This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in his left hand a small lion cub suspended by its back legs. At the top of the stele two disks are - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in his left hand a small lion cub suspended by its back legs. At the top of the stele two disks are

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This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in his left hand ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in his left hand a small lion cub suspended by its back legs. At the top of the stele two disks are


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  • This stele, made from calcium stone was found in
    two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person
    standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right
    hand, in his left hand a small lion cub suspended
    by its back legs. At the top of the stele two
    disks are shining the sun and the moon. They
    contain the following three lines engraved in
    small letters  This is the stele which PLS,
    son of Abdsis, dedicated to his master
    Chadrrapha, because he understood the voice of
    his words 
  • "Ceci est la stèle qu'a dédiée PLS, fils de
    Abdsid à son seigneur Chadrapha, parce qu'il a
    entendu la voix de ses paroles."
  • This is in the Louvre Museum

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  • Found by Mr Dunand à Byblos, this inscription is
    engraved on the neck of a large pottery vase. It
    consists of three words "Abdo, son of Kalby,
    le potter"
  • "Abdo, fils de Kalby, le potier" It is in the
    National Museum of Beirut

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  • This funerary inscription is engraved on the side
    of a marble coffin found inside the Castle of the
    Crusades in Byblos. It dates from 350 BCE. It is
    in the National Museum of Beirut.
  •  In this tomb, I Batnoam, mother of King Azbaal,
    King of Byblos, son of Pltbaal, preist of the
     Lady , I rest clothed and wearing a crown, and
    a  tôle  laminated with gold on my mouth, just
    as the Queens before me did 
  • "Dans ce sarcophage, moi Batnoam, mère du roi
    Azbaal roi de Byblos, fils de Pltbaal, prêtre de
    la "Dame", je repose dans un vêtement et une
    couronne sur moi, et une tôle laminée d'or sur ma
    bouche, comme pour les reines qui furent avant
    moi."

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  • This inscription, engraved on limestone stone,
    engraved on a stele, was discovered in Byblos
    inside the sanctuary of the Lady of Byblos, who
    is presented on it wearing a hathoric crown. In
    front of her stands the King, wearing a Perisan
    costume and hen is in an aodring pose.
  • This is in the Louvre I am Yehaumillk, king of
    Gbl, son of Yehar-Baal, grandson of Ormilk, king
    of Gbl, that the Lady of Gbl had made King on
    Gbl. And I invoked the name of my sovereign Lady
    of Gbl and she heard my voice. And for my
    soverieng Lady of Gbl I made this bronze altar
    which is found in this courtyard, as well as this
    door which is located in front of my own door and
    the winged disk of gold which is placed in the
    centre of the stone which is on this golden door,
    and this doorway and these columns, and the
    column decorations which are on them, and its
    roof. I made them. Yehaumilk, King of Gbl (all of
    it) for my dovereign Lady of Gbl, and she heard
    my voice and di me much good. May the Lady of Gbl
    bless Yehaumilk, King of Gbl, and make him live
    and prolong his days and his years on Gbl,
    because he is a just King, he is the well-being
    in the eyes of the Gods and in the eyes of the
    peopel of this earth and the well being of the
    people of this earth will appear before all the
    kings. And every man who will continue to
    accomplish his work on this altar or this door
    and on this doorway, my name Yehaumilk, King of
    Gbl, you will be able to put it beside yours on
    this work. And if you do not put my name with
    youers, or if you distance this work or move this
    courts and its foundations from this place, or
    open its lcosed lid, may the sovereign Lady of
    Gbl, destroy that man and his seed in front of
    the gods of Gbl.
  • Je suis Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl, fils de
    Yehar-Baal, fils du fils (petit-fils) d'Ormilk,
    roi de Gbl, que la Dame de Gbl a fait roi sur
    Gbl. Et j'ai invoqué ma souveraine Dame de Gbl et
    elle a écouté ma voix. Et j'ai fait pour ma
    souveraine, Dame de Gbl, cet autel de bronze, qui
    se trouve dans cette cour, et cette porte d'or
    qui se trouve devant ma propre porte et le disque
    ailé, en or qui est placée au milieu de la pierre
    qui est sur cette porte d'or, et ce portique et
    ces colonnes, et les chapiteaux qui sont sur
    elles, et son toit. J'ai fait, Yehaumilk, roi de
    Gbl, (tout cela) pour ma souveraine Dame de Gbl,
    et elle a écouté ma voix et m'a fait du bien. Que
    la Dame de Gbl bénisse Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl et
    le fasse vivre et prolonge ses jours et ses
    années sur Gbl, parce qu'il est un roi juste, et
    le bien-être aux yeux des dieux et aux yeux du
    peuple de cette terre, et que le bien-être du
    peuple de cette terre apparaisse devant tous les
    rois. Et tout homme qui continuera à accomplir
    des travaux sur cet autel ou sur cette porte d'or
    et sur ce portique, mon nom Yehaumilk, roi de
    Gbl, tu devras mettre avec le tien sur ces
    travaux. Et si tu ne mets pas le nom avec le
    tien, ou si tu éloignes cet ouvrage ou déplaces
    cette cour avec ses fondations de ce lieu, ou
    ouvres sa cachette, que la souveraine Dame de Gbl
    détruise cet homme et sa semence devant tous les
    dieux de Gbl".

