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Technology Action Plan : Breeding Technology

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Climate Change Technology Needs Assessments for Thailand :Adaptation in Agricultural Sector Morakot Tanticharoen National Science and Technology Development Agency ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technology Action Plan : Breeding Technology


1
Climate Change Technology Needs Assessments for
Thailand Adaptation in Agricultural Sector
Morakot Tanticharoen
National Science and Technology Development
Agency , Thailand
2
Year 2010 (GDP 7.8 ) Year 2010 (GDP 7.8 )
GDP Composition by Sector (2009) Labor Force by Occupation
Agriculture 11 Services 55 Industries 34 Agriculture ? 40 Services ? 43 Industries ? 17
3
In 2010 flood damaged more than 1.76 million
hectares causing the government to approve
approximately 550 million USD to help flood
victims.
In 2011 ( 10 Oct) flood damaged more than 1.4
million hectares.
November 2010 and June 2011 over 39 provinces in
Thailand were experiencing drought, causing the
government to allocate a budget of more than 13
million USD to relieve the problem
4
In 2010 drought exacerbated the pandemic
situation, damaging approximately 1 million
hectares of cassava plantation and causing a
20-25 reduction in yields (Winotai, 2011).
5
Food Crisis????
Source Stephen A. Goff and John M. Salmeron,
2004.
6
Scientific American October 2009, Volume 301 No.
4
Biotechs Plans to Sustain Agriculture
Biotechnology new genes insertion and new
traits DNA marker assisted breeding
Agronomic practices precision agriculture based
on remote sensing and global positioning, new
equipment for irrigation and new planting
technology
Drought tolerance and nitrogen-use efficiency
(water-optimized product, reductions in nitrogen
fertilizer use)
7
Process of Technology Needs Assessment Action
plans
Literature review
SubsectorIdentification
Experts Stakeholders
Experts Stakeholders
Technology Needs Assessment (Prioritized)
Literature review
Barrier analysis
(capability, accessibility, policy, law
regulation, social perception, user, etc.)
Experts Stakeholders National Consultation
Technology Action Plans
8
Thailands Agriculture and Food Facts and
Figures
Ranked 12th in the world food exporter (2010)
Rice Cassava Sugar Shrimp
Market share () 28.19 33.80 6.12 20.37
Rank 1 1 2 1
Farmers involved 3.7 M
400,000 200,000 25,000
8
9
Criteria for prioritize technology
Impact of Technology
Potential Benefit / Opportunity loss
Cost-benefit/ Cost-effectiveness
Technology capability
RD and technology based capability
Technology absorption Technology diffusion
Policy and Regulation
Public Perception Farmers acceptance
10
Prioritizing technologies (Stakeholder meeting)
Crop Improvement
Forecastingand Early Warning
Further prioritizing technologies (Public
hearing)
Precision Farming
Tech. capability3 levels Barriers Solutions
11
Crop Improvement
12
Target Traits Adapt to Climate Change
  • resilient to climate change - flood tolerance
    - drought tolerance- salinity stress
    tolerance- photoperiod in-sensitive - maximum
    minimum temperature variation- CO2 fixation-
    Photosynthetic efficiency - pest disease
    resistance- water/fertilizer use efficiency

13
Gene Pyramiding
MAS and Backcross Breeding
Super Jasmine Rice
Currently take 6 years for new rice varieties to
be developed by using MAS
DT SUB BB BL BPH ST
DT SUB BB BL
BB BL BPH ST
DT SUB
BB BL
BPH ST
DT
SUB
BB
BL
BPH
ST
brown plant hoppers
bacterialblight
drought
salinity
flood
14
Examples of current work on Marker Assisted
Selection (MAS)
TT commercialize
Field Trial Demonstration
  • Rice breeds that can resistance/ tolerance to
    bacterial blight, brown plant hoppers, salinity,
    or drought are now in a multi-location and
    regional trial study as well as production
    demonstration in farmers fields

RD
  • Use of MAS in rice breeding with a quality for
    flood/ drought/pest tolerance or non-photoperiod
    sensitivity
  • Implementation of gene pyramiding to improve rice
    breeds
  • Preliminary screening of wild crop relatives to
    identify target traits to adapt to climate change
  • Promote the implementation of MAS for rice breeds
    in the Mekong region
  • Thailands Molecular Rice Breeding Program for
    the Mekong Region

