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THE CIVIL WAR

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THE CIVIL WAR THE DEATH OF LINCOLN Abraham Lincoln did not live to see all of the slaves freed. On April 14, five days after Lee s surrender, Lincoln was ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CIVIL WAR


1
THE CIVIL WAR
2
CAUSES
States' Rights
Secession
Slavery
Tariffs
Sectionalism
3
In 1861, Texas joined 10 other Southern states
that withdrew from the United States to form the
Confederate States of America. This action
followed years of long-standing differences
between the North and the South. The two
sections disagreed on many issues.
4
Cause 1
North
South
Sectionalism
5
Prior to the Civil War, the United States was not
really united.
North
South
Our country was more like two separate countries
sharing the same land.
6
The North had industry, large cities, a diverse
population, and favored the politics of the
Republican party which supported the abolition of
slavery.
7
The South had an economy based on agriculture, a
plantation lifestyle, the views of the
Democratic party, and the institution of slavery.
8
Southerners were especially loyal to their
section. They thought of themselves...
  • as citizens of their own state first,
  • as Southerners second,
  • and as U.S. citizens third.

9
ISSUE Sectionalism is the loyalty to your state
or section first, the nation second. North
South are like two separate countries.NORTH
industrial, urban, Republican,
anti-slaverySOUTH plantations, rural,
democratic, pro-slavery
NOTES
10
Cause 2
Slavery
  • Slavery

11
Slavery was a cause of the Civil War for two
reasons.
1. The South viewed slavery as a necessity to
maintaining economic wealth.
However, many people in the North viewed slavery
as evil and unconstitutional.
12
2. Slavery was not just a moral issue but a
political issue as well.

If there were more slave states in the U.S., then
the South would have more power in Congress.
If there were more free states in the U.S., then
the North would have more power in Congress.
13
Both Northerners and Southerners fought fiercely
over the moral and political issue of slavery.
If the U.S. had been founded without slavery,
then the following causes of the Civil War may
have never been issues.
14
ISSUE Slavery was an economic, moral, and
political issue. Important to keep the
balance of power in Congress. NORTH Many
believed that slavery was evil. Did not want
more slave states.SOUTH Believed that
slavery necessary for economy. Did not want
morefree states.
NOTES
15
Cause 3
States Rights
  • States Rights

16
States rights is the idea that each state had
the right to determine whether or not to follow
federal laws.
United States Law
Southerners supported states rights. They
believed that they had the right to own slaves
and even secede, or leave the Union, if they
desired.
17
Southerners were also angry at Congress using its
power to impose taxes on the Souths agricultural
products.
They felt that any federal tax restricted the
rights of the individual states.
18
Northerners did not support states rights. They
believed the national government had final power.
The federal government had the power to make laws
that applied to all states, including imposing
taxes.
19
ISSUE States Rights Each state has theright
to determine whether or not to follow afederal
(national) law.NORTH Federal government should
have more power than any individual
states.(Right to tax control slavery)SOUTH
Wanted to do as they pleased, with little
interference from the federal government. (taxes,
slavery)
NOTES
20
Cause 4
  • TARIFFS

21
TARIFFS Taxes on goods brought in from another
country)A. The South favored low tariffs
because it had few factories and purchased many
of its goods from England.B. The North favored
high tariffs that would make the price of foreign
goods higher than its own.
22
ISSUE Tariffs are taxes on goods broughtin from
another country. NORTH Favored high tariffs
that would make the price of foreign goods higher
thanthe products they made.SOUTH Favored low
tariffs because ithad few factories and
purchased most ofits goods from England.
NOTES
23
Cause 5
  • Secession

