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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers Chapter 9: Memory 1. The process of getting information into memory is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • From Myers,
  • Psychology 8e
  • Worth Publishers

2
Chapter 9 Memory
Fetch!
Cant Remember?
Retain
Process
Real or Imagined?
3
Process
500
400
300
200
100
4
retain
500
400
300
200
100
5
Fetch!
500
400
300
200
100
6
Cant remember?
500
400
300
200
100
7
Real or imagined?
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. The process of getting information into memory
is called
  • A) priming.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) encoding.
  • D) storage.

9
2. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a
minimal level of conscious attention is known as
  • A) repression.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) state-dependent memory.

10
3. The process by which information is encoded
by its meaning is called
  • A) long-term potentiation.
  • B) semantic encoding.
  • C) priming.
  • D) automatic processing.

11
4. The organization of information into
meaningful units is called
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

12
Timmy learns the sentence, George eats old gray
rats and paints houses yellow to help him
remember how to spell geography. He is using
  • A) a mnemonic device.
  • B) the peg-word system.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

13
6. Our immediate short-term memory for new
material is limited to roughly ___ bits of
information.
  • A) 3
  • B) 7
  • C) 12
  • D) 20

14
7. Conscious memory of factual information is
called ___ memory.
  • A) state-dependent
  • B) flashbulb
  • C) explicit
  • D) implicit

15
8. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry
that contributes to memory storage is known as
  • A) chunking.
  • B) the next-in-line effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) long-term potentiation.

16
9. Iconic memory refers to
  • A) the encoded meanings of words and events in
    short-term memory.
  • B) photographic, or picture-image, memory that
    lasts for only about a second.
  • C) the recall of words by their sounds.
  • D) the visually encoded images in long-term
    memory.

17
10. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories
are processed by the
  • A) hippocampus.
  • B) cerebellum.
  • C) hypothalamus.
  • D) motor cortex.

18
11. The association of sadness with negative life
events contributes to
  • A) the self-reference effect.
  • B) retroactive interference.
  • C) repression.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

19
12. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in
Mr. Puckett vivid memories of is early childhood.
The aroma apparently acted as a powerful
  • A) sensory memory.
  • B) reconstructive signal.
  • C) retrieval cue.
  • D) implicit memory.

20
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is
asked to identify the suspects in a police
lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
  • A) recognition.
  • B) recall.
  • C) relearning.
  • D) reconstruction.

21
14. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate
a process known as
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) priming.
  • C) chunking.
  • D) relearning.

22
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ___
matching concepts with their definitions measures
___.
  • A) recognition relearning.
  • B) recall recognition.
  • C) recall relearning.
  • D) relearning recall.

23
16. Retroactive interference refers to the
  • A) decay of physical memory traces.
  • B) disruptive effect of previously learned
    material on the recall of new information.
  • C) disruptive effect of new learning on the
    recall of previously learned material.
  • D) blocking of painful memories from
    conscious awareness.

24
17. An inability to recall the location of the
number 0 on your calculator is most likely due
to
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) memory decay.
  • D) encoding failure.

25
18. When Jake applied for a drivers license, he
was embarrassed by a momentary inability to
remember his address. Jakes memory difficulty
most likely resulted from a(n) _______.
  • A) rehearsal
  • B) storage
  • C) encoding
  • D) retrieval

26
19. Motivated forgetting provides an example of
forgetting caused by a failure in
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) retrieval.
  • C) storage.
  • D) encoding.

27
20. We often alter our memories as we withdraw
them from storage. This best illustrates
  • A) memory construction.
  • B) the self-reference effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) priming.

28
21. Memories of stressful and unpleasant life
experiences are not likely to be
  • A) encoded.
  • B) repressed.
  • C) stored.
  • D) retrieved.

29
22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble
remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse
have often been led to believe that their memory
difficulties are due to
  • A) memory storage failure.
  • B) the misinformation effect.
  • C) memory encoding failure.
  • D) repression.

30
23. Incorporating misleading information into
ones memory of an event can result in the
witness making mistakes on details when later
asked to recall. This is called
  • A) misinformation effect.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) flashbulb memory.
  • D) other-influenced confabulation.

31
24. Memory experts who express skepticism
regarding reports of repressed and recovered
memories emphasize that
  • A) there is very little people can do to relieve
    the distress resulting from traumatic memories.
  • B) most extremely traumatic life experiences are
    never encoded into long-term memory.
  • C) therapeutic techniques such as guided imagery
    and hypnosis can easily encourage the
    construction of false memories.
  • D) people rarely recall memories of
    long-forgotten unpleasant events.

