DO NOW!! ? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – DO NOW!! ? PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 851dd9-ZmVkY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

DO NOW!! ?

Description:

DO NOW!! What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? Why do plants need sunlight? What gases are exchanged between plants and animals? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:38
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: Jacly9
Category:
Tags: now | acetyl | animation

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: DO NOW!! ?


1
DO NOW!! ?
  • What is the difference between an autotroph and a
    heterotroph?
  • Why do plants need sunlight?
  • What gases are exchanged between plants and
    animals?

2
Overview Of Photosynthesis
3
Objectives
  • To be able to list the inputs and outputs of
    photosynthesis.
  • To be able to identify the structures in a
    chloroplast.
  • To be able to summarize light-dependent reactions.

4
Photosynthesis
  • Process of converting light energy to chemical
    energy!!
  • Used by autotrophs to produce food
  • All of our energy starts as light energy!
  • Plants use sunlight to make food? animals eat
    plants? other animals eat those animals

5
Photosynthetic Organisms
  • Go through Photosynthesis to produce GLUCOSE
  • Autotrophs
  • Producers in the food web
  • Consist of plants, protists, cyanobacteria

6
Photosynthesis The Chemical Equation
7
Overview of Phases
  • 1) Light dependent
  • Light energy is absorbed and converted into
    chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.
    (also produces oxygen as byproduct!)
  • 2) Light independent (Calvin Cycle)
  • CO2 ATP and NADPH (from light dependent) are used
    to make glucose.

Glucose is the basic building block for more
complex sugars such as starch.
8
Do Now!! ?
  • What are the two phases of photosynthesis?
  • What are the inputs and outputs of each phase?
  • What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?

9
Objectives
  • To go over the steps of light dependent reactions
  • To understand the inputs and outputs of light
    dependent reactions
  • To label a light reactions diagram

10
Phase Overview
11
The Chloroplast
12
Structures within a chloroplast
  • Thylakoids
  • flattened sac-like membranes arranged in stacks
    (stacks are called grana).
  • Light-dependent reactions take place here.
  • Electron transport occurs in the thylakoid
    membrane
  • Stroma
  • Fluid filled space outside the grana.
  • Light-independent reactions take place here.

13
Do Now!! ?
  • What is the equation for photosynthesis?
  • Where do light dependent reactions take place?
    Independent?
  • What are the inputs of light dependent reactions?
    The outputs?

14
Objectives
  • To go over the steps of light dependent reactions
  • To understand the inputs and outputs of light
    dependent reactions
  • To label a light reactions diagram

15
Diagram!
  • Please grab 6 different colors!!
  • Lets label our light dependent reactions diagram.

16
Light Dependent Reactions
  • Step 1 Light energy reaches photosytem II,
    exciting electrons and causing water molecule to
    split.
  • - H is released, stays in thylakoid space.
  • - O2 is given off as a byproduct.
  • - Electron released into electron transport system

17
Light Dependent Reactions
  • Step 2 Excited electrons move from photosystem
    II through the membrane
  • As they move, protons (H) are pumped into
    thylakoid space

18
Light Dependent Reaction
  • Step 3 At photosystem I, electrons are
    re-energized and transferred to ferrodoxin
    (helper protein)
  • NADPH (energy storage molecule) is formed from
    NADP (we need this for the Calvin Cycle!)

19
Light Dependent Reactions
  • Step 5 Hydrogen ions move through the ATP
    Synthase because of the concentration gradient,
    creating ATP from ADP. (Chemiosmosis)

20
Do Now!! ?
  • What goes into a light dependent reaction?
  • What is the goal of a light dependent reaction?
  • What is given off as a byproduct?
  • What is the name of the protein that converts
    NADP to NADPH?

21
Objectives
  • To review light dependent reactions
  • To introduce light independent reactions by
    completing a Calvin Cycle activity

22
Think-pair-share
  • Please work on the worksheet in front of you!
  • Try it by yourself, then you may work with a
    partner.

23
Light Dependent Reactions
  • http//www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/B
    io231/ltrxn.html
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vjoZ1EsA5_NY

24
Do Now!! ?
  • Please take out the light dependent worksheet
    from yesterday!

25
Objectives
  • To identify the stages of light independent
    reactions
  • To identify alternative pathways
  • To define C4 and CAM plants

26
The Calvin Cycle
  • Takes place in the STROMA
  • Uses NADPH and ATP from Phase I (light dependent
    reactions)
  • Needs CO2!!!
  • Produces GLUCOSE!!

27
Calvin Cycle
  • Functions like a sugar factory within a
    chloroplast
  • Regenerates the starting material with each turn

28
Calvin Cycle
  • Inputs
  • ATP
  • NADPH
  • CO2
  • Outputs
  • Glucose

29
Calvin Cycle
30
Chemiosmosis
  • Mechanism in which ATP is produced as a result
    from the flow of electrons down a concentration
    gradient.
  • Ex Light reactions (H ions and ATP synthase)

31
Alternative Pathways
  • Light and Water can limit the amount of
    photosynthesis a plant can perform.
  • Some plants develop alternate pathways to
    maximize energy conservation.
  • Ex CAM and C4 plants.