Secession
24
5. SECESSION A. The South believed that
states should be able to choose whether or
not to stay in the Union. (They claimed that
the U.S. was an organization of
independent states. Since they chose to join
it, they could also choose to leave it and form
their own country.) B. Northerners
believed the United States must remain one
country to remain strong.
25
ISSUE Secession to withdraw, as in to
leave the UnionNORTH Secession is
unconstitutional. The United States must remain
one country to remain strong.SOUTH
Individual states should be able to choose to
join or leave the Union.
NOTES
26
Lets review the main causes of the Civil War
1.Sectionalism
2. Slavery
3. States rights
United States Law
4. Tariffs
5. Secession
27
When Republican Abraham Lincoln won the
Election of 1860, Southerners believed that their
rights would no longer be respected.
Many southerners believed it was time to leave
the Union.
28
After Lincolns election, eleven southern states
eventually seceded from the Union and formed
the Confederate States of America.
Texass lawmakers voted to secede by a vote of
166 to 8, and the people of Texas voted for
secession by a margin of more than 3 to 1.
29
Abraham Lincoln and other Northerners viewed
Southern secession as an unconstitutional act.
On April 12, 1861 Southern troops attacked Ft.
Sumter, a Union garrison off the coast of South
Carolina.
30
Secession and theConfederacy
31
No one was killed on either side during this
first battle of the Civil War.
It was a bloodless opening to the bloodiest war
in American history.
32
During the 1860 presidential campaign, some
Southern leaders had threatened that if the
Republicans won the election, the South would
secede, or withdraw, from the Union. When
Abraham Lincoln won the election, Southern
leaders carried out their threat to secede.
33
A HOUSE DIVIDED
34
In December 1860 and January 1861, six states
voted to withdraw from the Union. These were
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama,
Georgia, and Louisiana. Many Texans urged
Governor Houston to issue a call for a convention
to consider the secession of Texas.
35
Sam Houston opposed secession. He argued
that Texas could better protect its interests by
staying in the Union. Houston did not believe
the South could win the war. He said
36
Let me tell you what is coming.
After the sacrifice of countless millions
of treasure and hundreds of thousands of
lives you may win Southern independence,
but I doubt it. The North is
determined to preserve this Union.
37
Without Sam Houstons approval, a Texas
Secession Convention met in Austin on January 28,
1861. Delegates called for a vote by the people
on the question of secession. On February 23,
the people of Texas approved secession from the
Union by a vote of 46,153 to 14,747. Texas
became the seventh state to withdraw from the
Union.
38
During the next three months, Virginia,
Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina also
seceded.
39
The United States and The Confederate States
40
The states that withdrew from the Union
assembled at a convention on February 8, 1861 in
Montgomery, Alabama. This convention formed a
new nation, which was to be called the
Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis
of Mississippi was elected as president of the
Confederacy.
41
Jefferson DavisPresident of the Confederacy
42
The convention also drew up a constitution. It
was much like the Constitution of the United
States, but with important differences. Under
the Confederate Constitution, the states were
given more power, and the federal government was
given less. One section guaranteed the
protection of slavery.
43
The Texas Secession Convention then ordered all
state officials to take an oath of allegiance to
the Confederacy. When Governor Houston refused
to take the oath, the convention declared the
office of governor vacant. President Lincoln
offered to send federal troops to Texas to keep
Houston in office if he would head a government
loyal to the Union. When some Texans urged him
to accept Lincolns offer, Houston declined
44
Would you be willing to deluge the capital of
Texas with the blood of Texans, merely to keep
one old man in a position of power for a few days
longer, in a position that belongs to the people?
No! Go tell my deluded friends that I am proud
of their friendship, of their love and
loyalty,but to go to their homes and conceal
from the world that they would have been guilty
of such an act.
45
Lieutenant governor Edward Clark replaced Sam
Houston as governor. Houston retired to his
home in Huntsville, where he lived quietly until
his death two years later in 1863.
46
Sam Houston1793 - 1863
47
Houstons home and grave
48
President Lincoln vowed he would preserve the
Union at all costs.Early in 1861, the
Confederate States seized U.S. arsenals, forts,
and navy yards within their borders. When, on
April 12, 1861, United States troops refused to
evacuate Fort Sumter in Charleston, South
Carolina, Confederate forces opened fire. The
Civil War had begun.
49
Fort Sumter
50
Private EdmundRuffin fired thefirst shot of
theCivil War atFort Sumpter.
51
TexansGo ToWar
52
Strengths of the North
  • On paper, the North held every advantage going
    into the war and probably should have won easily.
    It had
  • 71 of the population (22 million in the North, 9
    million in the South- 4 million of which were
    slaves)
  • 2. Railroad lines (22,000 miles in the North,
  • 9,000 miles in the South)
  • 3. Telegraph lines (The South had none)
  • 4. Factories to manufacture goods and
    ammunition
  • (110,000 in the North 18,000 in the
    South)

