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CHAPTER 1

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Title: CHAPTER 1


1
CHAPTER 12 NOTES
  • KONICHEK

2
  • I.Science- The organized study of events in the
    universe.
  • A. Universe- all matter, space, time, and
    energy
  • B. Event- a happening along the timline of
    the universe- obeys Entropy
  • II.Branches of science
  • A. Life sciences- the biological related
    sciences
  • B. Earth sciences- geology/ meteorology
  • C. Physical sciences- chemistry and physics
  • 1. Chemistry- the study of how matter
    reacts
  • 2. Physics- The study of the interactions
    between matter and energy
  • a. Branch of knowledge, which
    studies the physical world
  • From atoms to the universe

3
  • III Character of a physicist
  • A. Inquisitive people- wondering why things do
    what they are doing.
  • 1. Make observations then try to find
    the causes for their observations
  • 2. Observations lead to powerful conclusions
    through experimentation

4
  • Scientific method- the orderly way scientist
    searches for answers.
  • A. Steps of the scientific method. - Provides a
    guideline for research
  • 1. Observe and state the problem
  • 2. Analyze the problem
  • 3. Hypothesis- an educated guess
  • 4. Controlled experiment- many trials, many
    controls, one variable
  • 5 conclusions- based on the observations and the
    experiment
  • 6. Repeat the procedure- provides validity of the
    data

5
So math finally has a purpose
  • I. Tool of the physicist is mathematics
  • A. Should be able to do mathematical
    manipulations of an equation to solve for an
    unknown.
  • 1. In this class algebra 2 is recommended.
  • 2. College physics requires calculas

6
  • II. Metric system- French scientist 1795
  • A. Based on units of 10
  • 1. SI-international system of units- these
    are uniform throughout the world.
  • A, Length. Mass and time are
    fundamental units
  • 1. Lengthmeter- defined as the
    multiple of wavelength of light given off by
    krypton-86
  • 2. Mass kilogram- mass of a
    platinum- iridium cylinder near Paris
  • 3. Time second-1967 defined as
    "radiation emitted by a cesium-133 atom"
  • 2. Derived units-these are combinations
    of fundamental units (m/s), Kgm/s2

7
  • III. Scientific notation- Based on exponential
    powers
  • A. Easier to work with. Makes very large or
    very small numbers manageable
  • 1. The numerical part is expressed as a
    number between 1 and 10, and that is multiplied
    by some power of 10
  • B.Rules for scientific notation
  • 1. The decimal point is after the first
    figure.
  • 2. Count the number of places the
    decimal had to move and that is the exponential
  • a. If the decimal moved left the
    exponent will be positive, if the decimal moved
    right the exponent is negative

8
HERE THEY ARE
  • IV. Prefixes used with SI (page 17)
  • A. Based on powers of 10.
  • 1) TETRA- 1012
  • 2) GIGA- 109
  • 3) MEGA 106
  • 4) KILO 103
  • 5) HECT 102
  • 6) DEKA 101
  • 7) BASE 100
  • 8) DECI 10-1
  • 9) CENTI 10-2
  • 10) MILLI 10-3
  • 11) MICRO 10-6
  • 12) NANO 10-9
  • 13) PICO 10-12

9
  • V. Operations in Scientific notation
  • A. Adding or subtracting- always makes sure
    that both of the numbers have the same exponents.
  • B. Multiplying- Multiply the integers
    together, then add the exponents
  • C Dividing- Divide the integers then
    subtract the bottom exponent from the top.

10
  • VI. Certainties- measurements have a degree of
    uncertainty- can't be avoided
  • A. Caused by external circumstances
  • 1. The angle an object is read from-
    Parallax
  • a. Parallax is the apparent shift
    in position from the reference point.

11
  • B. Accuracy and precision
  • 1. Precision- the degree of exactness
    to which the measurement of a quantity can be
    reproduce. Limit presented by the measuring
    device
  • a. Trial 1 3.00x108 m/s
  • b. Trial 2 3.02x108m/s
  • c. Ave 3.001x108m/s
  • d. Reported 3.001x108
    .001m/s
  • Precision was .001m/s
  • 2. Accuracy- The limit to which
    the measured value agrees to the standard value.

12
  • VII. Significant digits- the number of digits,
    which are valid for any measurement.
  • A. Rules for sig figs
  • 1. Nonzero digits are always
    significant
  • 2. All final zero after the decimal
    point are significant
  • 3. Zero between to significant figures
    are significant
  • 4. Zeros used solely for the purpose
    of spacing decimal point are not significant.
  • B. The number in the problem can be no
    more precise than the least precise measurement.

13
  • VIII. Displaying data.
  • A. Line graph- most often used graph to
    record data
  • 1. Independent variable-This variable
    does not change as a result to anything
  • a. Time-X-Axis
  • 2. Dependant Variable- this is a
    variable, which responds to the values of the
    independent variable
  • a. Distance- Y-axis

14
  • IX. Plotting points
  • A. Identify the dependant and independent
    variables
  • 1. Independent is on the X- axis
  • 2. Dependant is on the Y- axis

15
  • B. Determine the range of variables to be
    plotted.
  • C. Determine if the origin is needed.
  • D. Number and label the axis
  • E. Plot the points
  • F. Draw the best possible straight line or
    smooth curve that passes through as many points
    as possible...it's not dot-to-dot.
  • G. Give the graph a title that clearly
    represents the graph.

16
  • X. Linear, quadratic and inverse functions
  • A. Linear- a straight-line function
  • 1. yMxb
  • a. M slope of the line or
  • 1.m Y2-Y1/ X2-X1
  • B. Quadratic relationships- Y kX2
  • C. inverse relationships- Y1/x or kxy

17
  • XI. manipulation for unknowns-
  • X. Units-This will determine if the problem is
    done correctly when all the units go away and you
    end up with the units its suppose to be.
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