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Domain III Life Science

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Title: Domain III Life Science


1
Domain III Life Science
2
Cells
  • Unicellular Organisms one cell
  • Example Bacteria, some Protists
  • Multicellular Organisms more than one cell
  • Example All animals and plants.
  • These organisms are arranged in levels of
    organization

3
(No Transcript)
4
Characteristics of living organisms and the Cell
Theory
  • Cell Theory states
  • All living things are made of cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    function in organisms.
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  • Make it simple
  • all organisms must metabolize energy,
    reproduce, grow, move, respond, and generally
    have complex organization.

5
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Simple cellular organization with no nucleus or
    other membrane-bound organelles.
  • Example Bacteria
  • Diseases caused by bacteria Cholera, diphtheria,
    Dysentery, Tetanus, MRSA, Strep Throat, Tooth
    Decay.

6
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Domain Eukarya
  • Found in 4 kingdoms
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia (Cell Shown)

7
Eukaryotic Cells Complex Cellular Organization
Eukaryote True nucleus
  • Organelles
  • Nucleus DNA/Chromosomes
  • Rough ER Protein Synthesis (ribosomes attached)
  • Smooth ER lipids synthesis
  • Golgi Apparatus packaging shipping
  • Mitochondria ATP production
  • Ribosomes Protein Synthesis
  • Peroxisome involved in hydrogen peroxide
    synthesis and degradation

8
Ribosomes site of protein synthesis a.k.a.
translation
Ribosomes are Not membrane-bound Bacteria have
them Too!
9
What is unique to
  • Animal Cells
  • Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes.
  • Centrioles used in cellular division.
  • Plant Cells
  • Chloroplast site of photosynthesis
  • Cell Wall formed of proteins and cellulose and
    lies outside of the plasma membrane
  • Vacuole huge storage compartment for water and
    starch

10
Questions for you to answer 1
  • What is a difference between prokaryotes and
    eukaryotes?
  • A. Eukaryotes have a nuclear membrane and
    therefore a nucleus.
  • B. Organelles are found only in prokaryotes.
  • C. The cells of prokaryotes only contain
    cytoplasm.
  • D. Prokaryotes contain an endoplasmic
    reticulum.

11
Question 2
  • A disease not caused by bacteria
  • A. Tetanus
  • B. Strep Throat
  • C. Dysentery
  • D. HIV

12
Question 3
  • Match the function to the organelle
  • Ribosome A. Packaging
  • Mitochondria B. Lipid Synthesis
  • Smooth ER C. Protein Synthesis
  • Golgi Apparatus D. Cellular Respiration

13
Question 3
  • Match the function to the organelle
  • Ribosome A. Packaging
  • Mitochondria B. Lipid Synthesis
  • Smooth ER C. Protein Synthesis
  • Golgi Apparatus D. Cellular Respiration

C
D
B
A
14
Membrane Structure Phospholipid Bilayer
15
InNOut No energy required
  • Passive Transport relies on thermal energy of
    matter and the cell does not work (No energy
    ATP used High Concentration to Low
    Concentration). Four types
  • Diffusion (usually solutes)
  • Facilitated Diffusion membrane enzyme carries
    the substance
  • Osmosis diffusion of WATER across a
    semi-permeable membrane (usually solvent due to
    solute concentration)
  • Bulk flow movement of fluids affected by
    pressure.

16
Cellular Transport
  • Active Transport Requires energy
  • Membrane Pumps moves materials opposite to
    diffusion or against the gradient.
  • Endocytosis Two types
  • Phagocytosis solids (phag eat)
  • Pinocytosis liquids (pino drink)
  • Exocytosis expel materials from the cell

17
ENDOCYTOSIS
(exocytosis is pretty much the opposite)
18
Question 4
  • The use of transport vesicles and energy to move
    large solid materials into a cell is called?
  • A. Bulk Flow
  • B. Exocytosis
  • C. Phagocytosis
  • D. Osmosis

19
Question 5
  • Which of the following is an example of osmosis?
  • A. The movement of ions from an area of high
    concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  • B. The movement of ions from an area of low
    concentration to an area of higher concentration.
  • C. The movement of water from an area of high
    concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  • D. The movement of water from an area of low
    concentration to an area of higher concentration.

20
Question 6
  • What happens to a cell when particles move out of
    the cell through facilitated diffusion?
  • A. The cell gains energy.
  • B. The cell uses energy.
  • C. No energy change takes place.
  • D. The cell produces energy.