53
Strengths of the North cont.
  • 5. Money 81 of the nations bank
  • deposits were in Northern banks.
  • 6. Food The North produced 70 of the
  • nations grain and 65 of the livestock.

54
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55
Strengths of the South
  • 1. Spirit and confidence of its people
  • (They were defending their homes, families,
    and way of life.)
  • 2. Military Leadership Some of the best
    officers resigned from the U.S. Army and led the
    Confederate Army. (Examples
  • Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson Albert
    Sidney Johnson
  • 3. Had Most of the Military Academies in the
    nation. Most of these young officers fought for
    the South.
  • 4. Fighting a Defensive War
  • 5. Familiar with the Terrain

56
When fighting began, Confederate President
Jefferson Davis called for volunteers. Although
thousands of Texans immediately joined the army,
more soldiers were needed by the end of the first
year.To meet this need, Congress passed the
Conscription Act. This act required all men
between the ages of 18 and 35 to serve in the
Confederate Army. Later, conscription acts
extended age limits to men between the ages of 17
and 50. In all, 60,000 Texans fought for the
Confederacy.
57
A Confederate Soldier
58
Texas Unionists
  • Not all Texans supported the Confederate cause.
  • More than 2,000 Texans joined the Union Army.
    About 50 of these were African-Americans.
  • Many Mexican-Americans joined the Union Army to
    strike back at the Anglo society they blamed for
    taking away their lands.
  • Many German-Americans disagreed with slavery and
    the war and tried to escape conscription. The
    Confederate Army killed several of these men
    caught trying to escape into Mexico.

59
Blockade of Texas Ports
  • Texas was a vital link in the Confederate
    chain of supplies. The Union navy used its ships
    to blockade all Texas
  • ports to prevent goods and supplies from leaving
    or entering.

60
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61
Blockade cont
  • The Union navy could not, however, control the
    flow of cotton over land to Mexico. Texas
    traders would carry cotton into Mexico and ship
    it out on foreign ships, which could not be
    stopped by the Union. In Europe, the cotton
    would be exchanged for manufactured goods and war
    materials.

62
Ships known as blockade runners grew more and
more important as the Civil War continued. These
vessels slipped through the Union blockade of
Texas with much risk, and brought much-needed
supplies to Texas.
Blockade Runners
63
Blockade Runner Banshee
64
Most Civil War battles were fought in states
east of the Mississippi River. Texas experienced
a few battles, however. Most of these involved
Union efforts to prevent the exportation of
cotton and importation of war supplies.
Battles in Texas
65
The Battle at Galveston
  • Union leaders knew that Galveston was weakly
    defended because many of its large guns had been
    removed for use in other campaigns. In October
    1862, Union forces easily captured the city.
  • Confederate leaders realized that the war effort
    would suffer a serious blow if Galveston, the
    states busiest seaport, remained in Union hands.

66
The Battle at Galveston
  • Confederate forces made immediate plans to
    retake Galveston. Two river steamers from
    Houston were refitted as gunboats. Cotton bales
    were used as protection. These two ships moved
    down Buffalo Bayou and attacked the Union vessels
    in Galveston Bay.
  • At the same time, 500 Confederate soldiers
  • crossed the railroad bridge onto the island
    and attacked Union soldiers. Several hundred
    Union soldiers and two ships surrendered. No
    further efforts were made by the Union to retake
    Galveston.

