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Introduction to Chemistry


Title: Introduction to Chemistry Author: Jordan S. Rose Last modified by: Jordan Rose Created Date: 8/11/2012 2:29:03 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Chemistry

Introduction to Chemistry
  • Chapter 1

1.1 A Story of Two Substances
  • Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes
    it undergoes
  • How is chemistry important in our lives?

1st Substance - The Ozone Layer
  • The substance that absorbs most harmful radiation
    before it reaches Earths surface is a substance
    called ozone.
  • A substance is matter with definite and uniform
  • When oxygen gas is exposed to ultraviolet
    radiation in the upper stratosphere, the oxygen
    atoms split apart and react with other molecules
    of oxygen gas to form ozone.

The Ozone Layer
  • Ozone can also break apart to reform oxygen gas.
  • In the early to mid-1980s scientist confirmed
    that the ozone layer above Antarctica was
  • What could be causing this hole?

2nd Substance - Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Coolants such as ammonia were originally used in
    refrigerators ? toxic!
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were developed to
    solve this problem and were used in AC units,
    refrigerators, plastic foams, solvents, and
  • Between 1970-1990 scientists confirmed an
    increase in CFCs in the atmosphere.
  • Why werent they concerned?

1.2 Chemistry and Matter
  • Matter and its Characteristics
  • Matter is everything that has mass and takes up
  • Mass versus Weight
  • Why is it important to think of matter in terms
    of mass instead of weight?
  • Macroscopic versus Submicroscopic
  • Models

Chemistry The Central Science
  • A basic understanding of chemistry is central to
    all sciences biology, physics, Earth science,
    ecology, and others.
  • Organic chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Physical chemistry
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental chemistry
  • Industrial chemistry
  • Polymer chemistry
  • Theoretical chemistry
  • Thermochemistry

1.3 Scientific Methods
  • Observation
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Data
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiments
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Control
  • Conclusion
  • Theory and Scientific Law

Hypothesis, Theory, and Law
  • A hypothesis can never be proven. It can be
    supported by data in an experiment or it can be
    discarded or modified if data does not support
  • A theory is an explanation of a natural
    phenomenon based on many observations and
    investigations over time.
  • A scientific law summarizes a relationship in
    nature supported by many experiments.

1.4 Scientific Research
  • Pure research
  • Applied research
  • Chance Discoveries

The 2 Substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowlands were
    curious about how long CFCs could exist in the
  • They hypothesized that CFCs break down in the
    atmosphere due to interactions with UV light and
    that chlorine products from this reaction would
    break down ozone.
  • What part(s) of the scientific method is/are
  • What type of scientific research is this?

The 2 substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Molina and Rowland gathered data that supported
    their hypothesis.
  • They developed a model in which chlorine products
    would react repeatedly with ozone. Another
    research group confirmed this data but did not
    know the source of the chlorine. Molina and
    Rowlands model predicted a source of the
  • What part of the scientific method is described

The 2 substances CFCs and Ozone
  • Molina and Rowland determined that ozone in the
    stratosphere could be destroyed by CFCs. They
    published their discovery and won the Nobel Prize
    in 1995.
  • Scientists continue to monitor the amount of CFCs
    and annual ozone changes in the atmosphere.
    Researchers are working to find replacement
    chemicals for CFCs.
  • What part of the scientific method is described
  • What type of scientific research is described