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  • Engraved on limestone and bearing traces of
    another hieroglyphic inscription from Byblos. It
    consists of seven lines with points of separation
    between the words
  •  The temple that was built by Yehimil, King of
    Gbl. It is he who resotred the ruins of these
    temples. May the Lord of the sky and the Lady of
    Gbl, with the assembly of the saints of Gbl
    prolong the days oof Yehemilk and his days on Gbl
    becuas ehe is a right and just King in the sacred
    eyes of Gbl. This stele is conserved in the
    National Museum of Beirut.

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  • Found by M Dunand in 1964, this statuette of a
    child is engraved on its base with a poenicien
    inscription attesting the existence of another
    dynasty which should have succeed that of
    Eshmounazar, Tabnit, Eshmounazar II and Bad
    Astart.
  • It rperesents the gradnson of the King Baana who
    had reigned c. 430 and was offered to the god
    Eshmoun because of his healing powers. It was
    found with other broken peices thrown in a water
    basin mraculously irrigated with water by the
    holy river source  Ydlal". Its base contains
    only one line
  •  This is the statuetee which was offered to
    Baalchillem, son of the King Baana, king of the
    Sidoniens, son of King Addamn, son of King
    Baalcillem, king of the Sidoniens, in the source
    of  Ydlal . May he be blessed 
  • "Celle-ci est la statuette qu'a offerte
    Baalchillem, fils du roi Baana, roi des
    Sidoniens, fils du roi Abdamn, roi des Sidoniens,
    fils du roi Baalchillem, roi des Sidoniens, à son
    dieu Eshmoun, en la source de "Ydlal. Qu'il
    benisse." It is conserved in the National
    Museum of Beirut.

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No inscription
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  • The sarcophagus of Ahexs. (XIII-XII)
  • Exhumed in 1923 by P. Montet from the necropole
    of Byblos, this sarcohpagus presents a doule
    interest due to the ornations which decorate its
    sides as well as the pheonicien inscription it
    bears, part of which is engraved on a small side
    of the cuve and the rest of it on the large
    side of the lid. This inscription, which for the
    first time ever used the 22 characters of the
    pheonician alphabet in their intial form, is the
    prototype of all the actual alphabets. Resting
    on 4 lions lying prostrate  en ronde bosse ,
    this sarcophagus is decorated, in its upper part,
    with a girland of lotus with people carrying
    offeriengs. ON the large side, the King is sat on
    a throne flanked by winged sphinxes in one hand
    he is hold a cup whilst a flower falls from the
    other in front of him is a table maden with
    offerings and behind him one sees the advancement
    of a procession of people carrying offerings or
    lifting their arms in a sing of hommage. On the
    small sides, for mounrners are rpezresented in an
    attitude of distress, they have ripped the top of
    their gowns and are pulling their hair. The
    pheoncian text, which begins on the small right
    side of the cuve and continues on the lid, above
    the main scene, read from right to left, as
    follows (on the cuve)  The sarcophagus made
    by Ithobaal, son of Ahiram, king of Gbl, for
    Ahiram, his father, as his home in eternity 
  • Sarcophage qu'a fait Ithobaal, fils d'Ahiram, roi
    de Gbl, pour Ahiram, son père, comme sa demeure
    dans l'éternité".
  • (on the lid)  And if a King amongst Kings,
    governors amongst governors, set up camp against
    Gbl and move this sarcophagus, the sceptre of his
    power will be broken, the throne of his royalty
    will be overturned and peace with reign on Gbl.
    With regard to him, his memory will be wiped out
    from the mouth of the almighty above and beyond.
  • (sur le couvercle) "Et si un roi parmi les rois,
    gouverneurs parmi les gouverneurs, dresse le camp
    contre Gbl et déplace ce sarcophage, le sceptre
    de son pouvoir sera brisé, le trône de sa royauté
    se renversera et la paix régnera sur Gbl. Quant à
    lui, sa mémoire sera effacée de la bouche de
    l'Au-delà." This sarcophagus, of which the
    cultural significance passes all estimation, is
    conserved in the National Museum of Beirut.

