Acids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Acids PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 852099-M2RlY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Acids

Description:

Acids & Bases Chapter 16 Students Notes Acids Characteristically have at least one hydrogen atom Examples: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 Properties of Acids tastes sour corrosive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:175
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 20
Provided by: AnnD65
Learn more at: http://campbellhighschool.typepad.com
Category:
Tags: acid | acids | bases | salt

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Acids


1
Acids BasesChapter 16Students Notes
2
Acids
  • Characteristically have at least one hydrogen
    atom
  • Examples
  • HCl, H2SO4, HNO3

3
Properties of Acids
  • tastes sour
  • corrosive can damage skin or tissue
  • feel like water, except on broken skin
  • react with an indicator (such as litmus or pH
    paper) to produce a predictable color change
  • turns blue litmus paper RED
  • react with metals to produce hydrogen gas
  • dissolves in water to form an electrolyte solution

4
Common Acids
  • Foods contain Acids
  • Citric acid in citrus fruits like oranges
  • Lactic acid in dairy products like yogurt and
    buttermilk
  • Acetic acid (vinegar) used to pickle foods
  • The stomach uses hydrochloric acid
  • Industrial Acids
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Used in car batteries and the manufacturing of
    fertilizers.
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Used to manufacture detergents, fertilizers, and
    soft drinks.
  • Nitric acid
  • Used to make fertilizers and explosives
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Used to clean steel

5
Bases
  • Characteristically forms hydroxide (OH-) ions
    in solution
  • Examples
  • KOH, NH4OH, Ca(OH)2

6
Properties of Bases
  • tastes bitter
  • many are crystalline solids in pure undissolved
    state
  • strong bases can be corrosive can damage skin
    or tissue
  • feel slippery in solution
  • react with an indicator (such as litmus or pH
    paper) to produce a predictable color change
  • turns red litmus paper BLUE
  • dissolves in water to form an electrolyte
    solution

7
Common Bases
  • Bases have different uses
  • Cleaning products
  • Medications
  • Fabrics
  • Detergents

8
Types of Acids Bases
  • Arrhenius Acids
  • substances that contain hydrogen and ionizes to
    produce hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution
  • HCl(g) ? H(aq) Cl-(aq)
  • Arrhenius Bases
  • a substance that contains a hydroxide group and
    dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in an
    aqueous solution.
  • NaOH(s) ? Na(aq) OH-(aq)
  • Bronsted-Lowry Acid
  • substance that donates a hydrogen ion
  • HF H2O ? H3O F-
  • Bronsted-Lowry Base
  • substance that accepts a hydrogen ion
  • NH3 H2O ? NH4 OH-
  • Amphoteric
  • a substance that can act as both an acid and a
    base

9
Strength of Acids Bases
  • The strength of an acid or base depends on how
    COMPLETELY a compound separates into its ions
    when dissolved in water
  • STRONG ACID
  • Almost ionized completely in solution
  • WEAK ACID
  • Partly ionizes in solution
  • STRONG BASE
  • Dissociates completely in solution
  • WEAK BASE
  • Does not ionize completely in solution
  • Strong acids and bases conduct MORE electricity
    than weak ones

10
Acid Base Equations
  • Equations for strong acids and bases use a single
    arrow, indicating ions are formed.
  • HCl H2O ? H3O Cl-
  • NaOH ? Na OH-
  • Equations for weak acids and bases use double
    arrows, pointing in opposite directions,
    indicating an incomplete reaction.
  • Ca(OH)2 ? Ca2 2OH-
  • HC2H3O2 H2O ? H3O C2H3O2-

11
Concentrations of Acids Bases
  • Dilute and concentrated are terms used to
    describe the amount of acid or base dissolved.
  • Dilute
  • few molecules of an acid or base dissolved in a
    volume of solution.
  • Concentrated
  • many molecules of an acid or base dissolved in a
    volume of solution.

12
pH
  • pH-a scale used to classify acids and bases
  • the pH scale ranges from 0-14
  • acids have a pH below 7
  • bases have a pH above 7
  • neutral substances have a pH of 7

13
Ions in solution
  • Acidic solutions have more hydrogen ions than
    hydroxide ions.
  • Basic solutions have more hydroxide ions than
    hydrogen ions.
  • Neutral solutions have an equal number of
    hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.

14
Calculating pH
  • pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion
    concentration
  • pH -log H
  • Calculate the pH of a solution having a hydrogen
    ion concentration of 1.0x10-2 M.
  • pH -log H
  • pH -log1.0 x 10-2
  • pH 2

15
Calculating pOH
  • pOH
  • the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion
    concentration
  • pOH -logOH-
  • Calculate the pOH of a solution with a hydroxide
    ion concentration of 1.0 x 10-6M.
  • pOH -logOH-
  • pOH -log1.0 x 10-6
  • pOH 6

16
Relationships between pH and pOH
  • pH pOH 14
  • pH 14 pOH
  • pOH 14 pH

17
PRACTICE CALCULATING pH
  • Calculate the pH and pOH of the a solution with a
    hydroxide ion concentration of 3.20 x 10-9 M.
  • G hydroxide ion concentration of 3.2 x 10-9 M.
  • U pH and pOH
  • E pOH -logOH and pH 14 pOH
  • S pOH -log3.20 x 10-9
  • pOH 8.49
  • pH 14 pOH
  • pH 14 8.49
  • pH 5.51

18
Neutralization
  • Neutralization
  • chemical reaction between an acid and a base in
    an aqueous solution producing a salt and water
  • a double replacement reaction.
  • Salt
  • ionic compound made up of a cation from a base
    and an anion from an acid.
  • Mg(OH)2 HCl ? MgCl2 2H2O

19
Titration
  • Titration
  • used to determine the concentration of an acidic
    or basic solution
  • A solution of known concentration is the
    standard solution.
  • An acid/base indicator is added to the unknown
    solution.
  • A color change that persists is the end point.
About PowerShow.com