Human Development CHAPTER 10 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Human Development CHAPTER 10 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 85f760-NmY1M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Human Development CHAPTER 10

Description:

Human Development CHAPTER 10 ... Certain amt. of aggression is normal SPANKING 408 ... 5 PLAY THE WORK OF PRESCHOOLERS: DRAMATIC PLAY SIBLING INTERACTION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:22
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 26
Provided by: JohnP403
Learn more at: http://www.drjprange.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Human Development CHAPTER 10


1
Human DevelopmentCHAPTER 10
  • THE PLAY YEARS PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

2
Erikson Initiative vs. guilt
  • Increased levels of energy at this stage enable
    the child to boldly and exuberantly initiate new
    activities
  • Outcome of this crisis will depend on whether the
    child often succeeds and is praised for his/her
    endeavors or whether efforts fail and the child
    is unrewarded or blamed
  • Child's growing self-concept results in a turning
    away from an "exclusive attachment" such as to a
    parent and toward becoming a member of a larger
    group.

3
  • Children's growing capacity for communication,
    imagination and social understanding allows them
    to explore lots of social roles. In terms of
    self-confidence, social skills, and social roles,
    much develops during early childhood

4
  • Self emerges gradually during later stages of
    infancy and, by early childhood, children begin
    to have clearly defined (though not always
    accurate) concepts of self. They regularly
    overestimate their abilities

5
  • PHOBIA Fear becomes so strong that is interferes
    with child's normal functioning Use modeling or
    gradual desensitization as therapy.
  • ELECTIVE MUTISM Talk normally at home but are
    mute with other children or adults. Usually
    gradually disappears in good preschool or some
    other social setting that allows child to get
    over his/her fear of others. Some cases can be
    precursor to serious speech and behavior problems
    as well as sign of problems at home

6
PLAY THE WORK OF PRESCHOOLERS
  • Mildred Parten(1932) Types of Play
  • Solitary alone, unaware of others
  • Onlooker watches others
  • Parallel play in similar way with similar toys
  • Associative Interact by sharing materials
  • Cooperative Play together, helping and taking
    turns

7
DRAMATIC PLAY
  • Most complicated form of social play
  • Coincides with the achievement of symbolic
    thinking
  • Fun but also helps children try out social roles,
    express their fears and fantasies, and learn to
    cooperate

8
SIBLING INTERACTION
  • Siblings are more likely to quarrel with one
    another than with non-related children but also
    more likely to have positive interactions
    including nurturance and cooperation
  • Parents influence the sibling interactions often
    setting the stage for rivalry
  • Siblings are more likely to fight and argue in
    presence of a parent and play cooperatively alone

9
IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL PLAY
  • Provides crucial experiences that would be hard
    for adults to provide or for children to learn
    later. Learning to play teaches reciprocity,
    nurturance, and cooperation
  • With more experience play becomes more
    sophisticated and friendships more selective

10
PARENTING Styles Diana Baumrind (1967)
  • Observed 110 children, interviewed parents,
    observed parent-child interactions at home and
    lab setting.
  • THREE STYLES OF PARENTING
  • Authoritarian Parents' word is law, not to be
    questioned. Aloof from children, afraid to show
    affection/praise.
  • Permissive Make few demands on children, hiding
    impatience they feel. Discipline is lax, anarchy
    common.
  • Authoritative Set limits, enforce rules, but
    listen receptively to child's requests and
    questions. Family rule is more democratic than
    dictatorial.

11
Generalizations she found
  • Sons of authoritarians-distrustful, unhappy,
    hostile, neither sons or daughters-high achievers
  • Children of permissive-least self-reliant, least
    self-controlled, most unhappy. (boys low
    achievers, girls OK)
  • Children of authoritative-most self-reliant,
    self-controlled, and content and are friendly,
    cooperative, high achiever

12
Aggression
  • Reaches peak during preschool years and then
    declines
  • Instrumental aggression
  • involves arguing over an object, territory, or
    privilege
  • Reactive Aggression-
  • Shoving punching rather tan using words when
    injured
  • Bullying Aggression
  • Attack against someone rather than a fight about
    something. Younger children more likely to
    respond physically to being made fun of. Certain
    amt. of aggression is normal

13
SPANKING
  • 408 Parents Surveyed
  • 9 never used physical punishment
  • 72 Spanked but did not use more violent
    punishment
  • 19 hit and/or beat as well as spanked

14
Instrumental aggression
  • Unrelated to punishment
  • All children used this
  • Just as likely to fight over a toy no matter
    punishment

15
Reactive Aggression
  • Powerfully affected by spanking
  • Three times more likely to retaliate

16
Bullying Aggression
  • Clearly associated with being violently punished
  • Particularly in the case of a few extreme children

17
Boys who were spanked buy fathers were likely to
behave as if they had been hit as well as spanked.
  • That is they became Bullies

18
Role of T.V.
  • Children
  • 2-5 21h 21 min (1996)
  • 6-11 19h 59min
  • Teens
  • Girls 18h 19min
  • Boys 19h 59min

19
SEX ROLES AND STEREOTYPES
  • All psychologists agree that children begin to
    learn sex roles and moral values during early
    childhood they disagree about how this occurs.
  • Freud believed that the guilt and fear that
    children feel because of the fantasies of the
    Oedipal complex result in the development of
    their superegos
  • Erikson stresses the child's initiative and
    exuberance, noting that the child sometimes feels
    guilty when this gets out of bounds.

20
Learning theorists
  • think children learn their values from the
    reinforcement they receive for acting
    appropriately, and from the punishment they
    receive from acting inappropriately
  • Modeling role models of parents, T.V., and others
  • Cognitive theorists remind us that young children
    are illogical and egocentric and we should not
    expect them to understand moral values or sex
    roles.

21
Androgyny
  • State of having both male and female
    characteristics, person defining him or herself
    as primarily a human being rather than a male or
    a female

22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com