens
  • - gt 1,000 X mag.
  • 3. Incubator keep microbes warm for growth

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Techniques of Microbiology
  • Staining to better see structures
  • Microbial Culture - growing the tiny beasties
  • Container for microbe culture - usually Petri
    dish
  • Culture media
  • Food for the microbes
  • - E.g. Agar (from red algae)
  • - Others such as nutrient broths

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Biological OrderedClassification
  • When classification schemes were first developed,
    all living organisms could easily be placed in a
    general category, like Kingdom Plantae or Kingdom
    Animalia. General categories, such as Kingdoms
    still work well in classification but they break
    down when some organisms in one category have
    characteristics which are similar to organisms in
    another category. A case in point is the
    one-celled organism, Euglena, which bears both
    animal and plant characteristics.

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Taxonomic categories
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  • Depend on this classification the Living
    Organisms is divided in to 3 Domains (1978
    Carl Woese)
  • 1. Bacteria
  • Unicellular prokaryotes with cell wall containing
    peptidoglycan
  • 2. Archaea
  • Unicellular prokaryotes with no peptodoglycan in
    cell wall

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  • 3. Eukarya
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

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  • Depend on this classification, we can divide the
    Living Organisms in to 6 Kingdoms
  • 1. Animalia
  • 2. Plantae
  • 3. Fungi
  • 4. Protista
  • 5. Arcaebacteria
  • 6. Eubacteria

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Type of cells
  • Prokariotic cells bacteria and blue-green algae
  • Eukariotic cells fungi and protozoa
  • Viruses infective particle that need a viable
    cell for their replication and can be seen using
    EM

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Procaryotes relative simple morphology and lack
true membrane defined nucleus
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Eucaryotes morphologically complex with a true
membrane enclosed nucleus
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viruses
  • Since viruses are acellular and possess both
    living and nonliving characteristics, they are
    considered neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic.
    They will be discussed in separate section of the
    course

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Domain Archaea
  • Prokaryotic
  • Lack peptidoglycan
  • Often live in extreme environments
  • Not known to cause disease in humans or animals
  • Had been considered bacteria until examination of
    their unique rRNA sequences.

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  • Includes
  • Methanogens
  • Extreme halophiles
  • Extreme thermophiles

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Scope of Microbiology
  • Microbiology has an impact on medicine,
    agriculture, food science, ecology, genetics,
    biochemistry, immunology, and many other fields.

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  • Many microbiologists are primarily interested in
    the biology of microorganisms, while others focus
    on specific groups
  • Virologists - viruses
  • Bacteriologist - bacteria
  • Phycologist algae
  • Mycologist -fungi
  • Protozoologist protozoa

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  • Medical Microbiology
  • deals with diseases of humans and animals
    identify and plan measures to eliminate agents
    causing infectious diseases.
  • Agricultural Microbiology
  • impact of microorganisms on agriculture combat
    plant diseases that attack important food crops.

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Food and Dairy Microbiology
  • prevent microbial spoilage of food transmission
    of food-borne diseases (e.g. salmonellosis) use
    microorganisms to make food such as cheeses,
    yogurts, pickles, beer, etc.

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Industrial Microbiology
  • using microorganisms to make products such as
    antibiotics, vaccines, steroids, alcohols other
    solvents, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, etc.

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Genetic Engineering
  • Engineered microorganisms used to make hormones,
    antibiotics, vaccines and other products.
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