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Freight Planning

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Title: Freight Planning


1
Freight Planning
  • Craig ORiley Adam Shell
  • Office of Systems Planning

2
Overview
  • Introductions
  • FHWA Video Planning for Progress
  • Freight Planning
  • Where have we been?
  • Where are we going?
  • Stakeholders
  • Freight Modeling
  • Overview
  • Data Sources Methods
  • Application
  • Conclusion

3
Freight Planning Where have we been?
  • Majority of freight moves on facilities owned by
    State and Local governments
  • Prior to 1970s All interstate transportation
    subject to Federal economic regulation
  • 1980s Deregulation
  • Aviation Deregulation Act 1978
  • Motor Carrier Act 1980
  • Staggers Rail Act 1980
  • Ocean Shipping Act 1984

4
Freight Planning Where have we been?
  • Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
    (ISTEA)
  • Added freight as a factor for states and MPOs to
    consider during their transportation planning
    efforts
  • Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century
    (TEA-21)
  • Encouraged states and MPOs to include shippers
    and freight service provides in the
    transportation planning process
  • Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient
    Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century
    (SAFETEA-LU)
  • Works to enhance the freight planning efforts in
    ISTEA and TEA-21

5
Freight Planning Where are we going?
6
Freight Planning Where are we going?
7
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Iowas Freight Infrastructure
  • 114,740 miles of roadways
  • 3,947 miles of railways
  • 491 miles of navigable waterways
  • 29,489 miles of pipelines

8
Freight Planning Where are we going?
9
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Percent of Total Iowa Freight Tonnage By Mode
Mode 2009 2025 2040 Trend
Truck 87.4 87.7 88.6
Rail 8.4 8.3 7.8
Water 1.5 1.6 1.4
Air gt 0.0 gt 0.0 gt 0.0
Multi Modes Mail 1.7 1.5 1.4
Pipeline 0.9 0.7 0.6
Other Unknown 0.2 0.2 0.2
10
Freight Planning Where are we going?
11
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Freight vs. Passenger Transportation
12
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Freight vs. Passenger Transportation
13
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Freight Stakeholders
  • Public Sector
  • Federal, state, local transportation planning
    agencies
  • Economic development and trade organizations
  • Federal, state, local law enforcement
  • Non traditional federal, state agencies
  • Private Sector
  • Shippers and receivers of freight (businesses)
  • Freight transportation service providers
  • Owners and operators of freight facilities
  • Neighborhoods and communities affected by freight
    transportation

14
Freight Planning Where are we going?
Emerging Issues
  • Infrastructure Condition and Capacity
  • Funding
  • Federal Livability Initiative
  • Climate Change / Air Quality
  • States Smart Planning Initiative

15
Freight Planning Where are we going?
16
Freight Planning Where are we going?
17
Freight Planning Where are we going?
18
Freight Modeling Overview
  • The economic competitiveness of our state is
    directly linked to how, why and where our
    businesses move their goods. Understanding these
    freight movements enables us to target policies
    and resources at highway, rail, water, and air
    corridors that will improve the States
    competitive position.
  • - Elwyn Tinklenberg , MN DOT Commissioner of
    Transportation

Source 2000 MN DOT Statewide Multimodal Freight
Flows Study
19
Freight Modeling Overview
  • Factors affecting freight demand
  • Freight Transportation Modes
  • Air cargo jets (Modal Characteristics Graphic)
  • Road commercial vehicles (CV) or semi-trucks
  • Rail freight trains
  • Water barges and ships (Compare Graphic)
  • Data Sources Methods
  • Application

20
Freight Modeling Goods Modal Characteristics
Source 2007 QRFM II Incorporating Freight into
Four-Step Travel Forecasting
21
Freight Modeling Overview
  • Factors affecting freight demand
  • Freight Transportation Modes
  • Air cargo jets (Modal Characteristics Graphic)
  • Road commercial vehicles (CV) or semi-trucks
  • Rail freight trains
  • Water barges and ships (Compare Graphic)
  • Data Sources Methods
  • Application

22
Freight Modeling Overview
  • Factors affecting freight demand
  • Economy (volume of goods produced vs. consumed)
  • Industrial Location Patterns (spatial
    distribution)
  • Globalization of Business
  • Just-in-Time (JIT) Inventory Practices (Inventory
    and Production in sync)
  • Centralized Warehousing (Increased use of 3PLs)
  • Fuel Prices
  • Truck Size Weight Limits (Increased payload
    requires less trips and in return lowers
    operating costs)
  • Congestion
  • Technology

Source Quick Response Freight Manual. FHWA.
1996. pp. 2-3 to 2-10.
23
Freight Modeling Data Sources Methods
  • Data Sources (many available.sort of! ?)
  • Carload Waybill Sample
  • Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)
  • Freight Analysis Framework (FAF)
  • LTL Commodity and Market Flow Database
  • National Transportation Statistics (NTS)
  • Limitations
  • Emphasis toward national and statewide
  • Frequency of data
  • Potential bias due to survey methods, unreliable
    estimates, or lack of freight modal coverage

24
Freight Modeling Data Sources Methods
  • Methods
  • Simple Growth Factor
  • Incorporating Freight into Four-Step Model
    Process
  • Commodity Models
  • Hybrid Approaches
  • Economic Activity Models

Source Quick Response Freight Manual II. FHWA.
2007.
25
Freight Modeling Application
  • Truck sub-model
  • Trip Generation
  • Stratify Employment by Industry Classes (NAICS)
  • Agriculture, Mining, Construction
  • Manufacturing, Transportation, Communication,
    Utils, Trade
  • Retail Trade
  • Office Services
  • Determine appropriate truck classes (Small,
    Medium, Heavy)
  • Calculate attractions by TAZ and set productions
    equal

26
Freight Modeling Application
Truck Trips Rates
  • Trip Generation
  • Trip Rates

Source Quick Response Freight Manual. FHWA.
1996. p. 4-4.
27
Freight Modeling Application
  • Trip Distribution
  • Gravity Model
  • Friction Factors (shortest path time adjustment)

28
Freight Modeling Application
  • Traffic Assignment
  • Preload with All-or-Nothing method
  • Model Validation
  • Many tests similar to auto model validation.
  • Each step of process (Trip Gen, Distro,etc)
  • Compare observed data to modeled output
  • Compute statistics.
  • And compare to other regions of similar size
  • By varying levels of area type, geography, or
    truck type
  • Scenario Tests Performance Measures

29
Sources to consider
  • FHWA Talking Freight Seminars
  • http//www.fhwa.dot.gov/freightplanning/talking.ht
    m
  • Freight Model Improvement Program (FMIP)
  • http//www.freight.dot.gov/fmip/index.cfm
  • Freight Analysis Framework (FAF)
  • http//ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/f
    af/index.htm
  • Quick Response Freight Manual II
  • http//ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/publications/qrfm2
    /index.htm

30
Conclusion
What are we doing now?
  • Iowa DOT Projects
  • FRA Grant to update the Iowa Statewide Model
  • Rail Plan Update
  • Internal Freight Working Group
  • Iowa DOT/Iowa DED Moving Iowa Forward Conference
  • Freight Report Freight Plan
  • Freight Performance Measures
  • Iowa DOT Freight Advisory Committee
  • Multi-state Corridor Planning
  • NASCO
  • Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC)

31
Questions?!
  • Craig ORiley
  • craig.oriley_at_dot.iowa.gov
  • Adam Shell
  • adam.shell_at_dot.iowa.gov

Office of Systems Planning Iowa Department of
Transportation
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