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Title: The%20History%20of%20Rwanda

The History of Rwanda
  • By
  • Your Name Here
  • Date

Pre-Colonial Rwanda
  • Rwanda was a highly centralized kingdom ruled by
    Tutsi kings
  • The king ruled through three categories of chiefs
    cattle chiefs, land chiefs and military chiefs
  • Ubuhake, a clientele system, permeated the
    whole society

Colonial Rwanda
  • In 1899, Rwanda became a German colony
  • In 1919, after the defeat of the Germans during
    World War I, Rwanda became a territory of the
    League of Nations under the Belgian administration

Colonial Rwanda (Contd)
  • In 1935, the Belgian colonial administration
    introduced a prejudiced national identification
    based on ethnicity wealthy people such as the
    ruling elite were registered as Tutsi and those
    with less wealth as Hutu
  • With the demand for independence arose the Union
    Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR), a political party
    consisting of the Tutsi people
  • The Belgians then quickly sided with another
    party called PARMEHUTU which was founded as a
    sectarian ethnic ideology
  • In 1959, the first massive slayings of Tutsi by
    PARMEHUTU occurred under Belgian supervision
  • With widespread violence, PARMEHUTU destroyed the
  • On July 1st, 1962, Rwanda was granted formal
    independence from Belgium

  • From 1959 onward, Tutsi people were targeted
    causing the deaths of thousands
  • The First Republic under President Gregoire
    Kayibanda institutionalized the discrimination
    and massacre of Tutsi people
  • In 1973, President Kayibanda was overthrown in a
    coup detat Major General Juvenal Habyarimana
    was brought to power and more massacres of Tutsi

Post-Independence (Contd)
  • In 1975, President Habyarimana formed MRND, a
    single ruling party that in 1978 created a
    constitution to return him to office repeatedly
    through elections where he was the only
  • Habyarimanas regime became more violently
    intolerant political activities remained banned

Post-Independence (Contd)
  • Divisions within the ruling Hutu class, which
    culminated in the 1973 coup, became more
    heightened in the 1970s and 1980s
  • In 1987, the Rwandese Political Front (RPF) was
    formed, its objectives included promoting
    national unity, establishing a true democracy and
    providing security for all Rwandese
  • On October 1st, 1990, the RPF took up arms
    against the dictatorship France, Belgium, and
    the Democratic Republic of Congo dispatched
    troops to Rwanda to help in the civil war
  • On August 4th, 1993, the Arusha Peace Agreement
    was signed by both the RPF and the ruling
    government but it was never implemented

  • Although mass slayings of Tutsi took place
    throughout the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s and early
    1990s, between April and July 1994 over a million
    Rwandese (mainly Tutsi and Hutu opposition) were
    killed by the genocidal regime

The Fall of The Genocidal Regime
  • On July 4th, 1994, the capital of Rwanda, Kigali,
    fell to the forces of the Rwandese Patriotic
    Army, a wing of the RPF
  • Members of the former regime fled to the
    Democratic Republic of Congo
  • On July 19th, 1994, RPF established a new
    government called the Government of National
    Unity with four other political parties

Eight Years of Progress
  • About 3 and a half million refugees have returned
    to Rwanda
  • The Government of National Unity has made
    progress rebuilding the justice system by
    starting with the enactment of the Genocide Law
  • The Genocide Law allowed for the trial and
    conviction of genocide suspects currently
    120,000 genocide suspects are in prison

Eight Years of Progress (Contd)
  • The Genocide Survivor Fund provides education,
    shelter, health and income-generating activities
    to the most vulnerable of survivors
  • A Human Rights Commission has been established to
    protect the rights of all citizens