21
Photosynthesis
Water and nutrients(via the roots)
Sugar(to rest of the plant)
Carbon dioxide gas(through stomata)
22
Photosynthesis Equationfollow the money, I
mean carbon
23
Photosynthesis First Stage
  • Light Dependent Reactions
  • The captured light energy is transferred to
    electrons that come from H2O and O2 is the
    byproduct.
  • ATP is produced

24
Second Stage of Photosynthesis
  • Light Independent Reactions
  • Energized electrons are transferred to CO2 to
    form glucose in the Calvin Cycle.
  • Autotrophs use the energy from the sun to make
    organic compounds and are the basis of all
    terrestrial and most aquatic food chains.

25
Cellular Respiration
  • Highly energized electrons stored temporarily in
    glucose are removed (oxidation reactions) in a
    stepwise fashion to maximize energy captured at
    each step (and avoid blowing things up).
  • All organisms must use energy and the energy is
    in the form of ATP.

26
Mitochondrion
6CO2 12H2O
C6H12O6 6O2 6H2O
27
ATP Structure
Adenine
Phosphate groups
O
CH2
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
Ribose
The chemical structure of adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), and a space filling molecule (right).
Phosphate groups
28
Stage 1 Glycolysis
  • Anaerobic process in the cytoplasm in which
    glucose is oxidized to two pyruvates. Both
    pyruvates are 3-Carbon.
  • All organisms complete glycolysis using enzymes.

29
Step 2 Krebs Cycle
  • Occurs in the Mitochondria
  • Aerobic process that oxidizes pyruvate to CO2 and
    H are released to Hydrogen acceptor molecules.

30
Stage 3 Electron Transport Chain oxidative
phosphorylation
  • Electrons from the hydrogen are used to create a
    chemical gradient resulting in an osmotic
    gradient that is used to resynthesize ATP from
    ADP 1P
  • After electrons are used they are transferred to
    Oxygen to form H2O.

31
Relationship between Photosynthesis and Cellular
Respiration
32
Question 7
  • What two products of photosynthesis are reactants
    in cellular respiration?
  • A. Glucose and oxygen
  • B. Glucose and water
  • C. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • D. Sunlight and oxygen

33
Question 8
  • In what stage of photosynthesis is the molecule
    CO2 fixed in to the energy molecule glucose?
  • A. Glycolysis
  • B. Krebs Cycle
  • C. Calvin Cycle
  • D. Light Dependent Reactions

34
Question 9
  • Which stage of cellular respiration occurs in all
    organisms under anaerobic conditions?
  • A. Glycolysis
  • B. Krebs Cycle
  • C. Electron Transport Chain
  • D. Calvin Cycle

35
Question 10
  • What organelles are the locations of the
    processes of photosynthesis and cellular
    respiration?
  • A. Chloroplast and Ribosomes
  • B. Chloroplast and Golgi Apparatus
  • C. Chloroplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • D. Chloroplast and Mitochondria

36
DNA and RNA
  • Chromosomes,
  • Genes,
  • and Protein Synthesis

37
  • Structural differences between DNA and RNA
    include

38
DNA
39
(No Transcript)
40
RNA - Facts
  • RNA is a single strand with sugar phosphate
    repeating units that is coded directly from a
    gene on the DNA molecule. There are three types
    of RNA molecules
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) coded from the DNA
    carrying the sequence for a protein.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries the
  • amino acids to the ribosomes
  • and contains the anticodon sequence
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) located in the ribosomes
    and helps bind the other two types of RNA during
    protein synthesis.

41
DNA Replication(Semiconservative)
  • allows cells to pass genetic information on to
    offspring.
  • Errors in the process results in mutations.
  • Remember A T and G C.

The letter C fits into The letter G like
they are cuddling.
Mnemonic
42
  • DNA is unwound by an enzyme, DNA helicase.
  • New pieces of DNA are formed from free nucleotide
    units joined together by enzymes.
  • The free nucleotides (yellow) are matched up to
    complementary nucleotides in the original strand
    by DNA polymerase.
  • Each new strand winds with its template strand
    into two new DOUBLE HELIXES. SEMI-CONSERVATIVE

43
Question 11
  • The functional unit of both DNA and RNA is the
    nucleotide. What comprises the nucleotide?
  • A. Sugar, Protein, and a Base
  • B. Sugar, Phosphate, and a Base
  • C. Sugar, Protein, and a Ribosome
  • D. Sugar, Phosphate, and a Ribosome

