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Basic Physical Examination of Horses

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Basic Physical Examination of Horses Chapter #5 LACP Transverse facial artery Is located in a horizontal depression about 1 inch caudal to the lateral canthus of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Physical Examination of Horses


1
Basic Physical Examination of Horses
  • Chapter 5
  • LACP

2
Examination of Horses
  • The history and physical examination are the most
    important part of the database and serve as the
    starting point for identifying the patients
    problems

3
History
  • History
  • Coach the client-
  • Individual food and water source, feeding
    practices
  • Management of the entire group
  • Environmental stresses- pasture management, new
    animals
  • Prior treatments- other veterinarians, or self
    medications/treatments
  • Do not pass judgment

4
Physical Examination
  • Physical examination
  • Baseline
  • Potential problems
  • Insurance examination
  • Required
  • Prepurchase examination
  • Used in the sale of horses
  • It is not a guarantee of horses future performance

5
Physical examination
  • There are several types of physical examinations
    for equines
  • Insurance examination is required by the
    insurance company before a horse can receive
    insurance coverage
  • Prepurchase examination, conducted before
    completing the sale of an animal, the
    veterinarian performing the examination is
    presumed to be working in the buyers best
    interest

6
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7
Visual Observation
  • Observe the animal from a distance
  • Gait
  • Posture
  • Hair coat
  • Behavior
  • Breathing pattern
  • Respiratory noises
  • Body swellings
  • Skin wound
  • Etc.

8
Observation From a Distance
  • Behavior
  • Individual differences
  • Affected by illness/pain
  • Depending on environment, changes throughout the
    day
  • Eating, drinking
  • Feces, urine

9
Body Condition Scoring
  • The Ideal Body Condition Score is between 5 and
    6-1/2
  • 1. Poor
  • Animal extremely emaciated spinous processes,
    ribs, tailhead,
  • tuber coxae (hip joints), and ischia (lower
    pelvic bones)
  • projecting prominently bone structure of
    withers, shoulders,
  • and neck easily noticeable no fatty tissue can
    be felt.
  • 2. Very Thin
  • Animal emaciated slight fat covering over base
    of spinous
  • processes, transverse processes of lumbar
    vertebrae feel
  • rounded spinous processes, ribs, tailhead, tuber
    coxae (hip
  • joints) and ischia (lower pelvic bones)
    prominent withers,
  • shoulders, and neck structure faintly
    discernable.
  • 3. Thin
  • Fat buildup about halfway on spinous processes
    transverse
  • processes cannot be felt slight fat cover over
    ribs spinous
  • processes and ribs easily discernable tailhead
    prominent, but
  • individual vertebrae cannot be identified
    visually tuber coxae
  • (hip joints), appear rounded but easily
    discernable
  • tuber ischia (lower pelvic bones) not
    distinguishable withers,

10
Body Condition Scoring
  • 4. Moderately Thin
  • Slight ridge along back faint outline of ribs
    discernible tailhead prominence depends on
  • conformation, fat can be felt around it tuber
    coxae (hip joints) not discernable withers,
    shoulders
  • and neck not obviously thin.
  • 5. Moderate
  • Back is flat (no crease or ridge) ribs not
    visually distinguishable but easily felt fat
    around tailhead
  • beginning to feel spongy withers appear rounded
    over spinous processes shoulders and neck
  • blend smoothly into body.
  • 6. Moderately Fleshy
  • May have slight crease down back fat over ribs
    spongy fat around tailhead soft fat beginning
    to
  • be deposited along the side of withers, behind
    shoulders, and along sides of neck.
  • 7. Fleshy
  • May have slight crease down back individual
    ribs can be felt, but noticeable filling between
    ribs
  • with fat fat around tailhead soft fat deposited
    along withers, behind shoulders,and along neck.
  • 8. Fat
  • Crease down back difficult to feel ribs, fat
    around tailhead very soft fat area along withers
    filled
  • with fat, area behind shoulder filled with fat,
    noticeable thickening of neck fat deposited
    along
  • inner thighs.
  • 9. Extremely Fat

11
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12
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13
Attitude
  • Depressed attitude
  • Pain
  • Weakness
  • Cerebral dysfunction
  • Abnormal behavior
  • Pain
  • Cerebral dysfunction

14
  • The basic physical examination usually includes
    temperature/pulse/respiration (TPR) heart/lung
    auscultation, abdominal auscultation, hydratation
    status, examination of mucous membranes, and
    height/weight measurement

15
Normal values- Adults (p. 149)
  • Body temperature- normal adult at rest
    99.0-101.5F
  • varies by age, breed, environmental temperature
  • Pulse rate/heart rate- normal adult at rest
    28-44 bpm
  • varies by age, fitness level, 2 A-V block
  • Respiratory rate- normal adult at rest 6-12
    breaths per minute
  • varies by age, environmental temperature
  • Gastrointestinal motility (p. 130) normal adult
    at rest 1-3 borborygmi per minute
  • Borborygmus- rumbling or gurgling noises produced
    by movement of gas in the alimentary canal and
    audible at a distance
  • Pink gums
  • 6-10 piles of well formed manure per 24 hours

16
Normal Neonate
  • Temperature 99-102F
  • HR 80-120
  • RR 20-40
  • Pink gums
  • Nursing 4-6 times per hour
  • Fecal output 2-4 piles per day, pasty

17
Equine weight measuring tapes
18
Pull the tape so that is it snug and not tight
around the horses girth.
19
Read the number that meets the weight arrow end
of your weight tape, this is the animals weight
in lbs.
20
  • Page 487 CVTV

