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Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology

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Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney USDA Seal and Organic Food Label Claims Organic Foods Environmental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology


1
Chapter 12Food Safety and Food Technology
  • Nutrition Concepts Controversies, 12e
    Sizer/Whitney

2
Learning Objectives
  • Describe two ways in which foodborne
    microorganisms can cause illness in the body, and
    give examples of each.
  • Develop a plan, from purchase to table, by which
    consumers can reduce their risks of foodborne
    illnesses from seafood, eggs, meats, and produce.

3
Learning Objectives
  • Name some recent advances aimed at reducing
    microbial food contamination, and describe their
    potential contribution to the safety of the U.S.
    food supply.
  • Describe how pesticides enter the food supply,
    and suggest possible actions to reduce
    consumption of residues.
  • Discuss potential advantages and disadvantages
    associated with organic foods.

4
Learning Objectives
  • Provide evidence to justify this statement Food
    additives used in the United States serve some
    important functions and are safe to consume.
  • Compare and contrast the advantages and
    disadvantages of food production by way of
    genetic modification and conventional farming.

5
Introduction
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Major agency charged with food safety
  • Six major areas of concern
  • Microbial foodborne illness top priority

6
Microbes and Food Safety
  • Foodborne illnesses can be life-threatening
  • Vulnerable populations
  • Improved safety procedures in U.S.
  • Decline in diseases associated with some
    organisms
  • Greater efforts are needed to continue the
    decline in illnesses

7
Microbes and Food Safety
  • Foodborne illness
  • Infection
  • Examples
  • Intoxication
  • Enterotoxins
  • Neurotoxins
  • Examples

8
Food Safety from Farm to Table
  • Safe food supply depends on
  • Domestic and international food industries
  • Processes on the farm or at sea
  • Procedures in processing plants
  • Handling with transportation and at supermarkets
  • Preparation at institutions, restaurants, and home

9
Flow of Food Safety From Farm to Table
10
Food Safety from Farm to Table
  • Characteristics of an effective national
    food-safety system
  • Systematically applied measures
  • Clearly established priorities
  • Involvement of participants
  • Cost effective
  • Safeguards to prevent outbreaks
  • E. coli O157H7

11
Food Safety from Farm to Table
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  • All food producers have this plan
  • Identification of critical control points
  • Grocery safety
  • Batch numbering
  • Freshness dates
  • Seals, wrappers, safety buttons
  • Dented cans

12
Safe Food Practices for Individuals
  • Food provides ideal conditions for bacteria
  • Nutrients
  • Moisture
  • Warmth
  • To defeat bacteria
  • Four core practices

13
Safe Food Practices for Individuals
  • Core practice 1 Clean
  • Keep hands clean
  • Healthy skin healthy nails
  • Adequate hand washing
  • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer
  • Keeping surfaces clean
  • Cleaning sponges and cutting boards
  • Four choices

14
Proper Hand Washing Prevents Illness
15
Safe Food Practices for Individuals
  • Core practice 2 Separate
  • Prevention of cross-contamination
  • Core practice 3 Cook
  • Appropriate internal temperature
  • Use a food thermometer
  • Storing foods after cooking
  • Core practice 4 Chill
  • Refrigeration
  • Thawing frozen items

16
Food-Safety Temperatures (Fahrenheit) Household
Thermometers
17
Problem Foods
  • Characteristics of hospitable foods for bacteria
    growth
  • Meats and poultry
  • Safe handling labels
  • Ground meats
  • BSE
  • Eggs
  • Washed and sanitized

18
Safe Handling Instructions for Meat Poultry
19
Problem Foods
  • Seafood
  • Proper cooking
  • Sushi
  • Raw produce
  • Imported produce
  • Proper washing at home
  • Melons berries
  • Sprouts

20
Produce Safety
21
Problem Foods
  • Honey
  • Clostridium botulinum spores
  • Danger for infants
  • Picnics and lunch bags
  • Steps to keep them safe
  • Mayonnaise
  • Take-out foods and leftovers
  • 2, 2, 4 rule

22
How Can I Avoid Illness When Traveling?
  • Chance of contracting illness
  • Steps to avoiding foodborne illness
  • Wash hands often
  • Eat only cooked and canned foods
  • Be aware of water, ice, and beverages made from
    water
  • Avoid using the local water
  • Rules boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it

23
Advances in Microbial Food Safety
  • Irradiation
  • Protection for consumers
  • Gamma rays from cobalt 60
  • Effects on foods
  • Consumer concerns
  • Labeling