67
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68
The Battle at Sabine Pass
  • Later in 1863, Union forces made another try at
    invading Texas - this time by sailing up the
    Sabine River. Twenty-two transport vessels and
    4,000 soldiers planned to capture the cities of
    Beaumont and Houston.
  • Any vessels sailing up Sabine Pass had to
    travel past Fort Griffin. A company of 47
    soldiers (all Irish) was stationed at the fort.
  • They were known as the Davis Guards.

69
Battle at Sabine Pass
  • When the Union gunboats tried to sail
    past Fort Griffin, the Confederates opened fire.
    In a brief battle, the Guards took about 350
    Union soldiers prisoner and captured two ships.
  • The Union General gave up the attempt to
    land, and the Union fleet returned to New
    Orleans.
  • All of the Davis guards were awarded
    medals for their courage.

70
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71
The Capture of Brownsville
  • This battle was initiated when Union forces
    attempted to stop the overland supply chain which
    carried cotton across South Texas to be shipped
    from Mexican ports.
  • In November, 1863, a Union force took the
    city of Brownsville and then moved up the Rio
    Grande as far as Laredo. There they were stopped
    by Colonel Santos Benevides.
  • Confederate troops drove the Union army back
    and had recaptured Brownsville by July, 1864
    eight months later.

72
The very last battle of the Civil War was fought
here in Texas on May 13, 1865 at Palmito Ranch
near Brownsville. Here, Confederate forces
defeated a Union force trying to invade the
mainland from Brazos Island. From their captured
prisoners, the Texans learned that General Lee
had surrendered a month earlier. The Texas
troops had not yet received word of the wars
end.
PALMITO RANCH
73
This small historical marker is the only monument
marking the actual spot of the last battle of the
Civil War.
74
HOMEFRONT HARDSHIPS
75
In many ways Texas was much luckier than
other states in the South. Only a few minor
battles occurred on Texas soil. No Union army
swept a path of destruction through Texass farms
and towns as had happened in Georgia. Life on
the plantations with slaves doing the work
remained much the same as before the war.
76
Still, wartime broughtnew hardships to many
Texans, and many sacrifices were required from
those left behindon the home front.
77
ECONOMIC CHANGES
  • Farmers turned many cotton fields into corn
  • and wheat fields to feed soldiers and
    citizens.
  • Cotton production fell throughout the south.
  • Women took jobs usually performed by men.
  • They became teachers, shopkeepers, and
    drivers.
  • Texans opened factories to manufacture supplies
    previously obtained from the North and Europe.
    Texans now produced cannons, ammunition, wagons,
    ambulances, blankets, tents, cloth, shoes,
  • uniforms, saddles, and other necessary
    items. Many of these factories were tended by
    women.

78
CHANGING ROLES OF WOMEN1.On many smaller
farms, there were no men to work the crops or
tend the livestock. It is estimated that
during the war, four out of five adult white
men were away from home at some time. Women,
children, and slaves did almost all the farm
work.2. In addition to performing traditional
male occupations, many women served as
nurses.
79
Many women served as nurses.
80
If I cannot fight, I can feed those who do.
81
SHORTAGES MAKE LIFE DIFFICULT
  • Though Texans could obtain many things through
    Mexico, the blockade of the Texas coast forced
    Texans to do without many items. In addition, the
    population increased as large numbers of refugees
  • fled to Texas, making shortages even
    greater. Texans were resourceful in creating
    substitutes for items in short supply. Some
    examples of these are
  • cloth replaced by a coarse, homemade cloth
    known as homespun.
  • coffee- replaced by burnt sweet potato, corn, or
    okra.