44
Question 12
  • Which sequence of bases will pair with the base
    sequence CTAGGATTC in a DNA molecule?
  • A. GATCCTAAG
  • B. ATGTTGCCA
  • C. CTAGGATTC
  • D. GAATCCTAG

45
Question 13
  • The enzyme responsible for the attaching of new
    nucleotides to form new strands during DNA
    replication is?
  • A. DNA helicase
  • B. DNA pairase
  • C. DNA polymerase
  • D. DNA replicase

46
Question 14
  • Which RNA molecule has the anticodon sequence?
  • A. Messenger
  • B. Transfer
  • C. Ribosomal
  • D. DNA

47
Protein Synthesis 2 steps
  • Transcription nucleus
  • DNA ? mRNA
  • Translation cytoplasm
  • mRNA ? rRNA ? tRNA ? protein

48
GENE to PROTEIN RELATIONSHIP
49
  • The central dogma of molecular biology for the
    past 50 years has stated that genetic
    information, encoded in DNA, is transcribed into
    molecules of RNA, which are then translated into
    the amino acid sequences that make up proteins.
    This simple view is still useful.
  • The nature of a protein determines its role in
    the cell.
  • Reverse transcription is carried out by some RNA
    viruses.It converts viral RNA into DNA, whichis
    incorporated into the hosts genome.

Amino acid
tRNA
50
Transcription occurs in the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells. DNA nucleotide sequence ?
mRNA
  • Steps
  • Messenger (m)RNA is copied from DNA, by unzipping
    a portion of the DNA helix that corresponds to a
    gene using RNA polymerase.
  • Only one side of the DNA will be transcribed, and
    nucleotides with the proper bases (A with U and C
    with G) will be sequenced to build mRNA.
  • mRNA leaves the nucleus.

51
Translation occurs in the cytoplasm with
ribosomes forming proteinsmRNA ? rRNA ? tRNA ?
proteins
  • Steps
  • mRNA attached to a ribosome
  • tRNA molecules pick up an amino acid and carry
    them to the ribosome.
  • tRNA anticodon and the mRNA codon join together
  • As the amino acid chain lengthens enzymes form
    peptide bonds between amino acids.
  • The tRNA exit to locate a new amino acid and this
    process continues until the stop codon is reached.

52
Overview of Protein Synthesis
Transcription DNA to mRNA
Translation mRNA to protein
53
Question 15
  • DNA ? RNA ? Protein ( trait)
  • In the diagram above, what is the function of
    RNA?
  • A. Carry the set of instructions that
    replicates another DNA molecule in the protein
    chain.
  • B. Carry the set of instructions that places
    amino acids in the protein chain.
  • C. Carry the set of instructions that places
    phosphate molecules in the protein chain.
  • D. Carry the set of instructions that bonds
    hydrogen to the protein chain

54
Question 16
  • What is the process in which mRNA is coded from
    the DNA and in what part of an eukaryotic cell
    does it occur?
  • A. Transcription, Nucleus
  • B. Transcription, Cytoplasm
  • C. Translation, Nucleus
  • D. Translation, Cytoplasm

55
Question 17
  • Looking at the picture to the right, what type of
    RNA is shown?
  • A. mRNA
  • B. tRNA
  • C. rRNA
  • D. sRNA

56
Question 18
  • The DNA sequence, GATTACACG, would code which of
    the following mRNA sequence?
  • A. CTAATGTGC
  • B. CTUUTGTGC
  • C. CATATGTGC
  • D. CUAAUGUGC

57
Question 19
  • What process is being shown in the diagram to the
    left?
  • A. Transcription
  • B. Translation
  • C. Replication
  • D. Selection

58
Mutations
  • Any random, permanent change in the DNA molecule.
    Many are harmful, some have no effect, and some
    benefit the organism. Nature selects those
    mutations that are beneficial or adaptive in
    organisms to help shape the course of evolution.
  • DNA sequence GCATACCA
  • Types of mutations
  • Deletion lost base ? GCTACCA
  • Duplication extra copies ? GCATCATACCA
  • Inversion backwards ? CGATACCA

59
Question 20
  • If the DNA sequence was ATGCTGGC, what type of
    mutation is shown in the following sequence,
    ATGCGCTGGC,
  • A. Deletion
  • B. Duplication
  • C. Inversion
  • D. Replication