KDML 105 submergence tolerance
  • Some rice varieties are available for farmer

15
Transfer flood tolerance trait into other rice
varieties
After flooding
Flooding for 12 days
Chonlasit submergence tolerance which have been
transferred to farmers in Authaya, Chainat,
Angthong, and Uttaradit
It can survive under the water for upto 2 weeks
after the occurrence of flash flooding off-season
rice.  Homcholasit rice (KDML 105 submergence
tolerance) can be providing yield of 3 tons per
hectare.
15
16
Barrier
Solution
Technology capability
Technology capability
  • Promote research and development on MAS
  • Research collaboration with the international
    research institutes, private companies and
    networks
  • Transfer MAS technology to plant breeders by
    collaboration between government to government
    and public private
  • MAS s currently limited to some varieties of
    rice (KDML105,RD6) Other crops have undergone
    less research

Human resources
Human resources
  • Shortage of plant breeders, molecular breeders,
    physiologists, plant pathologists and
    entomologists
  • Human resource development by collaboration with
    international institutes
  • Formulate courses on plant Marker Assisted
    Selection (MAS)

17
Barrier
Solution
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
  • Lack of medium-long term seed bank
  • Lack of throughput screening facilities includes
    genotypic and phenotypic screening
  • Establish a national and regional network of
    germplasm bank
  • Invest a high throughput phenotyping and
    genotyping screening facility to increase the
    efficiency of crop improvement

Policy
Policy
  • access to genetic resources through increased
    interdependency is limited due to international
    agreements and countries s environment policy
  • Request international organization such as FAO,
    CGIAR to ease access to more genetic resource
    materials

18
Examples of current work on genetic modification
of plants
TT commercialize
Field Trial Demonstration
  • Thailand is yet to trade genetically modified
    plants, except for research purposes
  • National Biosafety Act has been approved by the
    cabinet and is now under consideration by the
    Office of the Council of State of Thailand
  • only the virus PRSV resistant papayas went to
    field trial in 1997.
  • in 2001, experiments involving GM plant were put
    on hold following a decision by the cabinet
  • Thailands Biosafety Guideline, initiated in
    1992, cover areas of rd, field testing, and
    commercialization

RD
  • development of papayas resistant to the papaya
    ringspot virus (PRSV)
  • RD on plant transformation in cassava,
    sugarcane, rice and orchid

19
The Papaya Biotechnology Network
  • Thailand has worked on biotechnology applications
    for PRSV since 1995
  • Plant Genetic Engineering Unit participated in a
    project with Queensland University of Technology
    with support from the Australian Centre for
    International Agricultural Research
  • ISAAA helps with biosafety and intellectual
    property rights issues
  • It brokered a deal with Monsanto, which owns the
    35s promoter gene used in the gene construct, and
    other patent owners to permit Thai scientists to
    use the technology for research and development
    purposes alone

20
Barrier
Solution
  • Need the policy support to confine field trials
    of locally developed GM products
  • Arrange various activities to promote public
    awareness in science and regulation of GMOs
  • Request assistance of international organizations
    to negotiate the use of licensed genes and
    technologies
  • Work with international organizations such as
    ISAAA
  • Successful plant transformation has been limited
    to few plant species due to lack of government
    support
  • Traits, genetic engineering is covered by patents

21
Forecasting and Early Warning
Target
  • Data
  • Climate patterns
  • Pest and disease outbreaks
  • Past yields
  • Forecast weather and pest/ disease outbreaks
  • Reduce the risk of damage
  • Select the right crops based on specific
    planting time and crop cycle

Simulation Model
Warning System (rapid emergency response)
22
Forecasting
22
Source Sachs and Myhrvold (2011) and Thai
Meteorological Department (2011)
23
Examples of current work on Forecasting Early
Warning
TT commercialize
Field Trial Demonstration
  • Decision Support System for Agrotechnology
    Transfer (DSSATT) to predict impacts of climate
    change on various crops such as rice, cassava,
    and sugarcane

RD
  • Basic data collection to underpin forecasting
    models in the future
  • A brown plant hopper pest prediction and warning
    system
  • Aquaculture Information System to predict the
    growth of shrimps under various climatic
    conditions
  • Spatial modeling of land suitability evaluation
    for rubber plantation in Northeast Thailand

24
Barrier
Solution
Technology capability
Technology capability
  • Lack of forecasting tools for biological and
    physical data, weather condition
  • Limitation of pest and disease databases
  • Limitation on data accessibility and data
    redundancy
  • Encourage cooperation between simulation modelers
    and biologists to develop a model/ system using
    biological data
  • Develop a simulation model with a scale suited
    for Thailands geographic areas
  • Develop unified databases that use the same
    standards both nationally and regionally
  • Establish National Spatial Data Infrastructure
    NSDI

25
Barrier
Solution
Human resources
Human resources
  • Lack of skilled personnel to develop climate
    change simulation models
  • Lack of linkage between skilled personnel and
    relevant organization
  • Collaborate with research institutes from
    overseas to provide training on the development
    of pest/disease simulation mode
  • Encourage public and private collaboration to
    develop software

