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POL 312 Comparative Politics

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Title: POL 312 Comparative Politics


1
POL 312 Comparative Politics
  • This course intends to examine different
    political systems from a structural-functional
    perspective. Why are there different political
    systems in the world? Are there any similarities
    between them? How can political systems be
    examined? While seeking answers to these
    questions, this course also intends to develop
    students methodological skills.
  • After providing comparative theoretical and
    methodological base, the second part of the
    course examines different political systems in
    the world such as the United States, France,
    Russia, India, Nigeria U.K, Brazil and China.

2
Chapter 1Comparative Political Systems
  • 1. Issues in Comparative Politics
  • Structural Framework and Main definitions
  • Definition of politics, government, governance,
    state, sovereignty, nation, nationalism,
    interdependence, power, legitimacy, legality.

3
Basis of Authority
  • Max Weber analyzed the 3 ways of validating
    political power
  • 1. Traditional
  • This authority is based on what has always
    existed.
  • 2. Charismatic
  • The leaders are obeyed because they inspire thier
    followers.
  • 3. Legal rational
  • Obedinece is through principles and rules rather
    than individuals.

4
Benefits of Comparative Approach
  • 1. Oldest, simplest and best way of learning.
  • 2. Helps to formulate hypothesis
  • 3. Helps to make predictions
  • 4. Helps to make generalizations

5
First comparisons
  • 1. Democratic and Authoritarian States
  • Key elements of authoritarian regimes (illiberal
    and undemocratic)
  • Key elements of democratic regimes
  • 2. Consolidated and Transitional States
  • Stable vs. Ustable
  • 3. Developed and Developing States
  • High living standards vs. Low living standards

6
Chapter 2Democracy
  • Definition of Democracy
  • Types of Democracy
  • 1. Ideal Democracy
  • 2. Libreal Democracy
  • 3. Semi Democracy
  • Conditions of Democracy
  • a) Modernizaqtion Framework
  • b) Historical Approach

7
Chapter 5Political Participation
  • Definition of Political Participation
  • Patterns of Participation
  • 1. Liberal Democracies
  • Voluntary participation
  • 2. Comunist States
  • Regimented Participation
  • 3. Developing Countries
  • Patron Client

8
Case Studies INDIA(Test Bank to accompany
Roskin, Countries and Concepts Politics,
Geography, Culture, 2009 by Pearson Education)
  • Political Structure
  • Like many former British colonies, India adopted
    a parliamentary democracy
  • Has survived many challenges including political
    change, societal change and wars

9
  • Decentralization of power
  • 1.The President
  • The office combines ceremonial roles with some
    substantive powers Power formally vested in the
    president, and he is expected to exercise these
    powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers,
    with the prime minister at its head.
  • 2. The Prime Minister
  • Controls and coordinates the departments of
    government and determines policy through the
    submission of a program for parliamentary action

10
Political Institutions The Parliament
  • 1. Upper House the Rajya Sabha
  • (the Council of States)
  • It has some features of the U.S. Senate (India
    is a federation)
  • 2. Lower House Lok Sabha
  • (House of the People)
  • 545 members 543 are directly elected and two
    are nominated by the president of India.
  • Simple majority single member constituencies 5
    year term. Designed to be an instrument of
    democratic accountability

11
Political Institutions The Judiciary
  • Constitution committed to individual rights of
    equality and liberty
  • System that is both independent from external
    control and free to interpret the law.
  • Supreme Court has original and exclusive
    jurisdiction in disputes between the Union
    government and one or more states, or disputes
    between two or more states
  • Supreme Court determines the constitutionality of
    any enactment.

12
Main Political Parties
  • 1. The Congress System
  • The Congress Party Congress Party cuts across
    all social groups and cleavages of India
    catch-all party
  • 2. The Bharatiya Janata Party
  • Hindu nationalist BJP is very much a party of the
    Hindu-Hindi-belt has extended somewhat beyond
    the upper social order and Hindu upper caste.
  • 3. The Communist Party
  • Communist parties (CPM and CPI) attracts more
    support from lower social classes and the more
    educated voters.

13
Case Studies China
  • Structure of the Party State
  • Guardianship
  • Describes the main relationship between the
    Communist Party and society
  • Representation of historical best interests
  • Mass line

14
  • Party Organization
  • Democratic centralism Leninist principle
  • Refers mainly to consultation opportunities for
    discussion, criticism, and proposals in party
    organizations
  • Two Hierarchies, with Party Leadership
  • Division of labor between party and government
    structures

15
Government Structures
  • 1. National Peoples Congress (NPC) legislative
  • 2. State Council-executive functions
  • 3. Communist Party Leadership
  • 4. Judiciary
  • Supreme Peoples Court
  • Supreme Peoples
    Procuratorate

16
Party Structures
  • National Party Congress
  • Central Committee
  • Exercises the powers of the congress between
    sessions
  • Chinese political elites
  • Politburo Politburo Standing Committee
  • Top Leader and the Succession Problem
  • Party Bureaucracy

17
Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Worlds only theocracy
  • A form of government in which ideally all laws
    are grounded in religion and express the will of
    God, and the clergy exercises supreme power
  • Established in 1979
  • Religious and secular people overthrew
    Mohammad-Reza Shah Pahlavi the last ruler of
    the countrys monarchy.
  • Ruholla Khomeini led the 1979 revolution

18
Institutions of the Islamic Republic
  • Multiple power centers
  • Leader
  • Highest authority in the Islamic Republic
  • Assembly of Experts
  • Choose the Leader
  • President
  • Elected by universal suffrage every four years
  • Must be a Twelver Shiite and a male does not
    have to be a cleric

19
  • Parliament
  • Unicameral, the Majles, comprises about 290
    members
  • Must be Muslims but the Constitution provides for
    five members of Parliament to represent
    Christians (3), Jews (one) and Zoroastrians (one)
  • Council of Guardians
  • Six members of the ulema and six lay Muslim
    lawyers.
  • Expediency Council
  • A council for determination of what is in the
    interest of the regime
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