32
25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed
accusations that he had sexually abused his
daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly
recollect that such events had actually occurred.
This best illustrates the dangers of
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) implicit memory.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. The process of getting information into memory
is called
  • A) priming.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) encoding.
  • D) storage.

351
36
2. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a
minimal level of conscious attention is known as
  • A) repression.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) state-dependent memory.

353
37
3. The process by which information is encoded
by its meaning is called
  • A) long-term potentiation.
  • B) semantic encoding.
  • C) priming.
  • D) automatic processing.

356
38
4. The organization of information into
meaningful units is called
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

359
39
Timmy learns the sentence, George eats old gray
rats and paints houses yellow to help him
remember how to spell geography. He is using
  • A) a mnemonic device.
  • B) the peg-word system.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

358
40
6. Our immediate short-term memory for new
material is limited to roughly ___ bits of
information.
  • A) 3
  • B) 7
  • C) 12
  • D) 20

362
41
7. Conscious memory of factual information is
called ___ memory.
  • A) state-dependent
  • B) flashbulb
  • C) explicit
  • D) implicit

367
42
8. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry
that contributes to memory storage is known as
  • A) chunking.
  • B) the next-in-line effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) long-term potentiation.

365
43
9. Iconic memory refers to
  • A) the encoded meanings of words and events in
    short-term memory.
  • B) photographic, or picture-image, memory that
    lasts for only about a second.
  • C) the recall of words by their sounds.
  • D) the visually encoded images in long-term
    memory.

362
44
10. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories
are processed by the
  • A) hippocampus.
  • B) cerebellum.
  • C) hypothalamus.
  • D) motor cortex.

368
45
11. The association of sadness with negative life
events contributes to
  • A) the self-reference effect.
  • B) retroactive interference.
  • C) repression.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

374
46
12. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in
Mr. Puckett vivid memories of is early childhood.
The aroma apparently acted as a powerful
  • A) sensory memory.
  • B) reconstructive signal.
  • C) retrieval cue.
  • D) implicit memory.

371
47
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is
asked to identify the suspects in a police
lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
  • A) recognition.
  • B) recall.
  • C) relearning.
  • D) reconstruction.

370
48
14. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate
a process known as
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) priming.
  • C) chunking.
  • D) relearning.

372
49
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ___
matching concepts with their definitions measures
___.
  • A) recognition relearning.
  • B) recall recognition.
  • C) recall relearning.
  • D) relearning recall.

370
50
16. Retroactive interference refers to the
  • A) decay of physical memory traces.
  • B) disruptive effect of previously learned
    material on the recall of new information.
  • C) disruptive effect of new learning on the
    recall of previously learned material.
  • D) blocking of painful memories from conscious
    awareness.

379
51
17. An inability to recall the location of the
number 0 on your calculator is most likely due
to
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) memory decay.
  • D) encoding failure.

376
52
18. When Jake applied for a drivers license, he
was embarrassed by a momentary inability to
remember his address. Jakes memory difficulty
most likely resulted from a(n) _______.
  • A) rehearsal
  • B) storage
  • C) encoding
  • D) retrieval

378
53
19. Motivated forgetting provides an example of
forgetting caused by a failure in
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) retrieval.
  • C) storage.
  • D) encoding.

380
54
20. We often alter our memories as we withdraw
them from storage. This best illustrates
  • A) memory construction.
  • B) the self-reference effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) priming.

382
55
21. Memories of stressful and unpleasant life
experiences are not likely to be
  • A) encoded.
  • B) repressed.
  • C) stored.
  • D) retrieved.

388
56
22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble
remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse
have often been led to believe that their memory
difficulties are due to
  • A) memory storage failure.
  • B) the misinformation effect.
  • C) memory encoding failure.
  • D) repression.

387
57
23. Children in one study were periodically asked
whether they remembered going to the circus.
They later described in great detail their memory
of going to the circus, although they were never
there. This illustrates
  • A) misinformation effect
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) flashbulb memory.
  • D) other-influenced confabulation.

383
58
24. Memory experts who express skepticism
regarding reports of repressed and recovered
memories emphasize that
  • A) there is very little people can do to relieve
    the distress resulting from traumatic memories.
  • B) most extremely traumatic life experiences are
    never encoded into long-term memory.
  • C) therapeutic techniques such as guided imagery
    and hypnosis can easily encourage the
    construction of false memories.
  • D) people rarely recall memories of
    long-forgotten unpleasant events.

388
59
25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed
accusations that he had sexually abused his
daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly
recollect that such events had actually occurred.
This best illustrates the dangers of
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) implicit memory.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

384
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006

61
Answers
1. C
2. C
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. A
11. D
12. C
13. A
14. B
15. B
16. C
17. D
18. D
19. B
20. A
21. B
22. D
23. A
24. C
25. A
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