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  • Sarcophage d'Eshmounazar II
  • This sarcophagus was found in 1855 in the same
    necropole in which his father Tibnit was
    discovered. The pheonician inscription,
    considered to be the longest funerary
    inscription, is engraved in 22 lines and
    beautiful letters, relating how the King, having
    governed under the regency of his mother, died in
    the 14th year of his reign, in other words at the
    beginning of the 5th century BCE. In the month
    of Boul, in the 14the year of his reign, the King
    Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, son of King
    Tabnit, King of the Sidonians. Thus spoke the
    King Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, saying
    I was ripped out, not in my time, son of a few
    orphaned days, son of a widow, and I rest in this
    ciffin in this tomb, in this place that I built.
    Whoever you are, every king and every man, it is
    forbiddne to open this place of rest , nothing
    must be searched for inside, becuase nothing has
    been placed inside and you must not disover the
    coffin of my resting place adn you must not move
    me from this resting place to another resting
    place. Furthermore, if men advise you to do this
    you must listen to them, because every king and
    every man who discovers this place of rest, or
    who lift the sarcophagus of my place of rest, or
    who transport me from this place of rest, may the
    y neve rhave a resting place amonst the manes,
    and may they enever be interred in a tomb,, and
    may they never have a son and other descendnants
    to whom it can be done in their place, and they
    will deliver the two holy gods to a powerful king
    who will reign over them in such a way that he
    breaks them into pieces, king or man who opens
    this place of rest or who discovers this
    sarcophagus, and the progeny of such a king or
    such a man they will never possess either a root
    towards the lower world nor a fruit of the higher
    world, neither na appearance amongst the living
    beings under the sun. Becuase I, dignified with
    pity, I have been ripped out, not in my time, son
    of very few days, orphan, son of a widow, that I
    am
  • Because I am Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians,
    son of the King Tabnit, King of the Sidonians,
    gradson of the King Eshmounazar, king of the
    Sidonians, and my mother is EmAstart, priestess
    of Astart our patron, the queen daughter of King
    Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, we who have
    built the temple of the gods, the temple of
    Astart, in Sidon earth of the sea, and who made
    Astart live there, in glorifying him. And we are
    those who have built a temple at Eshmoum, holy
    prince, at the source of the sacred spring N-Ydll
    (Yidlal) ner the cistern on the mountain and we
    have made him live there in glorifying him. And
    we are those who have built the temples to the
    Sidonian Gods in Sidon land of the sea a temple
    for Baal Sidon, and a temple for Astart Nom of
    Baal.And moreover, we have given, the King of
    Kings, Dor and Jaffa, the lands of superb wheat
    which are in the plains of Sharon, for the
    powerful actions I have done. And we have joined
    them to the frontiers of the land, so that they
    belong to the Sidonians forever. WHoever you are,
    every king every man, it is completely forbiddne
    to move me from this place, and you must not take
    the coffin of my place of rest, otherwise the
    holy gods will condemn and cut that king or that
    man from his progeny for ever.." This
    sarcophagus, which originally carried a
    hieroglyphic text was replaced at a later date by
    this pheonician inscription, was offered by the
    Ottoman sultan to the emperor Napoleon III and is
    presently conserved in the Museum of the Louvre.