60
Classification
  • The Science of Taxonomy

61
5 Kingdom vs 6 Kingdom
older
  • 5 Kingdoms Monera (prokaryotic), Protista
    (eukaryotic), Fungi (eukaryotic), Plantae
    (eukaryotic), Animalia (eukaryotic)
  • 6Kingdoms Eubacteria (prokaryotic),
    Archaebacteria (prokaryotic), Protista
    (eukaryotic), Fungi (eukaryotic), Plantae
    (eukaryotic), Animalia (eukaryotic)
  • Cell Wall Present (Chitin in Fungi and
    Cellulose in Plantae)
  • What is the difference Monera has been split
    into the Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
  • What no Viruses?

old
62
AP Bio Book 2007 says
  • 3 domains
  • Bacteria, Archaebacteria, Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote Domain has four Kingdoms
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

63
VIRUSES
64
Viruses
  • Viruses are either a segment of DNA or RNA with a
    protein coat and are acellular. (Does not meet
    the life processes it is not alive no cells)
  • Infection pattern of viruses is either lytic or
    lysogenic. Lysogenic pattern has a dormancy
    stage.
  • Vaccinations is the most effective defense
    against viral infections. Antibiotics CANNOT
    treat viral infections.
  • Viral Diseases AIDS, Chickenpox, Common Cold,
    Hepatitis, Flu, Measles, Mumps, Polio, Rabies,
    Smallpox, Warts, Avian Flu, and West Nile Virus.
  • Viruses that infect bacteria are Bacteriophage.

65
Virus Life Cycle
Lytic viruses are like Terrorists they Destroy
the cell as They replicate by the Thousands and
leave.
Lysogenic viruses Are like sleeper cells They
hang out and Replicate invisibly
66
Question 21
  • How are viruses different from living organisms?
  • A. Viruses have no DNA or RNA.
  • B. Viruses use host cells to reproduce.
  • C. Viruses contain no proteins.
  • D. Viruses can be killed by antibiotics.

67
Question 22
  • Which kingdom is a decomposer and has a cell wall
    composed of chitin?
  • A. Protista
  • B. Animalia
  • C. Plantae
  • D. Fungi

68
Question 23
  • Which of the following is NOT an effective viral
    disease treatment or prevention?
  • A. Antibiotics
  • B. Flu Vaccine
  • C. Control of animals that carry rabies
  • D. Avoiding close contact with people who have
    colds.

69
Evolution
  • Theory of Evolution includes Variation exist
    within the genes of a population, some organisms
    are better suited to survive and reproduce, and
    resources are limited so competition exists.
  • Evidence of evolution include fossils, DNA
    sequence, Comparative Anatomy, Comparative
    Embryology.

70
Comparative Anatomy Similar structure to Do
different Functions Gene programs are conserved
Comparative Embryology All look similar
at Early stages Gene programs are conserved
71
Ecology
  • Autotrophs or producers are organisms that
    capture sunlight or other organic molecules to
    form an organic molecules. Photosynthesis.
    Examples plants, algae, and bacteria
  • Heterotrophs or consumers are organisms that rely
    on other organisms for their energy(food).
    Examples Fungi, bacteria, animals.

72
Heterotrophs Relationship
  • Herbivore Animals that eat only plants (Cows)
  • Carnivore Animals that eat only other animals
    (Lions)
  • Omnivore Animals that eat both plants and
    animals (Humans, Wolves, Bears)
  • Detritivores obtain energy from dead organisms
    and organic waste. (Earthworms and fungi)
  • Decomposers are detritivores that cause decay.
    (Bacteria and fungi)

73
Symbiosis Relatioships
  • Symbiosis is a close relationship between two
    organisms that are different species.
  • Commensalism one organism benefits and the
    other does not benefit nor is harmed. ExClown
    Fish and Sea Anemone (Finding Nemo)
  • Mutualism both species benefit. Ex Lichens
    (which are fungi and algae)
  • Parasitism one organism lives directly on other
    organism. Ex Tapeworm and Humans
  • Predation one organism captures and eating
    another. Ex Gazelle and Lion

74
Energy and Matter in the Ecosystem
  • Matter is recycled through the ecosystem, where
    energy is lost between the trophic levels.
  • Food Chain shows direct relationships
  • Plants?Grasshopper?Blue Jay
  • Producer ?Primary Consumer? Secondary Consumer
    (3 trophic levels)
  • Food Web interrelationships within an ecosystem
    between producers, consumers, and decomposers.