24
Advances in Microbial Food Safety
  • Microbial testing
  • Improved accuracy
  • Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP)
  • Exclusion of oxygen
  • Refrigeration
  • Bacteria-killing wraps and films
  • Promising future

25
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
  • Natural toxins in foods
  • Herbs and cabbages
  • Carcinogens
  • Goitrogens
  • Foods with cyanogens
  • Potatoes
  • Solanine
  • Seafood red tide toxin

26
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
  • Pesticides
  • Advantages and disadvantages of use
  • Hazards to consumers
  • Broad-spectrum poisons
  • Residues survive processing
  • Vulnerable infants and children
  • Immature human detoxifying system
  • Lower pesticide tolerance
  • Proportionally greater food consumption

27
How Processing Affects Pesticide Residues
28
Ways to Reduce Pesticide Residue Intakes
29
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
  • Pesticides
  • Regulation by EPA
  • Tolerance limits
  • Testing of foods
  • Pesticide-resistant insects
  • Natural pesticides
  • Organic foods
  • biotechnology

30
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
  • Animal drugs
  • Growth hormone in meat and milk
  • Advantages and disadvantages of bST
  • FDA stance
  • Antibiotics in livestock
  • Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • Arsenic in food animals
  • Human diseases associated with arsenic
  • Sources

31
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
  • Environmental contaminants
  • Harmfulness of contaminants
  • Persistence of contaminant
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Toxicity potency and human exposure
  • Mercury
  • Methylmercury
  • County or Origin Labels (COOL)

32
Bioaccumulation of Toxins in the Food Chain
33
Organic Foods
  • Labeling of certified organic foods
  • Cost of organic foods
  • Pesticide residues
  • 25 test positive for pesticides
  • Twelve most frequent positively tested foods
  • Nutrient composition

34
USDA Seal and Organic Food Label Claims
35
Organic Foods
  • Environmental benefits
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Potential health risks
  • Microbial contamination
  • Taste
  • Heirloom varieties

36
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Approximately 3000 approved food additives in the
    U.S.
  • Give foods desirable characteristics
  • Color, flavor, and texture
  • Stability, enhanced nutrient composition
  • Resistance to spoilage
  • Enhanced safety

37
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Regulations governing additives
  • Testing for FDA approval
  • Takes several years
  • Compliance with regulations when used
  • GRAS list
  • Margin of safety
  • Toxicity vs. hazard
  • Risks and benefits

38
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Additives to improve safety and quality
  • Salt and sugar
  • Withdrawing water from food
  • Concern with overuse
  • Nitrites
  • Preserve color and prevent rancidity
  • Safety issues
  • Sulfites
  • Strictly controlled

39
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Flavoring agents
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
  • Aspartame
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • Used widely in restaurants
  • MSG symptom complex
  • Read food labels

40
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Fat replacers and artificial fats
  • Taste, texture, and cooking with fewer or no
    calories
  • Carbohydrate-, protein-, and fat-based fat
    replacers
  • Olestra
  • Fortification with vitamins

41
Are Food Additives Safe?
  • Incidental food additives
  • Essentially contaminants
  • Not intentionally added to foods
  • Microwave packages
  • Bleached paper
  • Examples
  • Dioxins
  • Decaffeinated coffee

42
Processing and the Nutrients in Foods
  • Extrusion
  • Best nutrient buys
  • Choose whole foods
  • If processed, choose foods with improved
    nutrition
  • Nutrient-density continuum

43
Genetically Modified Foods What are the Pros and
Cons?
  • Controversy 12

44
Introduction
  • Most people consume GE foods
  • Examples
  • Some countries have banned GE foods
  • GE technologies
  • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology
  • Based on naturally occurring genetic events

45
Natural Cross-Pollinating and Selective Breeding
  • Cross-pollinating
  • Selective breeding
  • Accelerated selective breeding

46
Genetic Engineering Basics
  • Obtain desired traits
  • Stem cell
  • Clone cells
  • Suppressing unwanted traits
  • Silencing of genes

47
Comparing Selective Breeding and rDNA Technology
48
The Promises of Biotechnology
  • American Dietetic Association position
  • Human nutrition
  • Golden Rice
  • Pharmaceuticals and industrial products
  • Greater crop yields
  • Herbicide-resistant
  • Insect-resistant
  • Food from cloned animals

49
Issues Surrounding GE Foods
  • Nutrient composition
  • Accidental ingestion of drugs from foods
  • Pesticide residues
  • Unintended health effects
  • Unintended effects are unpredictable
  • Environmental effects
  • Outcrossing
  • Global seed bank
  • FDAs position on GE foods
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