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  • At a site called "The Cavern of Apollo" southeast
    of the city, was discovered one of the royal
    necropolises of Achaemenid Persian Sidon,
    consisting of a number of subterranean funerary
    chambers cut into the rock and accessible through
    vertical shafts. They housed marble sarcophagi
    imported from Greece. Most of these are
    anthropoid (i.e. made in the shape of a mummy),
    following a model from pharaonic Egypt, but the
    face is treated in a Greek style. Sarcophagi of
    this type have been found in the necropolises of
    most Phoenician cities on the coast of Lebanon,
    on Cyprus, and in the Phoenician colonies of the
    Western Mediterranean. They are works of high
    quality produced for a social élite, probably by
    Greek artists. The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar and
    that of his father Tabnit (discovered at another
    necropolis) are, however, an exception, being
    recycled Egyptian work the stone comes from
    Egypt and the style of both face and body is
    Egyptian. Only a long inscription in both cases
    allows them to be identified as belonging to a
    king of Sidon.

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  • "Au mois de Boul, en l'année dix et quatre de son
    règne, le roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens,
    fils du roi Tabnit, roi des Sidoniens. A parlé le
    roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens (ainsi)
    disant J'ai été arraché, pas en mon temps, fils
    de peu de jours orphelin, fils de veuve, et je
    repose dans ce cercueil et dans cette tombe, dans
    le lieu que j'ai bâti. Qui que tu sois, tout roi
    et tout homme, il ne doit pas ouvrir ce lieu de
    repos et il ne doit rien rechercher dedans, car
    on n'a rien mis dedans et il ne doit pas
    découvrir le cercueil de mon lieu de repos, et il
    ne doit pas me transporter de ce lieu de repos à
    un autre lieu de repos. Aussi, si les hommes te
    conseillent, n'écoute pas leurs conseils, car
    tout roi et tout homme qui découvrent ce lieu de
    repos, ou qui soulèvent le sarcophage de mon lieu
    de repos, ou qui me transportent de ce lieu de
    repos, qu'ils n'aient pas de lieu de repos parmi
    les mânes et ils ne seront pas mis enterrés dans
    une tombe, et ils n'auront pas de fils et de
    progéniture à leur place, et les livreront les
    dieux saints à un roi puissant qui régnera sur
    eux de telle sorte qu'il les mette en pièces, roi
    ou homme qui ouvre ce lieu de repos ou qui
    découvre ce sarcophage, et la progéniture de ce
    roi ou de cet homme ils ne posséderont ni une
    racine vers le bas, ni un fruit vers le haut, ni
    une apparence parmi les vivants sous le soleil.
    Car moi, digne de pitié, j'ai été arraché, pas en
    mon temps, fils de peu de jours, orphelin, fils
    de veuve je suis car je suis Eshmounazar, roi
    des Sidoniens, fils du roi Tabnit, roi des
    Sidoniens, fils du fils (petit-fils) du roi
    Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens, et ma mère est
    EmAstart, prêtresse de Astart notre patronne, la
    reine fille du roi Eshmounazar, roi des
    Sidoniens, nous qui avons bâti le temple des
    dieux le temple d'Astart, dans Sidon terre de la
    mer, et qui avons fait habiter Astart, là-bas, en
    la glorifiant. Et nous sommes ceux qui avons bâti
    un temple à Eshmoum, prince saint, à N-Ydll sur
    la montagne et nous l'avons fait habiter là en le
    glorifiant. Et nous sommes ceux qui avons bâti
    les temples aux dieux des Sidoniens dans Sidon
    terre de la mer un temple pour Baal Sidon, et un
    temple pour Astart Nom de Baal. Et en outre, nous
    a donné, le roi des rois, Dor et Jaffa, les
    terres de blé superbe qui sont dans la plaine de
    Sharon, pour les puissantes actions que j'ai
    faites. Et nous les avons adjointes aux
    frontières de la terre, pour qu'elles
    appartiennent aux Sidoniens pour toujours. Qui
    que tu sois, tout roi et tout homme, il ne doit
    pas me transporter de ce lieu de repos, et il ne
    doit pas enlever le cercueil de mon lieu de
    repos, afin que ne le livrent les dieux saints et
    ne coupent ce roi ou cet homme et leur
    progéniture pour toujours."