90 of energy is lost between each trophic level!
75
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Water Cycle Evaporation and Transpiration,
    Condensation, Precipitation, and Runoff
  • Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis/Cell Respiration
  • Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation,
    Nitrification, Assimilation, and Denitrification

76
Question 24
  • Algae ? Krill ? Cod ? Leopard Seal
  • Which term describes the algae in the food chain
    above?
  • A. Decomposers
  • B. Consumers
  • C. Producers
  • D. Herbivores

77
Question 25
  • Which of the following is not recycled through
    the environment?
  • A. Energy
  • B. Carbon
  • C. Nitrogen
  • D. Water

78
Question 26
  • Which form of interaction takes place when a
    killer whale devours a seal?
  • A. Commensalism
  • B. Mutualism
  • C. Predation
  • D. Parasitism

79
Question 27
  • Which process does not return carbon to the
    environment?
  • A. Burning of fossil fuels
  • B. Photosynthesis
  • C. Cellular Respiration
  • D. Decay

80
Human Systems
81
Four Types of Tissues
  • Epithelial lines the body surfaces.
    Continuously replaced.
  • Nervous carries information throughout the
    body.
  • Connective supports, protects, and insulates
    the body. (Blood, bone, fat, and cartilage)
  • Muscle movement (Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal)

82
Integumentary System
  • Structures Skin, Hair, and Nails
  • Function Protects the body from injury, defense
    against pathogens, regulate body temperature, and
    prevents the body from drying out.

83
Skeletal System
  • Structures Bones, joints
  • Function Provide protection to internal organs
    and work with muscles for movement.
  • Tendons attach muscles to bone. Ligaments
    connect bone to bone and limit the movement of
    bones.
  • Joints include Ball and socket(hip), pivot(neck),
    hinge(fingers), gliding(wrist), and saddle(thumb
    only).

84
Circulatory System
  • Structures Heart, Blood, and Blood Vessels.
  • Heart 4 chambers, atrium(2) receives blood and
    ventricles(2) pump blood
  • Blood composed of red blood cells, white blood
    cells, platelets
  • Blood Vessels arteries, veins, and capillaries
  • Function connects all organs in the body and
    transports material throughout the body.
  • Pulmonary Heart to Lungs Systemic Heart to
    Body

85
The Heart 4 Chambers high efficiency
  • Atria
  • Entrance
  • Ventricle
  • Exit Chamber
  • Power Pumper

V
V
86
Pathway of blood through the heart
  • Vena Cava (blood from the body) ? Right Atrium ?
    Right Ventricle ? Pulmonary Artery ? Lung ?
    Pulmonary Vein ? Left Artium ? Left Ventricle ?
    Aorta
  • Pathway of blood through the blood vessels
  • Arteries ? Arterioles ? Capillaries ? Venules ?
    Vein

87
Respiratory System
  • Structures Diaphragm, Lungs, Pharynx, Trachea,
    Bronchi, and Alveoli
  • Function Works with the circulatory system to
    transport oxygen to the cells of the body for
    cellular respiration and the removal of carbon
    dioxide.
  • Pathway of air Pharynx ?Larynx ?Trachea?Bronchi?
    Bronchioles? Alveoli
  • Exchange occurs between the alveoli and
    capillaries

88
Destination Lungs!!
  • Its all about surface area!
  • Your lungs have enough surface area to cover a
    tennis court!

89
Digestive System
  • Structures and Pathway Mouth, Esophagus,
    Stomach, Small Intestines, Large Intestines, and
    Rectum. Accessory Organs Liver, Pancreas, and
    Salivary Glands.
  • Function To break down large organic molecules
    in food to usable smaller molecules.
  • Steps Ingestion ? Digestion ? Absorption ?
    Elimination

90
Excretory System
  • Structure Kidney, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
  • Function The removal (excretion) of water
    soluble NITROGENOUS waste in blood from chemical
    activities in cells including ammonia from
    metabolism of proteins.
  • Two Steps Filtration and Reabsorption

91
Nervous System
  • Structures Neurons, brain, and spinal cord.
  • Function Controls and coordinates functions
    throughout the body. Uses both chemical and
    electrical signals.
  • Electrical impulse travels Dendrite?Cell Body
    ?Axon (neurotransmitter) ? Dendrite
  • Neurotransmitters are chemical/protein messengers
  • Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System - Nerves

92
Immune System
  • Function To protect the body from disease
    causing agents (pathogens).
  • Nonspecific defenses Skin, Inflammatory
    response, histamine, tears, and increase in
    temperature.
  • White Blood Cells 3 types Neutrophils,
    Macrophages, and Killer T Cells