Policy
Policy
  • no accompanying implementation plan to deal
    beforehand with pest and disease outbreaks
    relevant to the agricultural sector other than
    that of the bird flu
  • Draft an implementation plan/ manual to prepare
    for natural disasters that affects the
    agricultural sector, especially outbreaks of pest
    and diseases(learning from bird flu model)

26
Precision Farming
Targets
  • Data for each farming region (e.g. soil
    conditions, available water, wind, temperature
    and sunshine levels, local pests and diseases
  • Related biological data (e.g. animals, plants,
    pest and diseases)
  • Enable farmers
  • to make informed decisions concerning their
    farming operations
  • to reduce inputs while maintaining maximum
    productivity and minimizing the effects on the
    environment

27
Precision Farming Planting the right seed in
the right place depending on the field conditions
or havingthe precise application of pesticides,
nitrogen fertilizer or other inputs. Vice
President,
Technology Strategy
Development, Monsanto (Scientific
American, 2009)
28
Precision Farming System
Adopt and apply precision farming tools to
farming practice
Data on farm gathered from wireless sensor
network
Map derived from GIS based system
Suitability of plant production and arrange
proper zoning
DSS
Data from Remote Sensing
Decision Support System (DSS) for resource
management
Precisely water and fertilizer given
28
29
Precision Farming Technology Sikhio Model
Sikhio model, Nakhon Ratchasima, demonstates the
use of precision farming technology (such as drip
irrigation system and customized fertilizer) to
increase the productivity of cassava to about
30-40 ton/hec
29
30
GranMonte Smart Vineyard
  • GranMonte Smart Vineyard project was piloted in
    2008 by Mahidol University and NECTEC. The
    project utilized an integrated set of
    technologies in a vineyard
  • Information Technology
  • Smart Viticulture
  • Networks of Multi-functional and
    Multi-dimensional Sensors
  • RFID, GIS, Radio-Controlled,
  • Robotics
  • Agro-informatics
  • Nanotechnology)
  • Farm managers can monitor changes in the farm via
    the Internet or by mobile phone

30
Source Mahidol University, NECTEC and GranMonte
Vineyard
31
KMITL Fishtech Farm
  • Closed system for tilapia fish farming
  • Real-time water quality monitoring
  • Digital tags embedded in the breeding parents to
    monitor the origin of breeds

31
Source Source King Mongkut's Institute of
Technology Ladkrabang (2010)
32
Examples of current work on Precision Farming
TT commercialize
Field Trial Demonstration
  • pH and DO Sensor have been transferred to
    aquaculture private company
  • Sensor technologies, pH and DO, have been
    developed and used in shrimp farming
  • prototype of Moisture and pH sensors have been
    used in sugarcane farming
  • Demonstration project has been establish -
    Sikhio Model - KMITL fishtech farm -
    GranMonte Smart Vineyard

RD
  • Use of GPS technology to identify coordinates/
    locations best suited for sugarcane farming
  • RD on Integrated system of sensor and embedded
    technology

33
Barrier
Solution
Technology capability
Technology capability
  • Develop and apply remote sensing and GIS
    technologies to small and medium sized farms
  • Creat a collaboration mechanism between public
    and private sectors, both domestically and
    internationally (Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    and the University of California, Davis)
  • Lack of suitability of imported technologies in
    Thailands context
  • Limited application of remote sensing and GIS
    technologies for zoning
  • Ineffectiveness of technology transfer program to
    the farmers
  • Encourage an application of precision farming
    technologies
  • For example, to help farmers analyze soil
    nutrients and give the right amount of fertilizer
  • Accessibility of high-quality analytical tools
  • RD on soil nutrient sensors that are easy to use
    and affordable to Thai farmers
  • Disseminating soil-sampling knowledge and
    innovation through the soil doctor network

34
Barrier
Solution
Human resources
Human resources
  • Provide farmers with precision farming courses,
    focusing on how to collect and analyze relevant
    data to improve productivity while reducing
    resource consumption
  • Lack of necessary human skills

35
Project Ideas
Formulation of related courses through
international collaboration and networking
Technology Transfer
Public to Public
TAIST Tokyo Tech
technology transfer to local private players
Public-Private Partnership
Infrastructure
International collaboration with leading academic
institutes, private companies and ASEAN networks
Human ResourceDevelopment
Support Thailand as an ASEAN training hub
The Molecular Rice Breeding Program for the
Mekong Region
Seed Germplasm Bank
Papaya Biotechnology Network
RD
36
THANK YOU
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