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Where was it found?
22
Biography
  • Legend has it that Eshmoun was a young man of
    Beirut who loved to hunt. The goddess Astarte
    fell in love with him, but to escape her advances
    he mutilated himself and died. Not to be outdone,
    Astarte brought him back to life in the form of a
    god. It is also said that the village of the
    young gods tomb.
  • Known primarily as a god of healing, Eshmouns
    death and resurrection also gave him the role of
    a fertility god who dies and is reborn annually.
  • As the god of healing, Eshmoun was identified
    with Asklepios, the Greek god of medical art.

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  • Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II, king of
    SidonAchaemenid Persian period, first quarter of
    5th century BCNecropolis of Magharat Abloun,
    Sidon, LebanonSculpture, amphibolite from
    Hammamat Valley, EgyptH. 2.56 m W. 1.25
    mPérétié excavations, 1855 purchased by the Duc
    de Luynes and presented to the Louvre that same
    year

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  • Sarcophage de Tabnit (503-501)
  • This anthropoid sarcophagus in balc stone, was
    discovered in Sadia in 1887. It contained an
    Egyptian inscription engraved on the front cover
    and the base proving that it must have been used
    at one time as the tomb of an Egyptian general,
    following which is engraved a pheonician name,
    that of Tabnit  I, Tabnit, proest of Astart,
    King of the Sidonians, son of Eshmounazar, priest
    of Astart, King of the Sidonians, I rest in this
    sarcophagus, never open it, never, on me and
    never disturb me, becuase they have not have not
    left a pile of money next to me they hav not
    collected lots of gold next to me, nor
    something.there is only me, only I who rests in
    this sarcophagus. Never open it, never on me and
    never disturb me becuase that act would be an act
    of abomination for Astart. But if truly you open
    it on me and truly you disturb me, there will be
    no suucessors from you amongst the living under
    the sun nor a place of rest amongst the souls of
    the dead.
  • "Moi, Tabnit, prêtre de Astart, roi des
    Sidoniens, fils d'Eshmounazar, prêtre de Astart,
    roi des Sidoniens, je repose dans ce sarcophage,
    n'ouvre point, point, sur moi et ne me dérange
    point, car ils n'ont pas amassé près de moi de
    l'argent ils n'ont pas amassé près de moi de
    l'or, ni quelque chose... seulement moi je repose
    dans ce sarcophage. N'ouvre point, point sur moi
    et ne me dérange point car cet acte est une
    abomination pour Astart. Mais si vraiment tu
    ouvres sur moi et vraiment tu me déranges, qu'il
    n'y ait point pour toi de progéniture parmi les
    vivants sous le soleil ni un lieu de repos parmi
    les âmes des morts." This sarcophagus is
    conserved in the Museumof Istanbul.

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  • Trouvée dans l'aire du temple de Baalat- Gbl, "La
    Dame de Byblos", cette spatule comporte six
    lignes de phénicien qui sont difficiles à
    traduire. Albright y voyait un texte magique,
    d'autres spécialistes, en revanche, la prennent
    pour une lettre d'affaire ou un document
    juridique ... Y pour ZRBL, quatre-vingt-dix
    "SLM" comme paiement en argent que j'ai reçu. Si
    tu les prends réellement, c'est ton du et le
    mien". Cette spatule est conservée au Musée
    National de Beyrouth.

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  • The stela of Nahr el-Kalb, the Lycus or Dog
    River, sum up the entire history of Lebanon, from
    High Antiquity to the present, evoking clearly
    the successive advances of the Pharaonic,
    Assyro-Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Arab, French and
    British armies which braved all the obstacles
    surrounding this difficult and very steep
    crossing point to carve commemorative stela on
    the rocks.

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