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Introduction to Chemistry

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Title: Introduction to Chemistry Author: Jordan S. Rose Last modified by: Jordan Rose Created Date: 8/11/2012 2:29:03 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Chemistry


1
Introduction to Chemistry
  • Chapter 1

2
1.1 A Story of Two Substances
  • Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes
    it undergoes
  • How is chemistry important in our lives?

3
1st Substance - The Ozone Layer
  • The substance that absorbs most harmful radiation
    before it reaches Earths surface is a substance
    called ozone.
  • A substance is matter with definite and uniform
    composition.
  • When oxygen gas is exposed to ultraviolet
    radiation in the upper stratosphere, the oxygen
    atoms split apart and react with other molecules
    of oxygen gas to form ozone.

4
The Ozone Layer
  • Ozone can also break apart to reform oxygen gas.
  • In the early to mid-1980s scientist confirmed
    that the ozone layer above Antarctica was
    thinning.
  • What could be causing this hole?

5
2nd Substance - Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Coolants such as ammonia were originally used in
    refrigerators ? toxic!
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were developed to
    solve this problem and were used in AC units,
    refrigerators, plastic foams, solvents, and
    propellants.
  • Between 1970-1990 scientists confirmed an
    increase in CFCs in the atmosphere.
  • Why werent they concerned?

6
1.2 Chemistry and Matter
  • Matter and its Characteristics
  • Matter is everything that has mass and takes up
    space.
  • Mass versus Weight
  • Why is it important to think of matter in terms
    of mass instead of weight?
  • Macroscopic versus Submicroscopic
  • Models

7
Chemistry The Central Science
  • A basic understanding of chemistry is central to
    all sciences biology, physics, Earth science,
    ecology, and others.
  • Organic chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Physical chemistry
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental chemistry
  • Industrial chemistry
  • Polymer chemistry
  • Theoretical chemistry
  • Thermochemistry

8
1.3 Scientific Methods
  • Observation
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Data
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiments
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Control
  • Conclusion
  • Theory and Scientific Law

9
Hypothesis, Theory, and Law
  • A hypothesis can never be proven. It can be
    supported by data in an experiment or it can be
    discarded or modified if data does not support
    it.
  • A theory is an explanation of a natural
    phenomenon based on many observations and
    investigations over time.
  • A scientific law summarizes a relationship in
    nature supported by many experiments.

10
1.4 Scientific Research
  • Pure research
  • Applied research
  • Chance Discoveries

11
The 2 Substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowlands were
    curious about how long CFCs could exist in the
    atmosphere.
  • They hypothesized that CFCs break down in the
    atmosphere due to interactions with UV light and
    that chlorine products from this reaction would
    break down ozone.
  • What part(s) of the scientific method is/are
    described?
  • What type of scientific research is this?

12
The 2 substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Molina and Rowland gathered data that supported
    their hypothesis.
  • They developed a model in which chlorine products
    would react repeatedly with ozone. Another
    research group confirmed this data but did not
    know the source of the chlorine. Molina and
    Rowlands model predicted a source of the
    chlorine.
  • What part of the scientific method is described
    above?

13
The 2 substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Molina and Rowland determined that ozone in the
    stratosphere could be destroyed by CFCs. They
    published their discovery and won the Nobel Prize
    in 1995.
  • Scientists continue to monitor the amount of CFCs
    and annual ozone changes in the atmosphere.
    Researchers are working to find replacement
    chemicals for CFCs.
  • What part of the scientific method is described
    above?
  • What type of scientific research is described
    above?
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