Scientific Method and Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Scientific Method and Theory PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 848f68-ZTc2Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Scientific Method and Theory

Description:

Scientific Method and Theory Dr. James Danoff-Burg Columbia University Goals of science Describe the patterns that are found in the natural world Explain patterns ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:68
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 10
Provided by: CERC4
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Scientific Method and Theory


1
Scientific Method and Theory
  • Dr. James Danoff-Burg
  • Columbia University

2
Goals of science
  • Describe the patterns that are found in the
    natural world
  • Explain patterns
  • This is the major emphasis of your individual
    project
  • Ditto for most of the activities that we are
    doing in the class
  • Scientific method is applicable to many other
    aspects of life

3
Methods of Explanation
  • Approximately 11 Steps
  • Process is repeated many times
  • Can NEVER prove a hypothesis
  • Can only reject many, leaving one as best
    supported by the data
  • Scientific Proof is a common fallacy

4
Hypotheses
  • Null hypothesis
  • The hypothesis of no change
  • Often abbreviated as Ho
  • Alternative hypotheses
  • Often abbreviated as Ha, Hb, etc.
  • All must be mutually exclusive
  • We accept one if Ho is statistically rejected
  • Which Ha to accept is determined by trends in data

5
Scientific Method - Steps 1-5
  • Observe or suspect pattern
  • Posit significance of observed difference
  • Create question to explain pattern
  • Create testable hypotheses
  • Design experiment

6
Scientific Method - Steps 6-11
  • Collect data (Descriptive stage)
  • Analyze data, primarily using statistics
  • Evaluate hypotheses, reject Ho?
  • Make conclusions based on data
  • Note problems in current work
  • Predict future directions for research

7
Parts of a scientific report
  • Title
  • Abstract - an overall summary
  • Introduction - background, question, Has
  • Methods - what we did
  • Results - what we found, graphs, summarized data
  • Discussion - interpretations, predictions
  • Acknowledgements - who helped us
  • References - who we cited

8
Scientific Communication
  • Written report
  • Traditional
  • Oral presentation
  • Commonly used for preliminary presentation of
    work to get feedback before writing it up
  • Poster
  • Visual summary of work - used at conferences
  • Web page
  • Can use a written report make it interactive

9
Individual Projects Seven Parts to Design
  • Question
  • Null hypothesis Alternative hypotheses
  • Independent variable(s)
  • Dependent variables
  • Desired data to collect
  • Data collection method
  • Expected outcome with reasons as to why you
    expect that
About PowerShow.com