82
Shortages
  • tea native herbs and plants
  • salt women dug up the boards of their
    smokehouses to recover the salt drippings
  • paper wallpaper torn from walls
  • dishes earthenware (clay) plates
  • bandages torn sheets
  • Civilians often had to do without medicines and
    hospital supplies because these were needed on
    the battlefield.

83
A dress made of homespun
84
Texans were generous with their donations to the
Civil War cause. They generously gave crops and
livestock to feed the soldiers. Local committees
collected food, clothing, and money. Women gave
their jewelry so the troops could purchase goods.

85
THE END OFTHE CIVIL WARAND SLAVERY
86
For four years the armies of the South fought
against great odds. By the spring of 1865, the
weary Confederate armies could hold out no
longer. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E.
Lee made a difficult decision. The Army of
Northern Virginia, the largest Confederate force,
surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the
town of Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
87
Lee surrenders to Grant
88
In theory, the Civil War was over.When Union
soldiers began firing cannon salutes to
celebrate, General Grant ordered all loud
celebrations ended. The war is over, the rebels
are our countrymen again. Within weeks
Confederate President Jefferson Davis was
captured, and the remaining armies in the South
surrendered.
89
As Southern armies surrendered, the state
government of Texas collapsed. Governor
Pendleton Murrah and other state officials fled
to Mexico in June 1865 to escape Union troops.
For some weeks Texas had no state government.
Lawless armed bands roamed the countryside.
Order was restored only after President Andrew
Johnson appointed Andrew Jackson Hamilton
provisional governor in July 1865. Now Texans
faced the task of rejoining the Union.
90
CASUALTIES OF THE WAR
  • Sorrow had touched nearly every family in
    the nation.
  • Millions of soldiers had fought in
  • the conflict. More than 600,000 Northerners
    and Southerners died.
  • Over one-fifth of the adult White males in the
    South died. Men returned to their families
    blind, deaf, or missing arms and legs. 37,000
    African-Americans died fighting for their
    freedom.

91
MAKESHIFT MEDICINE
  • Medical knowledge in the 1860s was still on
    the primitive side. Joseph Lister had not yet
    discovered that infections could be prevented by
    the use of antiseptics and heat sterilization of
    instruments. As a result, over half of the
    people who underwent surgery died from
    complications afterward.

92
MAKESHIFT MEDICINE
  • In the North, while over 67,000 died fighting,
    43,000 died of wounds which had not been treated
    properly. During the Civil War, surgeons did not
    even know to wash their hands before surgery.
  • As many as 400,000 others on both sides died
    from such diseases as dysentery, smallpox,
    measles, and pneumonia.

93
Civil War Amputation
94
What would you choose -anesthesia or pain
bullets?
95
THE SLAVES WIN THEIR FREEDOM
  • The Norths victory brought an end to slavery.
    In September, 1862, President Lincoln had issued
    the Emancipation Proclamation, which had freed
    enslaved people in the Confederate States.
    However, the enslaved people of Texas did not
    learn that they had been freed for another two
    years.

96
The slaves win their freedom
  • At the end of the Civil War, U.S. troops took
    control of Texas. When Union general Gordon
    Granger landed at Galveston in 1865, he issued a
    proclamation freeing the slaves.
  • General Granger issued the decree on June 19,
    1865. African-Americans in Texas called this day
    Juneteenth. It
  • became a state holiday in 1979.

97
June 19th, 1865
98
THE DEATH OF LINCOLN
  • Abraham Lincoln did not live to see all of the
    slaves freed. On April 14, five days after Lees
    surrender, Lincoln was assassinated
  • while attending a play at Fords Theatre.
  • Lincolns killer was John Wilkes Booth,
  • an actor who believed he was helping the
    Confederate cause. Booth and several
    conspirators had planned to kill not only
    Lincoln, but all the top Union leaders, including
    General Grant and Vice President Andrew Johnson.

99
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100
John Wilkes Booth
101
President Lincoln lies in state.
102
THE END
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