32
C4 Plants
  • These plants minimize water lost
  • Turn CO2 into a 4 carbon molecule instead of a 3
    carbon molecule
  • Keeps stomata (plant cell pores) closed during
    hot days
  • Ex. Corn and Sugar Cane

33
CAM Plants
  • Occurs in water-conserving plants that live in
    deserts and other arid environments
  • Stomata ALWAYS closed during the day
  • CO2 only enters leaves at night, turns into a
    storage molecule until daytime
  • Ex. Orchids, cacti, pineapples

34
Do Now!! ?
  • How does our body make energy?
  • What are the outputs of photosynthesis?
  • What do you think the outputs of cellular
    respiration are?

35
Objectives (Period 1 2)
  • To compare and contrast photosynthesis and
    cellular respiration
  • To identify the inputs and outputs of cellular
    respiration
  • To define NADH and FADH2
  • To complete a cellular respiration exercise lab!

36
Objectives (Period 6)
  • To compare and contrast photosynthesis and
    cellular respiration
  • To identify the inputs and outputs of cellular
    respiration
  • To define NADH and FADH2

37
So, what is cellular respiration?
38
How does cellular respiration compare to
photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis Cell Respiration
CO2 H2O light O2 C6H12O6
O2 C6H12O6 CO2 H2O ATP
CO2 H2O Light ? O2 C6H12O6 O2 C6H12O6 ? CO2 H2O ATP
Inputs
Outputs
Chemical Formula
39
All cells require energy to do work
  • Aerobic NEEDS OXYGEN!!
  • In aerobic respiration we use oxygen to help
    release the energy stored in bonds.
  • Anaerobic does NOT require oxygen

40
NADH and FADH2
  • FADH2 (Riboflavin)
  • FADH2 FAD 2 H 2e-
  • B2 Vitamin
  • Accepts 2 electrons
  • NADH (Niacin)
  • NADH NAD H 2e-
  • B3 Vitamin
  • Accepts 2 electrons

These are electron carriers!
41
Lets try some sample math problems before we
begin
  • Spongebob is selling Krabby patties. He paid 2
    dollars per Krabby patty and is selling each at 7
    dollars. How much NET profit is Spongebob making
    if he sells 1 Krabby patty?
  • 10 Krabby patties?

42
Steps of Cellular Respiration
  • Step 1 Glycolysis (anaerobic, cytoplasm)
  • Step 2 Krebs Cycle (aerobic, mitochondrial
    matrix)
  • Step 3 Electron Transport Chain (aerobic,
    mitochondrial membrane)

43
(No Transcript)
44
Lets color code
  • Please take out your diagrams and grab 2 colored
    pencils!

45
Glycolysis
  •  

46
Glycolysis (continued)
  • 4. 4 molecules of ADP are used to make 4 ATP, and
    G3P compounds are converted into 2 molecules of
    Pyruvate.
  • 5. The net total being 2 ATP molecules
  • http//highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/s
    tudent_view0/chapter25/animation__how_glycolysis_w
    orks.html

47
Do Now!! ?
  • If there was a net gain of 28 ATP in glycolysis,
    how many glucose molecules were consumed?
  • If 18 NADH are produced, how many ATP are gained?
    How many glucose molecules are consumed?
  • What are the outputs of glycolysis?

48
Objectives
49
The Krebs Cycle
  • Please take out your diagrams and grab 2 colors!

50
The Krebs Cycle
  1. Pyruvate first reacts with coenzyme A (CoA),
    forms acetyl CoA. CO2 is released and NAD
    converts to NADH.
  2. Acetyl CoA combines with 4 carbon compound, forms
    6 carbon citric acid.

51
The Krebs Cycle (continued)
  • Citric acid broken down, releasing CO2 and
    forming ATP, NADH and FADH2
  • 4 carbon compound regenerated, cycle continues
  • Total ATP produced 2 (cycles twice, once for
    each pyruvate!)

52
Sooo
  • Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
  • Why are there 2 total ATP produced instead of 1?
  • What happens to the NADH and FADH2 produced?
  • If 6 FADH2 are produced in the Krebs cycle, how
    many glucose molecules did you start with?

53
Electron Transport Chain
  • Please take out your diagrams and grab 2 colors!!

54
Electron Transport Chain
  1. NADH and FADH2 release electrons, converted into
    NAD and FAD (H released into the mitochondrial
    matrix).
  2. H ions are pumped across inner mitochondrial
    membrane as electrons move along membrane (with
    the help of proteins).

55
Electron Transport Chain (continued)
  • 3. Oxygen is final electron acceptor (protons and
    electrons combine with oxygen to form water).
  • 4. H ions then diffuse back into matrix through
    ATP synthase (chemiosmosis), producing 32 ATP.

Total ATP produced for one molecule of glucose
36 ATP molecules
56
Soooo
  • Where does the electron transport chain take
    place?
  • How many ATP are produced?
  • How many total molecules of ATP are produced for
    one molecule of glucose?
About PowerShow.com