21
The height of a horse is measured from the point
of the withers to the ground.
22
Measuring height.
  • A, Proper position for the height/weight tape for
    measuring height.
  • B, Height is read at the highest point of the
    withers

23
Physical Examination
  • By systems (skeletol, neuro, etc)
  • Always use the same approach
  • Record your findings
  • Look at the whole picture

24
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25
Body temperature
Look Familiar?
  • Temperature is almost always taken rectally using
    a standard mercury thermometer or a digital
    thermometer for large animals

99-101.5
26
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27
When inserting rectal thermometer, stand facing
caudally and maintain contact with the horse
28
Grasp the tail at the base and move it gently to
the side
Never stand directly in back of the horses rear
end.
29
Insert the thermometer. 60 seconds
  • consider environmental factors when taking rectal
    temperatures

30
  • A, The thermometer has been inserted and secured
    with the clip to the tail hairs.
  • B, Thermometer secured to hair coat with the
    clip.

31
Pulse Rate/Heart Rate
  • The pulse rate is taken by palpation of arteries
  • Heart rate and pulse rate are nor the same heart
    rate refers to the number of heart bests/minute
    (bpm) pulse rate refers to the number of
    palpable arterial pulse waves/minute
  • In normal animals heart rate and pulse rate are
    equal
  • Arterial pulses may be palpated at several
    locations
  • Pulse deficit (heart rate ? pulse rate?)
  • Pulse is described as strong, bounding, weak,
    thready, or other non-specific terms

32
  • Facial artery is the most convenient location
    where it courses over the ventral aspect of the
    mandible, rostral to the origin of the masseter
    muscle

33
  • B, Identify the facial artery along the medial
    aspect of the mandible.
  • C, Press the vascular bundle against the medial
    aspect of the mandible

34
Transverse facial artery
  • Is located in a horizontal depression about 1
    inch caudal to the lateral canthus of the eye and
    just below the zygomatic arch.

35
Coccygeal artery
  • Supplies the tail and is located along the
    ventral midline of the tail.

36
Dorsal metatarsal artery
  • Is located between the metatarsal 3 and 4 (cannon
    bone and lateral splint bone) on the hind limp

37
  • E, Location of the lateral digital artery over
    the lateral proximal sesamoid bone and proximal
    to the lateral collateral cartilage. F, Palpation
    of the digital arteries over the proximal
    sesamoid bones. G, Palpation of the digital
    arteries proximal to the collateral cartilages.

38
Heart Auscultation
  • Horses are athletes the heart of the average
    horse may be as large as a basketball.
  • Auscultation may be done on the left or right
    side of the chest, though most of the heart
    valves and sounds are heard best from the left
    side
  • The most common cause of an irregular heart
    rhythm in the horse is the second degree
    atrioventricular (A-V) block

39
Landmarks for the heart
  • The horizontal marks indicate the level of the
    shoulder and elbow joints. The vertical mark
    indicates the caudal border of the triceps
    muscle.

40
Auscultating the heart.
  • A, Gently lift the triceps muscle away from the
    chest wall.
  • B, Place stethoscope against the chest wall, deep
    to the triceps muscle.

41
Respiratory rate
  • The number of respirations/minute can be counted
    in several ways
  • Using a stethoscope to listen to air movement in
    the trachea or chest
  • Using a hand to feel movement of air in and out
    of a nostril
  • Simply counting chest excursions (rise and fall
    of the thoracic wall)/minute

42
Landmarks for the lung. Borders of the left lung
field for auscultation
43
Lung auscultation
  • The stethoscope is placed in several locations
    within the lung field to listen to several
    breaths at each location

44
Abdominal Auscultation
  • Borborygmi or borborygmus-abdominal gut sounds
  • A stethoscope is used to listen to abdominal
    sounds, which are created by movements of the
    intestines
  • commonly referred to as gastrointestinal
    motility or GI motility
  • Landmarks for abdominal auscultation in the flank
    area are the point of the hip (tuber coxae) and
    the last rib.

45
Abdominal Auscultation (contd)
  • Should listen in each quadrant (4) for at least 1
    minute each, on left and right side
  • 0 no motility
  • 1 hypomotility
  • 2 normal motility
  • 3 hypermotility

46
Standard four point auscultation
A, Auscultation of the upper left abdominal
quadrant. B, Auscultation of the lower left
abdominal quadrant. C, Auscultation of the upper
right upper abdominal quadrant. D, Auscultation
of the lower right abdominal quadrant.
47
Mucous membranes
  • Mucous membranes are tissues that have the
    ability to make and secrete mucus.
  • Mucus membranes color is helpful for disease
    diagnosis
  • Cyanosis is bluish coloration- low oxygen of the
    blood
  • Brick red coloration indicates septicemia or
    shock or both, colic, endotoxemia
  • Purple gum line indicates endotoxic shock
  • Yellowish coloration of the gum indicates icterus
  • Pale mucus indicates anemia

48
Examination of mucous membranes 4
areas
  • .A, Examination of the gums.
  • B, Examination of the conjunctiva

49
Examination of mucous membranes
  • C, Examination of the mucosa of the nares.
  • D, Examination of the vulva in the female.

50
Mucous membrane color. Normal gum color.
51
Hydration Status
  • Skin turgor test
  • At the point of the shoulder
  • 1 second or less is normal
  • 1 second or more- gt5
  • gt8 seconds Severely dehydrated
  • Capillary refill time
  • Less than 2 seconds
  • Dehydration shock 5 to 8 seconds

52
Neurological Examination
  • Confirm disease
  • Find where
  • More tests usually needed

53
Neurological Examination (contd)
54
How you durin?.....
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