93
Endocrine System
  • Structure Glands and Hormones
  • Function Regulate the activity of the body using
    hormones.
  • Endocrine glands produce hormones and are secrete
    directly into the blood or fluid around cells.
  • Gland and Hormone pairs
  • Adrenaladrenaline, Ovaries-estrogen,
    Pancreasinsulin, and Testestesterone

94
Reproductive System
  • Function Reproduction of offspring
  • Male Reproductive System Testes produces sperm
    (haploid cell 23 chromosomes)
  • Female Reproductive System Ovaries produce ova
    (haploid cell 23 chromosomes), fallopian tube
    (fertilization occurs) and uterus (embryo
    development).

95
Question 28
  • Which structure in the digestive system is
    primarily responsible for the absorption of
    nutrients?
  • A. Mouth
  • B. Stomach
  • C. Small Intestines
  • D. Rectum

96
Question 29
  • What is the correct order of the digestive
    process?
  • A. Elimination, Ingestion, Digestion,
    Absorption
  • B. Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption,
    Elimination
  • C. Ingestion, Absorption, Digestion,
    Elimination
  • D. Digestion, Elimination, Absorption,
    Ingestion

97
Question 30
  • Which statement describes the interaction between
    two different body systems?
  • A. Muscles move when a nerve impulse is received
    from motor nerves.
  • B. Cells produced in the inner layer of the
    epidermis move upward toward the outer layer of
    skin.
  • C. Air filtered and warmed in the nose.
  • D. Macrophages attack and kill invading
    pathogens.

98
Question 31
  • Which statement best describes the interactions
    between the central nervous system and the
    peripheral nervous system in humans?
  • A. The central nervous system controls the
    peripheral nervous system.
  • B. The peripheral nervous system controls the
    central nervous system.
  • C. Both systems are controlled by the endocrine
    system.
  • D. The systems work independently.

99
Question 32
  • Where does fertilization of the ova usually occur
    in humans?
  • A. Ovary
  • B. Fallopian Tubes
  • C. Uterus
  • D. Vagina

100
Question 33
  • What two systems work directly together in
    movement of a muscle?
  • A. Endocrine and Muscular
  • B. Digestive and Muscular
  • C. Circulatory and Muscular
  • D. Nervous and Muscular

101
Question 34
  • Which organ below is not responsible for the
    removal of waste from the human body?
  • A. Stomach
  • B. Lungs
  • C. Skin
  • D. Kidneys

102
Question 35
  • When oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
    between the blood and the alveoli, which two
    systems are interacting?
  • A. Circulatory and Digestive
  • B. Respiratory and Endocrine
  • C. Circulatory and Respiratory
  • D. Endocrine and Digestive

103
Plants
  • Just the facts

104
Basic Organs of Plants
  • Roots Anchorage and Absorption
  • Stems Supports leaves
  • Leaves Photosynthesis
  • Flowers Reproduction ( found only in
    Angiosperms)

105
Nonvascular Plants
  • Nonvascular plants lack roots, stems, and leaves.
  • Examples Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

106
Vascular Plants
  • Vascular tissues are xylem and phloem. (much like
    our vessels in our bodies) Xylem transports
    water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
    for photosynthesis. Phloem transports sap (sugar
    and water) from the leaves to other areas of the
    plants.
  • Vascular Plants include Gymnosperms (pine trees)
    and Angiosperms (flowering plants).

107
Plant Responses to the Environment
  • Responses to the environment by plants are due to
    tropisms. Tropisms are either positive or
    negative, depending on if the plant bends toward
    or away from the stimulus.
  • Examples
  • Phototropism sunlight
  • Thigmotropism touch
  • Photoperiodism length of sunlight to
    darkness/flowering

108
Question 36
  • When a plant grows toward light, which tropism is
    shown?
  • A. Thigmotropism
  • B. Photoperiodism
  • C. Guttation
  • D. Phototropism

109
Question 37
  • Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts are examples of
  • A. Nonvascular Plants
  • B. Vascular Plants
  • C. Gymnosperms
  • D. Angiosperms

110
Question 38
  • Plants have adaptations that increase their
    chance of survival. For example, when the leaves
    of a mimosa plant are touched, all of the leaves
    fold up. A valid conclusion about this
    adaptation is that mimosa plants developed this
    response as protection against
  • A. Too much light
  • B. Leaf-eating animals
  • C. Cold temperatures
  • D. Dry Weather
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